Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields

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A presentation by Alec Kowalewski, Assistant Professor at Oregon State University. …

A presentation by Alec Kowalewski, Assistant Professor at Oregon State University.

Outline:
- Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
- Primary Cultural Practices
- Mowing
- Fertilization
- Irrigation
- Cultivation and inter-seeding
- Management of…
- False dandelion
- White clover
- Annual bluegrass

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  • You should think of a turfgrass system as a stool
  • This is why a golf course putting green is mowed as often as every day.
  • …which will produce a number of detrimental effects, probably most noticeable a brown appearance
  • …which will improve things like increased drought tolerance.
  • …on un-irrigated cool-season turfgrass mixture(Kowalewski et al., 2007; Calhoun et al., 2005)
  • Abu-Dieyeh and Watson, 2005
  • Lambsquarter population decrease and the turfgrass density increase over time
  • Look for a fertilizer with…
  • Michigan State University (Calhoun et al., 2005); University of Georgia (Johnson and Bowyer, 1981)
  • Other problems associated with over irrigation include…
  • Which can accelerate eutrophication, as mentioned earlier
  • Defendor™ specialty herbicide (common name florasulam) is a postemergence broadleaf herbicide effective in cool temperatures against key annual and perennial weeds in turf, such as white clover, dandelion, chickweed, shepherd’s-purse and common groundsel

Transcript

  • 1. Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields Alec Kowalewski Turfgrass Specialist Oregon State University alec.kowalewski@oregonstate.edu
  • 2. Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Primary Cultural Practices • Mowing • Fertilization • Irrigation • Cultivation and inter-seeding • Management of… • False dandelion • White clover • Annual bluegrass
  • 3. Primary Cultural Practices 1. 2. 3. Mowing Fertilizing Irrigation
  • 4. Primary Cultural Practices
  • 5. Primary Cultural Practices Turfgrass
  • 6. Primary Cultural Practices Turfgrass
  • 7. Primary Cultural Practices
  • 8. Primary Cultural Practices Turfgrass
  • 9. MOWING
  • 10. Mowing • The one-third rule 4.5” Desired Mowing Height 4” 3” 3” 2” 1.5” 1” Mowing following 1/3 Rule 6”
  • 11. Mowing • The one-third rule
  • 12. Mowing • The one-third rule • Prevent scalping • Scalping… • • • • Causes a brown appearance Stops growth and development Depletes carbohydrates Makes turf susceptible to environmental stress
  • 13. Mowing • The one-third rule • Prevent weed seed germination Sunlight Sunlight 4” 3”
  • 14. Mowing • The one-third rule • Prevent weed seed germination Sunlight Sunlight 4” 2”
  • 15. Mowing • Raise your mowing height • Adhere to the one-third rule • Improve rooting
  • 16. Mowing • Raise your mowing height • Prevent weed seed germination Sunlight Sunlight 4” 2”
  • 17. Mowing • Raise your mowing height • Raising the height from 1.5” to 3.0” • Improved turfgrass quality • Reduced weed populations • Crabgrass cover by up to 52% • Dandelion populations by up to 45% • White clover by up to 58% Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass and fine fescue mixture
  • 18. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard Ragweed Garlic mustard
  • 19. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard 35 days
  • 20. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard 42 days
  • 21. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard 49 days
  • 22. Mowing • Weeds that indicate your mowing height is to low… • Annual bluegrass • Crabgrass • Dandelion Annual bluegrass Crabgrass
  • 23. MOWING
  • 24. FERTILIZATION
  • 25. Fertilization • Select a fertilizer designed for turfgrass • Primary nutrient (N-P-K) • High N • Low P • 10:1
  • 26. Fertilization • The holiday plan • 3-5 lbs N 1000 ft2 year • Memorial day • 1.0-1.5 lbs N 1000 ft2 • 4th of July • 0.5-1.0 lbs N 1000 ft2 • Labor day • 0.5-1.0 lbs N 1000 ft2 • Thanksgiving • 1.0-1.5 lbs 1000 ft2
  • 27. Fertilization • The holiday plan • Cool-season turfgrass species • • • • Kentucky bluegrass Perennial ryegrass Fine fescue Tall fescue
  • 28. Fertilization
  • 29. Fertilization • Low fertility weeds include… • White clover • Plantain • Black medic White clover Black medic Plantain
  • 30. FERTILIZATION
  • 31. IRRIGATION
  • 32. Irrigation • Adjust your rates with the seasons • Spring • 0.0-0.75 inch week • Summer • 0.75-1.5 inch week • Fall • 0.0-0.75 inch week
  • 33. Irrigation • Check your rates • 20 minutes • 0.1 inch • 0.25 inch • 0.5 inch
  • 34. Irrigation • Twice as much is not twice as good • Moss
  • 35. Irrigation • Twice as much is not twice as good • Increased disease incidence Dollar spot Pythium blight Brown patch
  • 36. Irrigation • Twice as much is not twice as good • Leaching pesticides and fertilizers • Waste of water and money
  • 37. Irrigation • Weeds associated with drought conditions… • Summer annuals Crabgrass • Knotweed • Wood sorrel • Crabgrass Knotweed woodsorrel
  • 38. Irrigation • Weeds associated with over irrigation… • Annual bluegrass • Rough bluegrass Rough bluegrass Annual bluegrass
  • 39. IRRIGATION
  • 40. CULTIVATION & INTER-SEEDING
  • 41. Cultivation • What is your objective when cultivating the turfgrass?
  • 42. Cultivation • Objectives • Relive compaction • Improves gas exchange and drainage • Remove organic matter • Decreases potential for disease • Improves drainage • Prepare for seeding • Ensures seed to soil contact
  • 43. Cultivation
  • 44. Cultivation
  • 45. Cultivation • Annual weeds • • • • Annual bluegrass (winter annual) Crabgrass (summer annual) Purse lane (summer annual) Knotweed
  • 46. Cultivation • Annual weeds • • • • Annual bluegrass (winter annual) Crabgrass (summer annual) Purse lane (summer annual) Summer annual germination Knotweed
  • 47. Cultivation • Annual weeds • • • • Annual bluegrass (winter annual) Crabgrass (summer annual) Purse lane (summer annual) Knotweed
  • 48. Cultivation Non-selective pre-emergent herbicide. Applied in the spring. No inter-seeding. • Annual weeds • Pre-emergent herbicides • Non-selective • Pendulum (a.i. pendimethalin) • $54/54,000 sq ft • Selective • Tupersan (a.i. siduron) • Tenacity (a.i. mesotrione) Knotweed – Summer annual • $98/54,000 sq ft • Inter-seeding • $1,440/54,000 sq ft • 600 lbs Fall – After 1st frost
  • 49. Cultivation Non-selective pre-emergent herbicide. Applied in the spring. No inter-seeding. • Annual weeds • Pre-emergent herbicides • Non-selective • Pendulum (a.i. pendimethalin) • $54/54,000 sq ft • Selective • Tupersan (a.i. siduron) • Tenacity (a.i. mesotrione) Knotweed – Summer annual • $98/54,000 sq ft • Inter-seeding • $1,440/54,000 sq ft • 600 lbs Fall – After 1st frost
  • 50. Inter-seeding • Perennial ryegrass • Growth habit • Bunch type • Germination • 7 to 10 days • Inter-seeding rate • 8 to 11 lbs/1,000 sq ft
  • 51. CULTIVATION & INTER-SEEDING
  • 52. WEED MANAGEMENT
  • 53. Weed Management • Common turf weeds… • 1. false dandelion • 2. white clover • 5. annual bluegrass False dandelion White clover Annual bluegrass
  • 54. FALSE DANDELION
  • 55. False dandelion • Scouting and ID • Perennial weed • Spring seeding • Drought tolerant
  • 56. False dandelion • Post emergence herbicides (curative) • 3-way broadleaf herbicide • 2,4-D • MCPP • Dicamba Common dandelion False dandelion Broadleaf plantain Sow thistle
  • 57. False dandelion • Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy)
  • 58. False dandelion • Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy)
  • 59. False dandelion • Follow up applications… • Apply and then apply again 2-4 weeks later
  • 60. Effects of Defendor and Dimension on catsear dandelion in perennial ryegrass, observed 8 weeks after Spring treatment in Corvallis. OR on July 2, 2013. Trt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 % Weed Control Treatments* 8 WAT Dimension 2 EW 0.0 Dimension 2 EW + 4Wks 0.0 Defendor 93.9 Defendor + 4 wks 100.0 Dimension 2 EW + Defendor 93.3 Rotation (See Below)** 100.0 Trimec Classic + Dimension 2 EW + 4 Wks 100.0 Trimec Classic 92.5 Untreated 0.0 LSD 4.6 • **Trt 6. Rotation: • 1st app Dimension 2 EW + Defendor (1.0 + 0.25 pt/A) • 2nd app Dimension 2 EW + Trimec Classic (1.0 + 4.0 pt/A)
  • 61. Effects of Defendor and Dimension on catsear dandelion in perennial ryegrass, observed 8 weeks after Spring treatment in Corvallis. OR on July 2, 2013. Trt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 % Weed Control Treatments* 8 WAT Dimension 2 EW 0.0 Dimension 2 EW + 4Wks 0.0 Defendor 93.9 Defendor + 4 wks 100.0 Dimension 2 EW + Defendor 93.3 Rotation (See Below)** 100.0 Trimec Classic + Dimension 2 EW + 4 Wks 100.0 Trimec Classic 92.5 Untreated 0.0 LSD 4.6 • **Trt 6. Rotation: • 1st app Dimension 2 EW + Defendor (1.0 + 0.25 pt/A) • 2nd app Dimension 2 EW + Trimec Classic (1.0 + 4.0 pt/A)
  • 62. FALSE DANDELION
  • 63. WHITE CLOVER
  • 64. White clover • • • • Perennial weed Nitrogen deficient soil White flower Circular leaves
  • 65. White clover • Post emergence herbicides (curative) • Triclopyr • Fluroxypyr • 2,4-D + triclopyr White clover Chickweed English daisy Wild violet
  • 66. False dandelion • Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy) • Apply and then apply again 2-4 weeks later
  • 67. WHITE CLOVER
  • 68. ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
  • 69. Spreading ryegrass trial • Initiated Summer 2010 • Lewis Brown Turf Farm, Corvallis, OR
  • 70. Spreading ryegrass trial • Seeding date: June 15, 2010 • Seeding rate: 6 lbs/1,000 ft2 • Fertility rate: 4 lbs N/1,000 ft2
  • 71. Spreading ryegrass trial • Mowing height • 0.625” • 1.25” • 2.0”
  • 72. Annual bluegrass encroachment ‘Natural Knit’ ‘SR 4600’ 0.625” ‘RPR’ ‘Fiesta 4’
  • 73. Lorenz Soccer Field, Corvallis, OR ‘SR4600’ maintained at 0.625”. Seeded 2011.
  • 74. Lorenz Soccer Field, Corvallis, OR ‘SR4600’ maintained at 0.625”. Seeded 2011.
  • 75. Some preemergence herbicides effective on annual bluegrass include… Common name active ingredient Pendulum pendimethalin Prograss ethofumesate Balan benefin Bensumec bensulide Dimension dithiopyr Quali-Pro Prodiamine prodiamine
  • 76. Estimated costs of a Pre/Postemergence Chemical Control Program of Annual bluegrass on a 54,000 ft2 field. It is important to note that cost can vary considerably according to product and control is often variable. Product Pendulum Prograss Cost of Apps Total Product $54.00 2 $108.00 $297.00 3 $891.00 Grand Total $999.00
  • 77. OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
  • 78. OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
  • 79. OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
  • 80. Annual bluegrass encroachment Lorenz field Seeded 2011 OSU Softball Seeded 2000
  • 81. Annual bluegrass encroachment Lorenz field Seeded 2011 OSU Softball Seeded 2000
  • 82. Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields Alec Kowalewski Turfgrass Specialist Oregon State University alec.kowalewski@oregonstate.edu