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  • 1. 2Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Alignment Design May 22, 2010 John A. Lackey, PE Senior Vice President David Evans and Associates, Inc.
  • 2. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 3Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Discussion Topics • Design vehicle clearance and loading • Types of alignments and typical cross sections – Open track – In-street alignments – Adjacent to freight railroads – Elevated – Underground • Alignment Geometry
  • 3. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 4Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Design Vehicle Clearance and Loading Vehicle characteristics and dimensions – Vehicle loads – Wheel/track relationship – Vehicle performance – Dynamic envelope – Guideway clearances
  • 4. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 5General Vehicle Characteristics • Bi-directional • Articulated • Operated as coupled-trains • Three trucks, two axles per truck • Pantograph • High or low floor, or combination
  • 5. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 6Accessibility
  • 6. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 7Comparison of Light Rail Vehicles Sample subhead
  • 7. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 8Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Design Vehicle Clearance and Loading – Vehicle characteristics and dimensions – Vehicle loads – Wheel/track relationship – Vehicle performance – Dynamic envelope – Guideway clearances
  • 8. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 9Vehicle Loads •AW0 - Empty vehicle operating weight •AW1 - (Seated load) – Fully seated passengers + AWO •AW2 - (Design load) – Standing passengers at 4/m2 + AW1 •AW3 - (Crush load) – Standing passengers at 6/m2 + AW1 •AW4 - (Structure design load) – Standing passengers at 8/m2 + AW1
  • 9. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 10
  • 10. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 11Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Design Vehicle Clearance and Loading – Vehicle characteristics and dimensions – Vehicle loads – Wheel/track relationship – Vehicle performance – Dynamic envelope – Guideway clearances
  • 11. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 12Wheel/Track Relationship • Vehicle wheel profile • Rail profile • - • Curved track
  • 12. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 13
  • 13. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 14
  • 14. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 15
  • 15. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 16Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Design Vehicle Clearance and Loading – Vehicle characteristics and dimensions – Vehicle loads – Wheel/track relationship – Vehicle performance – Dynamic envelope – Guideway clearances
  • 16. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 17 Vehicle Performance• Suspension – Primary – Secondary• Other loads affecting performance – Trucks – Load leveling• Performance on alignment – Accel/decel – Operating speed – Track curvature and gradient – Train size
  • 17. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 18Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Design Vehicle Clearance and Loading – Vehicle characteristics and dimensions – Vehicle loads – Wheel/track relationship – Vehicle performance – Dynamic envelope – Guideway clearances
  • 18. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 19Dynamic Envelope • VDE • Other factors: – Overhang on curves – Lean due to suspension, track superelevation – Track and wheel wear – Wheel/track spacing – Passenger loading • Maintenance values: – Lateral wheel wear - – Wheel-to-rail side play - – Radial wheel wear -
  • 19. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 20
  • 20. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 21Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Design Vehicle Clearance and Loading – Vehicle characteristics and dimensions – Vehicle loads – Wheel/track relationship – Vehicle performance – Dynamic envelope – Guideway clearances
  • 21. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 22Guideway Clearances CE = VDE + OWF + RC – CE - Clearance Envelope – VDE - Vehicle Dynamic Envelope – OWF - Other Wayside Factors – RC - Running Clearance
  • 22. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 23CE = VDE + OWF + RC OWF = CT + MT + CW – CT - Construction Tolerance – MT - Maintenance Tolerance – CW - Chorded Construction of Walls • (effects of track curvature and superelevation)
  • 23. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 24Guideway Clearances • CT = allowable deviations from design positions – Track - – Poles, signal equipment - – Walls - • MT = allowable deviations from constructed condition: – Ballasted track - – Embedded track or Direct Fixation - – Lateral rail wear - – Vertical tolerance - – Cross level variance, ballasted - – Cross level variance, DF - • CW = effects of track curvature and superelevation
  • 24. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 25
  • 25. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 26
  • 26. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 27CE = VDE + OWF + RC RC = Running Clearances: – RC to signals, signs, poles, etc. - – RC to emergency walkway envelope - – RC to bridge parapet, walls, other structures - – -
  • 27. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 28Track at Station Platform
  • 28. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 29
  • 29. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 30Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Types of Alignments and Typical Cross Sections – Open Track – In-Street Alignments – Adjacent to Freight Railroads – Elevated – Underground
  • 30. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 31Typical Ballasted Section
  • 31. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 32Open Track Ballasted
  • 32. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 33Typical LRT Median
  • 33. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 34Open Track Ballasted
  • 34. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 35Open Track Direct Fixation (DF)
  • 35. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 36Open Track Direct Fixation
  • 36. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 37Open Track Direct Fixation
  • 37. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 38Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Types of Alignments and Typical Cross Sections – Open Track – In-Street Alignments – Adjacent to Freight Railroads – Elevated – Underground
  • 38. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 39In-Street Alignments Embedded Track (Paved)
  • 39. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 40In-Street Alignments Embedded Track (Paved)
  • 40. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 41In-Street Alignments Embedded Track (Paved)
  • 41. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 42Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Types of Alignments and Typical Cross Sections – Open Track – In-Street Alignments – Adjacent to Freight Railroads – Elevated – Underground
  • 42. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 43Adjacent to Freight Railroads
  • 43. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 44Adjacent to Freight Railroads
  • 44. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 45Adjacent to Freight Railroads Grade Separation
  • 45. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 46Adjacent to Freight Railroads Grade Separation
  • 46. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 47Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Types of Alignments and Typical Cross Sections – Open Track – In-Street Alignments – Adjacent to Freight Railroads – Elevated – Underground
  • 47. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 48Elevated (Bridges)
  • 48. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 49Elevated(Guideway and Station)
  • 49. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 50Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Types of Alignments and Typical Cross Sections – Open Track – In-Street Alignments – Adjacent to Freight Railroads – Elevated – Underground
  • 50. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 51 Underground (Tunnel)
  • 51. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 52Below Ground - Depressed
  • 52. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 53Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Alignment Geometry – Design Criteria and Standards – Horizontal Alignment – Vertical Alignment – In-Street Running Impacts and Considerations – Station Requirements
  • 53. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 54Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Alignment Geometry – Design Criteria and Standards – Horizontal Alignment – Vertical Alignment – In-Street Running Impacts and Considerations – Station Requirements
  • 54. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 55Horizontal Alignment • Clearances • Speed • Tangents • Circular Curves • Superelevation • Spiral Transitions • Special Track
  • 55. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 56Horizontal Alignment Superelevation
  • 56. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 57
  • 57. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 58Horizontal Alignment Special Track
  • 58. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 59Horizontal Alignment Special Track – Precurved Rail • – Restraining Rail • – Emergency Guard Rail – Turnouts and Crossovers
  • 59. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 60
  • 60. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 61Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Alignment Geometry – Design Criteria and Standards – Horizontal Alignment – Vertical Alignment – In-Street Running Impacts and Considerations – Station Requirements
  • 61. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 62Vertical Alignment Profile Grades Desirable Absolute Condition Maximum Maximum Maximum Mainline Track 3.5% 5.0% 7.0% Stations 0/5% 3.0% 4.5% Yard 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% Storage Track 0.0% 0.25% 0.5% Minimum grade for drainage = 0.2%
  • 62. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 63Vertical Alignment Vertical Curves Minimum Length as function of speed: – L = 70 (G1 - G2) for V > 35 – L = 40 (G1 - G2) for 15 < V < 35 – L = 20 (G1 - G2) for V < 15 Minimum length of any vertical curve: – Desirable – Minimum – Absolute
  • 63. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 64Vertical Alignment Other Considerations – Station platforms: • Tangent grade 0 % to 2.0 % • – Combined vertical and horizontal curves • • •
  • 64. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 65Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Alignment Geometry – Design Criteria and Standards – Horizontal Alignment – Vertical Alignment – In-Street Running Impacts and Considerations – Station Requirements
  • 65. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 66In-Street Impacts and Considerations• Operational policies• Physical and design constraints• Right-of-Way
  • 66. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 67 Light Rail Transit Alignment Design Alignment Geometry– Design Criteria and Standards– Horizontal Alignment– Vertical Alignment– In-Street Running Impacts and Considerations– Station Requirements
  • 67. Light Rail Transit Facilities Design Course Light Rail Transit Alignment Design 68 Questions