Health and Transportation Partners: Working to Improve Pedestrian Safety in Oregon


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Join health and transportation partners working in Oregon and learn a variety of ways to improve pedestrian safety in your neighborhood, town or city. Explore the links between health and transportation, the

best practices being used to increase the numbers of individuals using active transportation, and how to keep all road users safer. These methods need not necessarily be expensive engineering solutions, but

can encompass education, enforcement and some simple fixes.

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Health and Transportation Partners: Working to Improve Pedestrian Safety in Oregon

  1. 1. Health and Transportation Partners: Working to Improve Pedestrian Safety in Oregon Safe States Pedestrian Safety Action Team Program Training and Mini-Grant Opportunity June 11, 2014
  2. 2. Outline of Today’s Training Session 1: 11:00 am to 12:30 pm • Safe States Program Overview • Healthy Communities and Transportation Framework • Oregon Pedestrian Injury and Fatality Data • Components of a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan • The Five Es and Education Strategies • Q&A Session 2: 1:00 pm to 2:30 pm • Enforcement Strategies • Engineering Strategies • Mini-Grant Opportunity • Q&A
  3. 3. Pedestrian Safety Intervention Rationale Pedestrian safety is an important health issue. Safety creates walkable neighborhoods, with many health benefits.  Safer streets mean pedestrian friendly streets  Better accessibility for all ages, all abilities  Rates of physical activity for ↓ cancer, diabetes, heart disease  Improved air quality for ↓ respiratory disease and cancer  Community interaction, security and social cohesion Pedestrian safety cannot be addressed by one field alone. Engineering Public health Public safety Traffic safety City planning School safety Oregonians and Americans want safe, walkable communities.
  4. 4. “Whether you live in a city or a small town, and whether you drive a car, take the bus, or ride a train: at some point in the day, everyone is a pedestrian. We all have a reason to support pedestrian safety.” – U.S. DOT Secretary Anthony Foxx
  5. 5. Safe States Program Overview • Safe States Alliance – National 501(c)(3) NHTSA & CDC funding • Provided state-level program grant funding (OR, KY, CA, RI) – Oregon Public Health Division Injury & Violence Prevention Program • Funded Activities – 3-day state-level capacity building workshop (March 2014) – Statewide training to local partners (today) – Mini-grant funding to local partners for education, enforcement, evaluation (Sept 2014 to July 2015) – Technical assistance for grantees (Sept 2014 to July 2015) – Evaluation (through March 2016)
  6. 6. Healthy Communities and Transportation Framework
  7. 7. What Creates Health? Adapted from McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 1993; 270:2207-2212. Genetic Predisposition, 30% Social Circumstances, 15% Environmental Exposure, 5% Medical Care, 10% Behaviors, 40% Determinants of Health and Their Contribution to Premature Death
  8. 8. Pedestrian Injury Examples Driver Training EMS Seat Belts, Ignition Lock Road design, Licensing, Speed Limit, Mode Shift Socioeconomic Factors Changing the Context to make individuals’ default decisions healthy Long-lasting Protective Interventions Clinical Interventions Counseling & Education Greatest Population Impact Health Impact Pyramid Greatest Individual Effort Rates of Vehicle Ownership, Funding for Infrastructure
  9. 9. Public Health: Policy, Systems, Environment Approach 10 • Population Approach All users, all modes, “8 to 80” • Needs of Walkers and Bikers Safety Access Convenience Comfort Social Acceptability • The Five E’s Education Encouragement Enforcement Engineering Evaluation
  10. 10. Transportation as a Social Determinant of Health The leading causes of death in Oregon are powerfully influenced by transportation choices and options. 1. Cancer 2. Heart disease 3. Chronic lower respiratory disease 4. Stroke 5. Unintentional injuries Oregon Death Certificate Data, 2012. Leading Causes of Death, Oregon, 2012.
  11. 11. Pedestrian Safety: One Strategy, Multiple Benefits • Reduce the number of fatalities and serious injuries; • Increase physical activity to reduce rates of diabetes, cancer and other chronic diseases; • Cut air pollution that contributes to respiratory and heart illnesses; • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and • Alleviate the high cost of transportation to users and to system.
  12. 12. Immeasurable Benefits to Walking “People out walking make our towns livelier, safer and more attractive places to live, work, play, shop and invest.” “Walking is safe, simple, and doesn’t require practice, or any fancy gear.” -- U.S. S.G. “It is hard to get people to eat healthier. But we can get them to walk. All they need are shoes.” – KP CEO It connects us to the places where we live, it makes us healthier, and it’s cheap. -- Oregon Walks 13
  13. 13. Scope of the Problem: Injury and Fatality Data
  14. 14. 2011 Pedestrian Fatalities – Where and When? United States • In 2011, 4,432 pedestrians were killed and an estimated 69,000 were injured in the US. On average, a pedestrian was killed every two hours and injured every 8 minutes. • Since 2002, pedestrian fatalities have increased from 11% of total traffic crashes, to 13.7% in 2011. • Nearly 75% occurred in urban settings. • A majority, 70%, occurred during nighttime (6 p.m.-5:59 a.m.). • Over 70% occurred at non-intersections versus at intersections. • 88% occurred in normal weather conditions. Oregon • In 2011, 46 pedestrians were killed in Oregon and another 831 were hospitalized. • In 2011, pedestrian fatalities accounted for 13.9% of all traffic crash fatalities (331), slightly higher than the 13.7% of traffic crash deaths in the US. • More than half occur on urban roadways, and around the 6:00 p.m. hour • Most crashes occur when pedestrians cross streets • Behind MV Occupant deaths, pedestrians are the second category of MV deaths, followed by motorcycle, then cyclist. • The deadliest time for pedestrians is during dark light conditions without street lights.
  15. 15. 2011 Pedestrian Fatalities – Who? United States • Older pedestrians (age 65+) accounted for 19% (2.04 per 100,000). • Children age 15 and younger accounted for 6%. • Males accounted for 70% of the fatalities, more than double the rate for females. • Alcohol involvement, either for the driver or pedestrian, was reported in 48% of fatal crashes. – Of pedestrians involved, 35% had a BAC of .08 or higher, compared to 13% of the drivers. – Those aged 25-34 who were killed had the highest percentage of alcohol involvement at 50% Oregon • Risk factors include both driver and pedestrian use of alcohol and drugs, not yielding, being distracted, and vehicle speed. • The largest age group for pedestrian deaths was adults aged 45-64. • The largest age group for pedestrian hospitalizations (non-fatal) were 15-24 and 45-54.
  16. 16. Motor Vehicle Traffic Death Rates Per 100,000 By Category of Involvement, Oregon, 2000-2012
  17. 17. Cyclist and Pedestrian Injury Hospitalization Rates per 100,000, Oregon, 2000-2012
  18. 18. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 <1 1-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ Frequency Age Group (years) Oregon Motor Vehicle Related Pedestrian Deaths by Age Group (2002-2012)
  19. 19. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 <1 1-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ Frequency Age Group (years) Oregon Motor Vehicle Related Pedestrian Hospitalizations by Age Group (2002-2012)
  20. 20. Components of a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan
  21. 21. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 1: Involve the right stakeholders and representatives • Include transportation agencies, health professionals, emergency providers. • Include representatives of all incomes, ages, genders, abilities. • Spend time getting to know each other’s language and concerns.
  22. 22. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 2: Define Objectives/Performance Targets • Examples: – Reduce number of fatal and severe injury pedestrian crashes; – Set targets for reducing specific pedestrian crash types. • Examples: – Increase pedestrian mode share (%) or number of walking trips; – Increase safe access to certain destinations, for general or targeted populations.
  23. 23. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 3: Collect Crash & Roadway Data to Identify Priority Locations • Crash data • Presence of risk factors contributing to pedestrian crashes: roadway and vehicle data • By spot locations, corridors, targeted areas, or for entire jurisdiction (e.g. as element of TSP) • Pedestrian safety audit
  24. 24. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 4: Prioritize Locations and Select Countermeasures: Engineering Education Enforcement
  25. 25. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Example Map of Priority Sites for Pedestrians
  26. 26. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 5: Develop an Implementation Strategy • Categorize into: – quick simple fixes – moderately complex fixes – complex/expensive fixes • Develop phasing strategy • Identify funding strategies
  27. 27. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 6: Institutionalize Changes to Plans, Development Codes, and Design Standards • Comprehensive plan policy • Transportation system plan policy • Performance measures • Project lists • Street design and street connectivity standards • Development requirements in zoning/development code and construction zone manual
  28. 28. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 7: Consider Land Use, Zoning, and Site Design Issues • Mix and density of land uses • Transit-oriented development • Site design (e.g. parking lot) • Bus stop and transit station location • Siting considerations for: schools hospitals universities community colleges
  29. 29. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 8: Reinforce Commitment to Action • Agency mission statement • Culture of safety • Internal and external training • Award system for safe designs • Support ongoing research in effectiveness of countermeasures
  30. 30. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Step 9: Evaluate Results • Quantify and document before and after conditions; • Keep track of and publicize successful projects/programs • …and not so successful projects/programs
  31. 31. The Five Es
  32. 32. The Five Es • Education – Teaching about the range of transportation choices, creating bicycling and walking safety skills, and launching driver safety campaigns. • Encouragement – Using events and activities to promote walking and bicycling and to generate enthusiasm for active transportation. • Engineering – Creating operational and physical improvements to infrastructure to reduce speeds and potential conflicts with motor vehicles, and to establish safe and accessible crossings, walkways, trails, bikeways. • Enforcement – Partnering with local law enforcement to ensure that traffic laws are obeyed (e.g., speed limits, yielding to pedestrians in crosswalks, proper walking and bicycling behaviors) and initiating community enforcement such as crossing guard programs. • Evaluation – Monitoring and documenting outcomes, attitudes and trends through the collection of data before and after the intervention(s).
  33. 33. Factors Influencing Pedestrian Safety HUMAN
  34. 34. Education
  35. 35. Enlist the Community
  36. 36. Target Audiences: Vulnerable Populations Typical priorities in Oregon. Check local data: • Children/students • Older adults (65+) • Men • People walking at night/dark conditions • Urban settings • Impaired pedestrians and drivers • Drivers
  37. 37. Sample Messaging Pedestrians can: • Be predictable. Follow the rules of the road, cross at crosswalks or intersections, and obey signs and signals. • Walk left, ride right. • Pay attention to the traffic moving around you. • Make eye contact with drivers as they approach.
  38. 38. Sample Messaging Drivers can: • Look out for pedestrians. • Look right before turning right. • Slow down and be prepared to stop when turning or entering a crosswalk. • Stop at the crosswalk stop line to give drivers in other lanes an opportunity to see and yield to the pedestrians, too. • Be cautious when backing up. • Be predictable. • Use turn signals (blinkers).
  39. 39. How to Communicate?
  40. 40. Safe Routes to School
  41. 41. Safe Routes to School •
  42. 42. See and Be Seen
  43. 43. Address Drivers
  44. 44. Create a Community Pledge
  45. 45. How to Communicate? • Distribute program flyers and brochures to homeowner’s associations, retirement communities, senior centers, and libraries. • Distribute project flyers and brochures as door hangers to each residence in neighborhood. • Post on boards in local businesses. • Ped campaigns are new! Look to and learn from: – Successful biking campaigns – Successful driver education campaigns
  46. 46. Sample Bike Safety Campaign
  47. 47. Enforcement
  48. 48. •Increase awareness •Improve behavior •Reduce traffic safety problems Role of Enforcement
  49. 49. Driver Behaviors • Speeding • Failing to yield/stop for pedestrians • Red light running • Passing stopped cars (multiple threat) • Passing stopped school buses • Driving while distracted Pedestrian Behaviors • Disobeying signals • Crossing at non legal locations
  50. 50. • The 85% concept • Enforcement can change behavior for up to 6 weeks • Behavior will return without additional enforcement • Engineer/education needed for permanent changes Effective Enforcement
  51. 51. Community members are part of the solution: • Neighborhood speed watch • Yard Sign Campaigns • Pace Car Campaigns • School crossing guards Community Enforcement
  52. 52. • Engage community • Educate public • Provide officer Training • Evaluate and Follow Up Law Enforcement Approach
  53. 53. • Targeted road safety patrols actions • Diversion programs • Double Fines (in special zones) • Progressive Ticketing 1) Educate 2) Warn 3) Ticket Law Enforcement Tools
  54. 54. Speed Display Signs Mobile trailer Semi-permanent Traffic complaint hotline Photo enforcement Law Enforcement Tools
  55. 55. Enforcement Strategies Summary • Law enforcement officers are valuable partners who can play many roles • Enforcement includes many strategies to improve behavior • Enforcement works best coupled with education and engineering • Enforcement requires the support of the community and media
  56. 56. Land Use & Transportation Planning
  57. 57. Walkability
  58. 58. Post WWII Development Patterns 1. Concentrate all commercial activities in auto-dominated corridors. 2. Segregate land uses. 3. Locate the school in the surrounding corn field. 4. Resulting community is auto dominated.
  59. 59. Result: Auto-Dominated Landscapes
  60. 60. The Old is New Again…
  61. 61. Advantages of Walkable Development • Travel Choices • Fewer Auto Trips • Improved Walkability • Easier to serve with transit • More sustainable footprint
  62. 62. Connectivity creates a pedestrian-friendly street system by:  Reducing walking distances;  Offering more route choices, more quiet local streets;  Dispersing traffic
  63. 63. High Connectivity Travel Lanes Required Moderate Connectivity Low Connectivity
  64. 64. Which are safer – wide streets or narrow streets? 2 Lane 3 Lane 4 Lane
  65. 65. Speed Matters • Reduces drivers’ field of vision and ability to see pedestrians and bicyclists • Reduces drivers’ ability to react and avoid a crash • Increases crash Severity
  66. 66. As speed↑, driver focus on surroundings ↓ 15 MPH
  67. 67. 25 MPH
  68. 68. 30 MPH
  69. 69. High speeds lead to greater chance of serious injury & death Speed Affects Crash Severity
  70. 70. Can we get by without sidewalks on quiet streets?
  71. 71. At a certain point, sidewalks are needed
  72. 72. What about rural roads?
  73. 73. Characteristics of Good Sidewalk Design 1. Proper width 2. Clear of obstacles 3. Smooth surfaces 4. Separation from traffic 5. They lead you to the right place
  74. 74. Sidewalk Corridor - The Zone System Sidewalk corridor extends from the edge of roadway to the edge of right-of-way:  Curb zone  Furniture zone  Pedestrian zone  Frontage zone
  75. 75. The Zone System - Summary Pedestrian Zone Furniture Zone
  76. 76. The Zone System - Summary Furniture Zone Pedestrian Zone
  77. 77. Sidewalk behind ditch or swale
  78. 78. Walkability includes the street crossings
  79. 79. Where do pedestrians get hit? • Most vehicle/pedestrian collisions occur at signalized intersections. • Of those that occur at signalized intersections, most occur while the pedestrian is in the crosswalk with the right of way. • Most involve a turning vehicle, with approximately half of the vehicles turning left and half turning right.
  80. 80. Crosswalks Defined – ORS
  81. 81. Crosswalks Defined – T Intersection
  82. 82. Why are marked crosswalks provided? 1. To indicate to pedestrians where to cross 2. To indicate to drivers where to expect pedestrians
  83. 83. General Principles 1. Recognize pedestrians want & need to cross the street safely 2. Pedestrians will cross where it’s most convenient 3. Drivers need to understand pedestrians’ intent 4. Minimize crossing distance 5. Simplify crossing 6. Speed matters Good design makes use of these principles
  84. 84. Many locations are not suitable for a marked crosswalk
  85. 85. In many instances we must create a good place to cross the street.
  86. 86. Crosswalk Visibility
  87. 87. What the pedestrian sees
  88. 88. What the driver sees
  89. 89. Textured crosswalks: Theory – more visible. Reality?
  90. 90. Textured crosswalks are difficult for people who use a wheelchair, walker, cane or other mobility device, and for those who walk with some difficulty -- unless great care is used in construction.
  91. 91. Minimize Crossing Distance Florence: Hwy 101 at 8th Street
  92. 92. Curb Extensions • Must have on-street parking • Improves visibility of pedestrian • Shortens crossing distance • Shortens Ped Phase at signalized crossings
  93. 93. Hwy 101 Depoe Bay Median Islands Reduce Ped Crashes By 40%
  94. 94. Bailey Hill Rd, Eugene
  95. 95. 37th and Hwy 101, Florence
  96. 96. Circle Blvd, Corvallis
  97. 97. Hwy 42 Winston
  98. 98. Pedestrian Scale Street Lighting
  99. 99. Street Trees
  100. 100. Guide Signs
  101. 101. Street Art
  102. 102. Walkability and Transit
  103. 103. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standards U.S. ACCESS BOARD
  104. 104. Two Sets of Regulations ADAAG – ADA Accessibility Guidelines PROWAG – Public Rights of Way Accessibility Guidelines
  105. 105. ADA is Simple Sidewalks require 4’ x 4’ x 7’ clear passage
  106. 106. Six Principles of Ramp Construction 1. Traversable Path slopes in one direction AT A TIME. 2. Provide 4’ square level landing at top of ramp. 3. Provide Truncated Domes at base of ramp (2’ x ramp width). 4. There should be no lip at the end of the ramp 5. Max. Algebraic difference between the ramp slope and the street or gutter slope ≤ 11. 6. DON’T BLOCK THE TRAVERSIBLE PATH!
  107. 107. Mini-Grant Opportunity
  108. 108. Mini-Grant Overview • Eligible: Governmental Organizations and 501(c)(3) e.g. police agency, public health, city planning, bike/ped advocacy group, injury prevention coalition, and others • Purpose: Advance an existing safety plan or policy, or transportation plan or policy. Play type is flexible. • Outcome: Local communities have taken additional step(s) to improve pedestrian safety. • Amount: $9,000 maximum request. • Activities: Conduct specific activities in the areas of education, enforcement and/or evaluation. – If enforcement, you must, also conduct another “E”
  109. 109. Examples • Conduct education (and enforcement, but not enforcement alone) activities that support new infrastructure projects. • Improve data collection and analysis of pedestrian crashes to identify trends, high-risk populations, and high-crash locations. • Conduct educational campaigns focused on high- risk groups or high-crash locations. • Evaluate a program, policy or infrastructure change intended to reduce pedestrian injuries.
  110. 110. Key Mini-Grant Facts • Released: June 11, 2014 • Due: July 28, 2014, 5:00 p.m. • Awarded: September 2, 2014 • Completion: July 1, 2015 • Evaluation: through March, 2016 Application available at: childhood-injury-prevention-webinars/
  111. 111. Resources NHTSA Pedestrian Resource List: Safe States Alliance: How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Safety Benefits of Walkways, Sidewalks, and Paved Shoulders ◦ Tri-fold - ◦ Brochure - Safety Benefits of Raised Medians and Pedestrian Refuge Areas ◦ Tri-fold - ◦ Brochure -
  112. 112. Contacts for Questions Public health strategies: Five Es and Transportation strategies: Mini-Grant Application Questions