Artificial intelligence ( AI ) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.
John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956,defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”.
-we will also focus on this “engineering” approach
-success is judged by how well the agent performs
Operational Definition of AI Systems that act like humans Turing test. Systems that think like humans Cognitive Science Systems that think rationally Logic-based AI Systems that act rationally Rational Agents
Find me stuff about dogs who save people’s lives. Around midnight, two beagles spotted a fire in the house next door. Their barking alerted their owners, who call for help. =>How can we represent it and use it? =>How can we acquire it?
Representing Knowledge - Logic 1958 McCarthy’s paper, “Programs with Common Sense” at (I, car) can (go (home, airport, driving)) at (I, desk) can (go (desk, car, walking)) 1965 Resolution theorem proving invented
Representing Knowledge – Capturing Experience Representing Experience with Scripts, Frames, and Cases 1977 Scripts Rony went to a restaurant. Rony ordered a hamburger. When the hamburger came, it was burnt to a crisp. Rony stormed out without paying. The restaurant script: Did Rony eat anything?
Understanding in Expert Systems? Understanding requires: *Representation and manipulation of Domain Knowledge *Perceive analogies *Learn Pragmatic view: *Intentional intelligence is not required *Programs will work the better if more human domain knowledge is encoded in them Normative Descriptive Limitive Definition of Expert System: An Expert System is a computer program that represents and reasons with knowledge of some specialist subject with a view to solving problems or giving advice Expert Systems are a subfield of Artificial Intelligence. Term: Knowledge Based System
"AI can have two purposes. One is to use the power of computers to augment human thinking, just as we use motors to augment human or horse power. Robotics and expert systems are major branches of that. The other is to use a computer's artificial intelligence to understand how humans think. In a humanoid way. If you test your programs not merely by what they can accomplish, but how they accomplish it, they you're really doing cognitive science; you're using AI to understand the human mind."