HE drives growth and innovation in cities and regions and can help them become more innovative and globally competitive.Reviews of Higher Education in Regional and City Development are the OECD’s vehicle to mobilise higher education for economic and social development, in short: to drive them out of the ivory towers. In 2007 we published ‘Higher Education and Regions - Globally Competitive; Locally Engaged’ reporting on a first round of reviews which embraced 14 regions in 12 countries. For the first round, we worked with the World Bank and reached out to 14 new regions in 11 countries including two non-member economies: Brazil and Malaysia. These reviews facilitate stronger collaboration between universities and governments at all levels and provide cities regions with tools and ideas to harness the innovation potential of HE. They draw together ‘town and gown’ and link them to public and private agencies to identify and work towards strategic goals. We have published a number of review reports. Each report gives recommendations to HEIs but also to national and regional governments. Each report also highlights how the economic downturn is affecting HEIs and their engagement with the economy.
The reviews investigate:The contribution of HEIs’ research to regional innovation The role of teaching and learning in the development of human capital and skills The contribution of HEIs to social, cultural and environmental development The role of HEIs in building regional capacity to act in an increasingly competitive global economyKey questionsWhat policies, practices and mechanisms promote mobilisation of higher education for regional and city development? How to make reforms happen?Which brings greater benefits to cities and regions a high performing regionally focused HE system or a single world class university?
The State of Victoria is a knowledge-intensive centre for Australia: Educational services are Victoria’s strongest export worth more than AUD 5 billion, surpassing tourism and automotive sectors. This report will explore how Victoria can continue to increase participation in higher education and widen access to lower socio-economic groups and how it can help higher education institutions transform Victoria into an innovative state with knowledge-intensive industries and jobs. This publication explores a range of helpful policy measures and institutional reforms to mobilise higher education for regional development.
The Paso del Norte Region is the largest metropolitan area on the US-Mexican border, with Ciudad Juárez as a major manufacturing centre. However, the economic performance on both sides of the border region is below the OECD average. The long-term competitiveness of the region is under a threat due to ongoing violence, brain drain and environmental degradation. The ability to fuel local growth by cultivating relevant skills is the best guarantee that Paso del Norte will thrive in future. A globally competitive region needs to have a highly skilled workforce and knowledge-based economy. To break out of the low skill/low wage economy, Paso del Norte needs to improve educational attainment levels on both sides of the border. It will also need to foster new business formationand provide jobs and entrepreneurial skills to higher education graduates.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face a range of barriers in accessing the knowledge resources of the universities which discouraged regional university/SME collaboration. The nine universities in Victoria have developed the Unigateway project as a signposting service for SMEs to contact someone who can deal with their enquiries. The Unigateway is a website which firms and government agencies can contact and which gives the contact details of a key person at each university. The Victorian universities should look to develop and enhance the Unigateway project to provide a more hands-on engagement with business and a more collaborative way of referring enquiries. The service should be proactive and interactive rather than just relying on a portal and the state and or commonwealth government should provide additional funding to encourage greater involvement by the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The Knowledge House in the North East of England provides a good example of a comprehensive service provided by five universities.
Universities in Victoria have launched initiatives, projects and programmes to restructure or reformulate their approach to teaching and learning. For example: Victoria University has committed to integrating work and community-based learning into all its courses with at least 25% of assessment based on such learning. The University of Melbourne has restructured its curriculum, introducing six three-year broad-based undergraduate degrees leading to three possible pathways: entry into the workforce, a graduate professional degree or a research tertiary degree. Innovative initiatives have been launched to enrich learning experience and improve the employability of university graduates, such as global citizen initiatives, student leadership programmes and volunteerism. But often these types of programmes have a limited reach to a small proportion of students and fail to serve the needs and priorities of the region. Experimentation with experiential and problem-based learning models in group setting could provide a solution that would bring benefits for a wider group of students. The Aalborg model of PBP (Problem-Based Learning) is based on a win-win situation: It provides students with transferable skills and authentic work experience Enterprises benefit from a clearer picture of what the university stands for and how students might fit in as prospective employees. The university gains feedback from the world of work and also benefits from access to instructive cases and ideas for research and teaching.
The University RoviraiVirgili - URV in Tarragona (Spain).The focus on the chemical industry indicates a particularly relevant choice because Catalonia is specialised in the chemical industry in Spain and in Europe.Regional specialization provides a strong rationale for encouraging research-based human capital development in that sector. The extensive integrated research and human capital development activities related to the chemical industry by URV are a model for effective application of university resources to increase the productivity of a key regional industry.
Gobernabilidad en la gestión universitaria de las IES latinoamericanas desde la visión económica
OECD Reviews of Higher Education in Regional and City Development<br />Congreso de Compromiso Social, Espíritu y Valores de la Universidad<br />OUI-IOHE, UTPL, Loja4 May 2011<br />Oscar.firstname.lastname@example.org<br />
OECD’s tool to mobilise Higher Education <br />for Economic, Social and Cultural Development of their Cities and Regions and to enhance regional partnership building:<br />… the Reviews of Higher Education in Regional and City Development<br />
Regions under review<br />2005 - 2007<br />2010 - 2012<br />Kazan 2007 with World Bank<br />2008 - 2010<br />
Reviews2005-12<br />2005-07: 1st round 14 regions in 12 countries<br />2007 : Kazan with World Bank<br />2008-10: 2nd round 14 regions in 11 countries<br />2010-12: 3rd round 5 regions in 5 countries<br />Recruitment ongoing<br />Valparaiso, Sonora, Wrocław, Antioquia.<br />Review visit to Free State, South Africa, <br />took place in October 2010<br />
5<br />How are the reviews done?<br />Regional Self-evaluation report lead and owned by the regional Steering Committee using OECD guidelines<br />Visit by the OECD-led international expert team <br />OECD Review Report tailored for the region<br />Analysis and synthesis by OECD<br />Disseminationof outcomes (roundtable meetings, national and regional seminars, international meetings)<br />
Whatis being reviewed?<br />National and regional context<br />Partnership building<br />The OECD reviews draw together HEIs and public and private agencies to identify strategic goals and to work towards them.<br />Importance of context<br />The reviews take account of different national and regional contexts within which the HEIs operate.<br />Regional capacity building<br />Social and cultural development<br />Regional innovation<br />HEIs<br />Human capital and skills development<br />Focus of analysis of the OECD review<br />
Benefits of the review?<br /><ul><li>Tailored advise and guidance in practice and policy from the OECD-led peer review team for the national and regional authorities and HEIs
Enhanced partnerships, based on the self-evaluation process guided by the OECD template and overseen by the regional steering committee
Identification of new funding sources, co-operation opportunitiesbetween HEIs and industry, etc.
Enhanced visibility and PR for the region and its HEIs and the participating country
International benchmarking and networking opportunities</li></li></ul><li>Bío Bío Region, Chile<br /> Joint OECD-World Bank review<br />PROS<br /><ul><li> Pioneer in innovation and regional development
Progress in widening access to HE and reduction of poverty </li></ul>The Bío Bío Region seeks to promote new business formation and develop existing SMEs. <br />CONS<br /><ul><li> Higher than average unemployment rate and poverty levels
Out-migration and urban-rural divide</li></ul>Richard YELLAND attended the dissemination meeting in Concepcion, BíoBío Region on the 12-13 January 2011. The report was also published in Spanish. <br />8<br />Review visit: 16 – 22 August 2009<br />Jaana PUUKKA (OECD/IMHE Secretariat )<br />Ernesto FLORES (OECD/IMHE Secretariat)<br />Philip WADE (former OECD Secretariat, FR/USA)<br />Michael CRAWFORD (World Bank)<br />Dewayne MATTHEWS (Lumina Foundation, USA) <br />Jorge YUTRONIC (National Expert, CL)<br />
State of Veracruz, Mexico<br />PROS<br /><ul><li>Access to education has increased
Leading state in the number of state technological institutes.
Strong HEI tradition in community service and outreach</li></ul>A traditional resource-based economy and a lagging and under-performing region, Veracruz seeks to be a centre of knowledge and innovation<br />CONS<br /><ul><li>High poverty levels
Segmented HE system and lack of pathways between tech institutes and universities </li></ul>Dissemination meeting has yet to take place as the report is being translated into Spanish.<br />Review visit : 11-17 October 2009<br />Ernesto FLORES (OECD/IMHE Secretariat)<br />Marco MARCHESE (OECD/LEED Secretariat)<br />Patrick DUBARLE (former OECD Secretariat, FR)<br />Juan Carlos NAVARRO (Inter-American Development Bank)<br />Jocelyne GACEL-AVILA (University of Guadalajara, MX)<br />9<br />
Paso del Norte Region, US-MX<br />10<br />PROS<br /><ul><li> Cross-border civic leadership
Widening access and retention (El Paso)</li></ul>The largest metropolitan area on the US-Mexican Border and one of the world’s most populous bi-national border communities<br />CONS<br /><ul><li> Lack of steering mechanisms for economic development
Poverty, limited access to health services and violence
Entrepreneurship at early stages</li></ul>Review visit 25-31 Oct 2009<br />PUUKKA & FLORES , OECD/IMHE<br />PROTO (OECD/LEED)<br />CHRISTOPHERSON (Cornel University, US)<br />BARADELLO (University of San Francisco, US)<br />MARMOLEJO (CONAHEC)<br />
Forthcoming Final Report <br />Regional Reviews<br />Summary of second round reviews<br />Outline of first round regions education and innovation policy changes and actions <br />Thematic Topics<br />Widening access to HE<br />Entrepreneurship education<br />Regional innovation networks<br />Civic university<br />World class HE systems<br />HEIs and green growth<br />Collaborators<br />Jamil SALMI, World Bank <br />Jonathan POTTER, OECD/LEED <br />Susan CHRISTOPHERSON, Cornell University<br />John GODDARD, Newcastle University<br />Ellen HAZELKORN, Dublin Institute of Technology<br />Mario PIACENTINI, OECD/GOV<br />11<br />
Innovation-led Growth<br />13<br />Diversification of existing industry into new<br />Upgrading existing mature industry<br />Endogenous creation of new industry<br />Exogeneous creation of new industry<br />Enhance products, services or production technologies<br />Create <br />new industry<br />Import new industry to the region<br /> Use the core technologies <br />of an existing industry<br />
Good practice and activity… but<br />14<br />No systematic processes and short term funding; Inadequate incentive and accountability structures.<br />Limited co-operation among HEIs and btw HEIs and business and industry (information, absorption…), particularly SMEs<br />Policy focus on few high tech fields and research based innovation; Low tech fields innovate too. 70% of OECD workforce is in the service sector. <br />Human capital development ignored. Need to appreciate the students’ and graduates’ role in knowledge transfer.<br />Weak human capital development: entrepreneur education, LLL for widening access, and cooperation in curriculum design.<br />
What works?<br />15<br />Building on competitive advantage. Upgrading existing industry : the ceramics industry in Castellón ESP<br />Setting a one-stop-shop for business enquiries: Knowledge House in North East of England<br />Fostering people-based knowledge exchange and transfer: Knowledge transfer networks in UK<br />Developing demand-pull in the SMEs: Vouchers in the Netherlands, Small Business Innovation Research Program in the US<br />Providing tailored industry specific workforce training: US community colleges<br />Problem-based learning for developing entrepreneurship skills: problem-oriented project work in Aalborg DK<br />Research-based human capital development: URV cooperation with regional stakeholders ESP<br />
Building on competitive advantages: Ceramics Industry in Castellón, Spain<br />16<br />Universidad Jaume Iis recognised as a world leader in R&D in the tile industry.<br />The university’s ceramic research institute has contributed to the restructuring of the region’s traditional ceramic-tile production, which comprises 500 SMEs employing 36 000 people.<br />The growth is built on technology transfer, spin-offs and upgrading of existing technologies.<br />Today, Valencia is a global leader in the tiles and ceramics industry.<br />
Creating a one-stop-shop for industry: Knowledge House, NE of England,UK<br />5 universities and Open University have a one-stop-shop that offers expert solutions for developing ideas and solving problems through collaboration, consultancy, training and R&D.<br />Since 1996, Knowledge House has generated GBP 13 million for universities, and GBP 76 million in the last 4 years. In 2007, it generated GBP 4.7 million by delivering 364 completed projects from over 800 business enquiries. Business growth is 25%. <br />More and more academics are engaging with the Knowledge House activities.<br />Map credits: Google Maps™<br />Images credits: Knowledge House, Durham University, University of Teesside<br />
People-based knowledge transfer: Knowledge Transfer Partnerships KTPs, UK<br />18<br />Launched in 1970s (Teaching Company Scheme), KTPs improve the competitiveness of companies: <br />a university post-graduate “associate” works in the company for 1-3 years. The university receives part funding to cover supervisor’s salary and university overheads; the “associate” received a salary. <br />KTPs are funded from the companies and from public organisations such as the Technology Strategy Board or a Research Council. SMEs pay GBP 20 000 per year. <br />In 2008-09 there were 977 active projects. Benefits to UK business include over 6 500 staff trained, 1 119 new jobs created and an increase in pre-tax profits of GBP 126 million.<br />75% of associates have been are offered jobs in the company, while SMEs benefit from innovation or new technology. <br />
Creating demand-pull in SMEs: Small Business Innovation Research Program, US<br />19<br />SBIR was launched in 1982 to facilitate the absorption of new technology by SMEs. <br />SBIR provides up to USD 850 000 in early stage R&D to small technology companies or to entrepreneurs who launch a company. The principal investigator must work at least half time in the firm. <br />SBIR funds proof of concept and prototypes. It helps SMEs cross the “valley of death” and attract private capital or win public contracts.<br />SBIR is the largest US Innovation Partnership Programme. It has a stable budget: 2.5% of Federal Agency R&D budget have been set aside for SBIR grants. <br />In 2009 the total budget was USD 2.3 billion.<br />
Employer-specific training: Georgia Quick Start, US<br />20<br />QS is part of the 33-campus Technical College System of Georgia with centralised staff and resources to quickly develop and deploy customised training anywhere in the state.<br />QS was launched in 1967, and revamped in the 1990s when offshore competition was undermining Georgia’s cost competitiveness. <br />Quick Start teams of analysts examine the workflow process, develop a customised training programme incl materials. For new projects, QS pre-screens potential hires for the company. <br />By early 2010, QS has conducted 6 000 projects involving 780 000 trainees. <br />The basic budget is USD 22 million a year.<br />
How to learn entrepreneurship skills?Problem-Based Learning in Aalborg DK<br />In Aalborg University, Denmark, up to 50% of the study work consists of problem-oriented project work: students work in teams to solve problems which have been identified in co-operation with firms, public organisations and other institutions. <br />It provides students with transferable skills and authentic work experience. <br /> Enterprises benefit from a clearer picture of what the university stands for and how students might fit in as prospective employees. <br /> The university gains feedback from the world of work and also benefits from access to instructive cases and ideas for research and teaching.<br />21<br />Map credits: Google Maps™<br />Images credits: Flickr (lionscavern), Yahoo, Google, Aalborg Uni<br />
Research-based human capital development: URV chemical industry collaboration <br />The University Rovira i Virgili (URV) has established a long-term co-operative relationship with the chemical industry in Tarragona (Spain) that incorporates both research and human capital development programmes. <br />Faculty are allowed to spend time working in local firms during their leaves and have on-going relationships with the firms. <br />There are strong alumni connections and students participate in internships and co-op programmes within the local firms. <br />Both advanced technical vocational skills and higher degree based skills such as in engineering are designed in co-operation with the local industry representatives. <br />Most important to the success of this integrated initiative is the strong support from the University leadership, including the Rector.<br />22<br />
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