Decorative Concrete Dennis Ahal

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Decorative Concrete Dennis Ahal

  1. 1. Decorative Concrete Presentation by Dennis Ahal Ahal Contracting Co., Inc.
  2. 2. <ul><li>There are many methods and uses of decorative concrete, for both exterior and interior applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete has come a long way from when it was used as a pathway to keep you out of the dirt. </li></ul>
  3. 3. One of the oldest methods used was scored joints, to not only control cracks but also to create a design.
  4. 4. Exposed aggregate is a method that has been around for a long time. The best, most durable method is to use a high proportion of aggregate in the mix rather than seeding the surface.
  5. 5. <ul><li>This mix looks extremely dry but is actually a 4” slump concrete that has a high aggregate content. The concrete is struck off. Any surface voids are filled in with concrete, not with paste. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The surface is bull-floated and closed up with a hand float. Again, any void areas are filled in with concrete and not paste.
  7. 7. A surface retarder containing dye is sprayed on the surface to ensure complete coverage. The slab is then covered with a polyethylene sheet to prevent air contact with the surface.
  8. 8. Either later that day or the next day, depending on temperature, the surface is broomed and washed to remove the surface cementitious coating and expose the aggregate.
  9. 9. The view when approaching the walk appears as a gravel path. The smaller the aggregate, the denser the amount at the surface.
  10. 10. One of the ways of disguising expansion joints is through the use of brick borders or imprinted concrete strips.
  11. 11. One of the ways of decorating concrete is through the use of integral color. Bag material has been used for many years but some coloring systems now use a liquid color agent.
  12. 12. The color always appears darker while the concrete is wet.
  13. 13. This integrally colored concrete is being used to grout rocks in a small decorative stream bed.
  14. 14. This walkway was designed to resemble a dirt pathway which would be handicap accessible even after a rain.
  15. 15. This walkway consists of traprock aggregate and charcoal gray integral color. It is being given a light acid wash to remove any film residue before being sealed with a penetrating sealer.
  16. 16. Notice the high aggregate content at the surface.
  17. 17. When dry the walkway appears much lighter, even though is has been sealed.
  18. 18. <ul><li>You can use a glossy surface sealer, but this must be maintained since it will deteriorate through wear and UV breakdown. </li></ul>
  19. 19. This area received a light colored integral color to blend with the aggregate so it appears as a gravel path. The area where sprinklers have wet the walk appear darker. This is what a glossy surface sealer would look like.
  20. 20. This project used the same aggregate but two different integral colors to highlight the main walk area and the borders.
  21. 21. Expansion joints are used for crack control and to show a pattern. Control joints are somewhat difficult to install in exposed aggregate since the joint tool tends to push the aggregate down and leave an area of plain grout.
  22. 22. This walk received areas of integrally colored concrete along with plain gray concrete to create a contrast. Integral colors give the concrete a tone but not an intense color.
  23. 23. This amusement park entrance used integrally colored concrete with diamonds of surface applied color hardener, which created interest and hid drains that occurred at some of these areas.
  24. 24. These adjacent areas used two different integral colors. The bench wall that separates them is also concrete.
  25. 25. The second method of coloring concrete is through the use of dry shake surface applied color hardener. This method gives a deeper, more intense color.
  26. 26. The material which is broadcast onto the surface adds to the durability of the surface.
  27. 27. <ul><li>The color hardener consists of color, cement, and silica quartz aggregate. </li></ul><ul><li>A more durable emery aggregate can be used for high traffic areas. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The correct application for this color hardener is two coats, usually at 90 degree angles from each other when possible, to assure adequate coverage.
  29. 29. As you can tell from the lack of hard hats and the model of the truck, this photo was taken a number of years ago. However, the process is still pretty much the same. The color is worked into the surface with a bull float.
  30. 30. The edges are run with a tool to create a nice clean edge.
  31. 31. In this photo, a stamping plastic is laid on the surface and imprinting tools are placed.
  32. 32. The tools are tapped into the concrete surface to create a pattern.
  33. 33. The finished areas show a pattern with expansion joints used to control cracking. These joints are imprinted deeper to receive a grout in the joints.
  34. 34. The grouting makes the cobblestone pattern look more authentic. The advantage of using concrete is that the slab is reinforced with rebar and stays together as one unit.
  35. 35. This close-up of the grout shows the loafing of the cobblestone pattern, created by stamping plastic and deeper joints. Since the slab works as a unit, there is no stress on the individual grout joints.
  36. 36. This grouted walkway is a running bond brick pattern.
  37. 37. This basket weave patio has other colors broadcast onto the surface to create interest.
  38. 38. This walkway and step project was placed next to an old stone foundation. Imagine the hand work that would be required to fit pavers adjacent to the stone.
  39. 39. This restaurant area used an 18” x 18” tile with grouted joints.
  40. 40. This atrium area used surface applied color hardener with tooled joints, which were grouted.
  41. 41. This project used multiple colors and patterns to define areas and foot traffic patterns.
  42. 42. The areas of the landings were adjusted slightly to fit the steps.
  43. 43. This was a 2” topping over existing concrete which contained many joints. A ¼” rubber mat was used to separate the topping from the sub-slab.
  44. 44. Polypropylene fibers were used in a pea gravel mix, and dry shake color hardener was applied.
  45. 45. This area received imprinted color hardener as an accent, with a picture frame tooling of the joints. This is actually an extra step and needs to be defined in the specification.
  46. 46. This is an imprinted area adjacent to an integrally colored salt finish area. The banded areas are cut with hand tools.
  47. 47. The salt finish is achieved by broadcasting rock salt and troweling it into the surface. The salt is washed away a day or two later, leaving voids.
  48. 48. This area consists of an integrally colored field which received a broom finish. The borders have color hardener and are hand cut. This method, while expensive, is less costly than pavers or bricks cut to fit this circular pattern.
  49. 49. This area was also hand cut. These types of areas were used as accents so, although they cost more, they did not materially affect the entire project cost.
  50. 50. The darker borders were poured with the main areas in order to save labor on forming and finishing.
  51. 51. This sample area shows a tooled joint being installed in fresh concrete.
  52. 52. Strips of masonite are placed in the joint to separate different colors as they are applied to various areas of the surface.
  53. 53. Fields and borders can be placed at the same time, saving forming and placing costs while receiving different colors and finishes.
  54. 54. Separate colors are being applied to adjacent areas of the same slab.
  55. 55. The color hardener is floated and troweled into the surface.
  56. 56. Edgers are run on the separate colors before imprinting.
  57. 57. The final product, showing multiple colors and finishes:
  58. 58. This area received a highlight, or flashing, of other colors to add an accent.
  59. 59. This shows a fishscale pattern merged into a running bond pattern, but the slab was placed as one piece.
  60. 60. Notice the expansion joint separating two slabs and the herringbone pattern placed with the limestone border, which is a separate color and pattern.
  61. 61. Logos can be incorporated into the design.
  62. 62. Another logo:
  63. 63. Notice the grouted joints:
  64. 64. Another method of imprinting requires the use of a release agent, which prevents imprinting tools from sticking to the slab surface.
  65. 65. The slab is finished as previously.
  66. 66. The release agent is broadcast onto the surface.
  67. 67. The release agent most often is of a contrasting color to the color hardener.
  68. 68. Texture mats are placed on the surface of the slab. These mats impart not only a design or pattern, but also a texture.
  69. 69. This is an overhead view of dry shake color hardener on the surface, before and after being floated and troweled into the surface.
  70. 70. There is also a release agent on a portion of the surface (gray area), some of which has been imprinted with a texture mat.
  71. 71. Texture mats come in various sizes and textures.
  72. 72. They are tapped into the slab surface to impart both pattern and texture.
  73. 73. Texture mats are flexible, to allow imprinting next to vertical surfaces such as windows and walls.
  74. 74. Sometimes they are overlapped to eliminate excess pattern lines.
  75. 75. Notice the clefting on this 5’ x 5’ slate texture mat.
  76. 76. This is a 12” pattern with little contrast between the color hardener and the release agent. Some of the release agent remains on the slab surface, giving highlights and a feeling of depth to the texture.
  77. 77. This shows the use of two colors and three patterns. The border against the wall was placed with the main gray slate area.
  78. 78. This curbing is not limestone. It is concrete with white color hardener applied.
  79. 79. This area was imprinted and textured to resemble an old, used brick.
  80. 80. Chemicals were used to stain the surface and add color variation.
  81. 81. The joints were grouted.
  82. 82. The use of multiple colors and textures can add interest, and visually separate areas.
  83. 83. Bands or strips of contracting colors can be used to hide expansion joints.
  84. 84. This shows the use of banding for joint control.
  85. 85. This project uses a pattern to create a defined drive lane. This surface is all at one elevation.
  86. 86. <ul><li>Another method of coloring concrete is through the use of stains over new or existing concrete, or over toppings which are designed to accept stains. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Slab surfaces are sectioned off by tape or saw cutting to divide stain colors if patterning is desirable. This area is being taped and stained.
  88. 88. A stencil is being used to create a design.
  89. 89. This stain is being applied by brush to a new surface.
  90. 90. This stain was applied to an old slab. Notice the variation of stain penetration.
  91. 91. <ul><li>Do not expect a stain color to be uniform. This is part of the beauty of the product. If you want it to be all one uniform color, paint it. </li></ul>
  92. 92. The use of chemicals, as shown on a previous project, help give this floor a mottled look.
  93. 93. The use of saw cuts separate the various stain colors. The use of chemicals help give highlights to various areas.
  94. 94. The backsplash and countertop are concrete.
  95. 95. Saw cuts, chemicals, and various stain colors are used to accent this area.
  96. 96. This floor was color hardened, saw cut, and stained.
  97. 97. The use of two color stains give contrast to this floor. The saw cuts are only ¼” deep to separate the stain areas so they don’t run together.
  98. 98. The same applies to this project. This floor was specified with no control joints and light reinforcing. The design was saw cut in later at a depth of ¼”, and two stains were applied.
  99. 99. This intricate logo was saw cut and stenciled on a new floor.
  100. 100. This basement craft area was one of our first stain projects, performed at an employee’s home.
  101. 101. This logo is over a topping which was poured without joints, but on which a shrinkage control admixture was used.
  102. 102. The stain does not take evenly everywhere. Saw cuts were made to separate the stains.
  103. 103. A stencil was used to protect the lettering, and the background was sandblasted.
  104. 104. The overall effect is dramatic.
  105. 105. This floor was colored with a surface applied color hardener.
  106. 106. Saw cuts were made and the banded areas were stained.
  107. 107. The joints were grouted.
  108. 108. This slab is being textured with a texture mat.
  109. 109. The border and inset areas are stained to create contrast, instead of two colors being used in the finishing process.
  110. 110. This patio was placed using a light beige color hardener, and a textured slate pattern was used. The joints were deepened to accept grout.
  111. 111. Individual slate blocks were stained using multiple colors of stain.
  112. 112. The joints were then grouted.
  113. 113. The front walk and porch received the same treatment.
  114. 114. The vertical surface of the steps was colored, textured and stained.
  115. 115. A flowable topping is added over an existing slab.
  116. 116. This slab receives a trowel finish.
  117. 117. The topping is scored, stained and sealed. Notice the control joint in the original building is honored.
  118. 118. Many intricate designs can be incorporated.
  119. 119. Really bright colors:
  120. 120. This project consists of a concrete overlay over a base slab. The slab was colored and stained.
  121. 121. Many designs can be incorporated into the floor surface.
  122. 122. High intensity colors are available in certain overlays.
  123. 123. An exterior retail area:
  124. 124. Terrazzo strips were used to divide the topping into separate areas to receive different colors of stain.
  125. 125. The stain has a mottled, leathery look.
  126. 126. A sealer was applied to the entire surface area.
  127. 127. A wax was applied over the sealer to take the wear. The wax can be re-applied periodically in the high usage areas, without stripping the entire surface.
  128. 128. The terrazzo strips allow for clean, crisp joints and corners.
  129. 129. Periodic maintenance keeps the slab looking bright and new.
  130. 130. Since this was a topping, the terrazzo strips could have odd shapes without cracking concerns.
  131. 131. The mottled, leathery look was the result of the process, not necessarily the intent.
  132. 132. The use of multiple stains can add to the results, as long as everyone understands that not every square foot of the slab will accept the stain the same.
  133. 133. The use of stencils and sand blasting created this design in an integrally colored slab.
  134. 134. The use of surface applied color hardener, stencils, and sand blasting created the etched writing look in this floor.
  135. 135. A closer look at the writing:
  136. 136. A closer look at the decorative border:
  137. 137. Here a thin coat of a high intensity overlay material is being applied.
  138. 138. <ul><li>Use a separate section to specify decorative concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let someone do your decorative concrete work just because they were low bidder on the flatwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid to negotiate your specialty work, or at least qualify your contractors prior to bid time. </li></ul>
  139. 139. <ul><li>This is a product that is manufactured in the field, not a factory. Approved samples are always a must before starting the actual work, so expectations are the same. </li></ul>
  140. 140. The use of decorative concrete is limited only by your imagination.
  141. 141. Decorative Concrete Presentation by Dennis Ahal Ahal Contracting Co., Inc.

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