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English art

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  • His most famous paintings include Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821. Although his paintings are now among the most popular and valuable in British art, he was never financially successful and did not become a member of the establishment until he was elected to the Royal Academy at the age of 52. He sold more paintings in France than in his native England.
  • Constable, John (1776-1837). English painter, ranked with Turner as one of the greatest British landscape artists.
    Although he showed an early talent for art and began painting his native Suffolk scenery before he left school, his great originality matured slowly. He committed himself to a career as an artist only in 1799, when he joined the Royal Academy Schools and it was not until 1829 that he was grudgingly made a full Academician, elected by a majority of only one vote. In 1816 he became financially secure on the death of his father and married Maria Bicknell after a seven-year courtship and in the fact of strong opposition from her family. During the 1820s he began to win recognition: The Hay Wain (National Gallery, London, 1821) won a gold medal at the Paris Salon of 1824 and Constable was admired by Delacroix and Bonington among others. His wife died in 1828, however, and the remaining years of his life were clouded by despondency.
    After spending some years working in the picturesque tradition of landscape and the manner of Gainsborough, Constable developed his own original treatment from the attempt to render scenery more directly and realistically, carrying on but modifying in an individual way the tradition inherited from Ruisdael and the Dutch 17th-century landscape painters. Just as his contemporary William Wordsworth rejected what he called the `poetic diction' of his predecessors, so Constable turned away from the pictorial conventions of 18th-century landscape painters, who, he said, were always `running after pictures and seeking the truth at second hand'. Constable thought that `No two days are alike, nor even two hours; neither were there ever two leaves of a tree alike since the creation of the world', and in a then new way he represented in paint the atmospheric effects of changing light in the open air, the movement of clouds across the sky, and his excited delight at these phenomena, stemming from a profound love of the country: `The sound of water escaping from mill dams, willows, old rotten planks, slimy posts and brickwork, I love such things. These scenes made me a painter.'
    He never went abroad, and his finest works are of the places he knew and loved best, particularly Suffolk and Hampstead, where he lived from 1821. To render the shifting flicker of light and weather he abandoned fine traditional finish, catching the sunlight in blobs of pure white or yellow, and the drama of storms with a rapid brush. Henry Fuseli was among the contemporaries who applauded the freshness of Constable's approach, for C. R. Leslie records him as saying: `I like de landscapes of Constable; he is always picturesque, of a fine color, and de lights always in de right places; but he makes me call for my great coat and umbrella.'
    Constable worked extensively in the open air, drawing and sketching in oils, but his finished pictures were produced in the studio. For his most ambitious works--`six-footers' as he called them--he followed the unusual technical procedure of making a full-size oil sketch, and in the 20th century there has been a tendancy to praise these even more highly than the finished works because of their freedom and freshness of brushwork. (The full-size sketch for The Hay Wain is in the V&A, London, which has the finest collection of Constable's work.)
    In England Constable had no real sucessor and the many imitators (who included his son Lionel, 1825-87) turned rather to the formal compositions than to the more direct sketches. In France, however, he was a major influence on Romantics such as Delacroix, on the painters of the Barbizon School, and ultimately on the Impressionists.
  • Turner, Joseph Mallord William
    Turner, John Mallord William (1775-1851). One of the finest landscape artists was J.M.W. Turner, whose work was exhibited when he was still a teenager. His entire life was devoted to his art. Unlike many artists of his era, he was successful throughout his career.
    Joseph Mallord William Turner was born in London, England, on April 23, 1775. His father was a barber. His mother died when he was very young. The boy received little schooling. His father taught him how to read, but this was the extent of his education except for the study of art. By the age of 13 he was making drawings at home and exhibiting them in his father's shop window for sale.
    Turner was 15 years old when he received a rare honor--one of his paintings was exhibited at the Royal Academy. By the time he was 18 he had his own studio. Before he was 20 print sellers were eagerly buying his drawings for reproduction.
    He quickly achieved a fine reputation and was elected an associate of the Royal Academy. In 1802, when he was only 27, Turner became a full member. He then began traveling widely in Europe.
    Venice was the inspiration of some of Turner's finest work. Wherever he visited he studied the effects of sea and sky in every kind of weather. His early training had been as a topographic draftsman. With the years, however, he developed a painting technique all his own. Instead of merely recording factually what he saw, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic feelings.
    As he grew older Turner became an eccentric. Except for his father, with whom he lived for 30 years, he had no close friends. He allowed no one to watch him while he painted. He gave up attending the meetings of the academy. None of his acquaintances saw him for months at a time. Turner continued to travel but always alone. He still held exhibitions, but he usually refused to sell his paintings. When he was persuaded to sell one, he was dejected for days.
    In 1850 he exhibited for the last time. One day Turner disappeared from his house. His housekeeper, after a search of many months, found him hiding in a house in Chelsea. He had been ill for a long time. He died the following day--Dec. 19, 1851.
    Turner left a large fortune that he hoped would be used to support what he called "decaying artists." His collection of paintings was bequeathed to his country. At his request he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.
    Although known for his oils, Turner is regarded as one of the founders of English watercolor landscape painting. Some of his most famous works are Calais Pier, Dido Building Carthage, Rain, Steam and Speed, Burial at Sea, and The Grand Canal, Venice.
  • Turner, Joseph Mallord William
    Turner, John Mallord William (1775-1851). One of the finest landscape artists was J.M.W. Turner, whose work was exhibited when he was still a teenager. His entire life was devoted to his art. Unlike many artists of his era, he was successful throughout his career.
    Joseph Mallord William Turner was born in London, England, on April 23, 1775. His father was a barber. His mother died when he was very young. The boy received little schooling. His father taught him how to read, but this was the extent of his education except for the study of art. By the age of 13 he was making drawings at home and exhibiting them in his father's shop window for sale.
    Turner was 15 years old when he received a rare honor--one of his paintings was exhibited at the Royal Academy. By the time he was 18 he had his own studio. Before he was 20 print sellers were eagerly buying his drawings for reproduction.
    He quickly achieved a fine reputation and was elected an associate of the Royal Academy. In 1802, when he was only 27, Turner became a full member. He then began traveling widely in Europe.
    Venice was the inspiration of some of Turner's finest work. Wherever he visited he studied the effects of sea and sky in every kind of weather. His early training had been as a topographic draftsman. With the years, however, he developed a painting technique all his own. Instead of merely recording factually what he saw, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic feelings.
    As he grew older Turner became an eccentric. Except for his father, with whom he lived for 30 years, he had no close friends. He allowed no one to watch him while he painted. He gave up attending the meetings of the academy. None of his acquaintances saw him for months at a time. Turner continued to travel but always alone. He still held exhibitions, but he usually refused to sell his paintings. When he was persuaded to sell one, he was dejected for days.
    In 1850 he exhibited for the last time. One day Turner disappeared from his house. His housekeeper, after a search of many months, found him hiding in a house in Chelsea. He had been ill for a long time. He died the following day--Dec. 19, 1851.
    Turner left a large fortune that he hoped would be used to support what he called "decaying artists." His collection of paintings was bequeathed to his country. At his request he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.
    Although known for his oils, Turner is regarded as one of the founders of English watercolor landscape painting. Some of his most famous works are Calais Pier, Dido Building Carthage, Rain, Steam and Speed, Burial at Sea, and The Grand Canal, Venice.
  • Transcript

    • 1. John Constable and J.M.W. Turner English Romantic landscape painters By Gabriella Osztie BX6BHZ
    • 2. Romanticism second half of the 18th century complex artistic, literary and intellectual movement  revolt against aristocratic social and political norms reaction against the scientific rationalisation of nature emphasized intuition, imagination and feeling embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music and literature. naturalism and Modernity are the keywords ’le style anglais’ had something unique to offer
    • 3. JOHN CONSTABLE 11 JUNE 1776 – 31 MARCH 1837
    • 4. JOHN CONSTABLE Dedham Vale Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home
    • 5. JOHN CONSTABLE The Hay Wain  ’The Hay Wain’ was exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1824 and created a sensation. It was awarded a gold medal.
    • 6. JOHN CONSTABLE The Leaping Horse 1825 The Cornfield 1826 Constable's usual subjects, scenes of ordinary daily life
    • 7. JOHN CONSTABLE Wivenhoe Parc, Essex, 1816
    • 8. JOHN CONSTABLE Salisbury Cathedral Constable frequently depicted Salisbury’s famous spire
    • 9. JOHN CONSTABLE Constable took up portraiture, which he found dull work— though he executed many fine portraits. He also painted occasional religious pictures Maria Bicknell, 1816
    • 10. JOHN CONSTABLE Weymouth Bay, 1816 Weymouth and Brighton stimulated Constable to develop new techniques of brilliant colour and vivacious brushwork
    • 11. Constable’s techniques      full-scale preliminary sketches sketches done in oils directly from the subject in the open air broken brushstrokes, often in small touches free and vigorous brushwork sky studies
    • 12.  Constable’s art (spontaneity of brushwork, feeling for nature and bold use of colour) inspired not only contemporeries like Géricault and Delacroix, but the French impressionists of the late 19th century.
    • 13. Artist J.M.W.Turner 1775 - 1851. Perhaps the most famous English Romantic landscape artist. He became known as 'the painter of light'.
    • 14.  Suitable vehicles for Turner's imagination were to be found in the subjects of shipwrecks, fires , natural catastrophes, and natural phenomena such as sunlight, storm, rain, and fog. He was fascinated by the violent power of the sea.
    • 15. The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th October, 1834, 1835 Ulysses deriding Polyphemus 1829
    • 16. Calais Pier
    • 17. Fishermen at sea
    • 18. Rain, Steam and Speed 1844 he used oils ever more transparently the objects are barely reconisable
    • 19. Fighting Temeraire
    • 20. Techniques    he used oils ever more transparently he used watercolour technique with oil paints concentrating on the play of light on water, the radiance of skies and fires
    • 21.   The Impressionists, particulrly Claude Monet, carefully studied his techniques. his work regarded as a Romantic preface to impressionism.
    • 22. By Gabriella Osztie
    • 23.     1.Who was known as ’the painter of light’? 2.Who made full-scale preliminary sketches? 3.Who was fascinated by the power of sea? 4.Who completed the’sky studies’?