0
Weed Management
Practices for Sports
Fields
Alec Kowalewski
Turfgrass Specialist
Oregon State University
alec.kowalewski@o...
Weed Management Practices
for Sports Fields
• Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
• Primary Cultural Practices
• Mowing
• Fer...
Primary Cultural Practices
1.
2.
3.

Mowing
Fertilizing
Irrigation
Primary Cultural Practices
Primary Cultural Practices
Turfgrass
Primary Cultural Practices
Turfgrass
Primary Cultural Practices
Primary Cultural Practices
Turfgrass
MOWING
Mowing
• The one-third rule

4.5”

Desired Mowing Height

4”
3”

3”

2”
1.5”

1”

Mowing following 1/3 Rule

6”
Mowing
• The one-third rule
Mowing
• The one-third rule
• Prevent scalping

• Scalping…
•
•
•
•

Causes a brown appearance
Stops growth and developmen...
Mowing
• The one-third rule
• Prevent weed seed germination

Sunlight

Sunlight

4”

3”
Mowing
• The one-third rule
• Prevent weed seed germination

Sunlight

Sunlight

4”

2”
Mowing
• Raise your mowing height
• Adhere to the one-third rule
• Improve rooting
Mowing
• Raise your mowing height
• Prevent weed seed germination

Sunlight

Sunlight

4”

2”
Mowing
• Raise your mowing height
• Raising the height from 1.5” to 3.0”
• Improved turfgrass quality
• Reduced weed popul...
Mowing
• Increase your mowing frequency
• Adhere to the one-third rule
• Increase turfgrass density
• Weed control
•
•
•
•...
Mowing
• Increase your mowing frequency
• Adhere to the one-third rule
• Increase turfgrass density
• Weed control
•
•
•
•...
Mowing
• Increase your mowing frequency
• Adhere to the one-third rule
• Increase turfgrass density
• Weed control
•
•
•
•...
Mowing
• Increase your mowing frequency
• Adhere to the one-third rule
• Increase turfgrass density
• Weed control
•
•
•
•...
Mowing
• Weeds that indicate your mowing height is to low…
• Annual bluegrass
• Crabgrass
• Dandelion

Annual bluegrass

C...
MOWING
FERTILIZATION
Fertilization
• Select a fertilizer designed for turfgrass
• Primary nutrient (N-P-K)
• High N
• Low P
• 10:1
Fertilization
• The holiday plan
• 3-5 lbs N 1000 ft2 year

• Memorial day
• 1.0-1.5 lbs N 1000 ft2

• 4th of July
• 0.5-1...
Fertilization
• The holiday plan
• Cool-season turfgrass species
•
•
•
•

Kentucky bluegrass
Perennial ryegrass
Fine fescu...
Fertilization
Fertilization
• Low fertility weeds include…
• White clover
• Plantain
• Black medic
White clover

Black medic

Plantain
FERTILIZATION
IRRIGATION
Irrigation
• Adjust your rates with the seasons
• Spring
• 0.0-0.75 inch week

• Summer
• 0.75-1.5 inch week

• Fall
• 0.0...
Irrigation
• Check your rates
• 20 minutes
• 0.1 inch
• 0.25 inch
• 0.5 inch
Irrigation
• Twice as much is not twice as good
• Moss
Irrigation
• Twice as much is not twice as good
• Increased disease incidence

Dollar spot

Pythium blight

Brown patch
Irrigation
• Twice as much is not twice as good
• Leaching pesticides and fertilizers
• Waste of water and money
Irrigation
• Weeds associated with drought conditions…
• Summer annuals

Crabgrass

• Knotweed
• Wood sorrel
• Crabgrass

...
Irrigation
• Weeds associated with over irrigation…
• Annual bluegrass
• Rough bluegrass
Rough bluegrass

Annual bluegrass
IRRIGATION
CULTIVATION &
INTER-SEEDING
Cultivation
• What is your objective when cultivating the turfgrass?
Cultivation
• Objectives
• Relive compaction
• Improves gas exchange and drainage

• Remove organic matter
• Decreases pot...
Cultivation
Cultivation
Cultivation
• Annual weeds
•
•
•
•

Annual bluegrass (winter annual)
Crabgrass (summer annual)
Purse lane (summer annual)
...
Cultivation
• Annual weeds
•
•
•
•

Annual bluegrass (winter annual)
Crabgrass (summer annual)
Purse lane (summer annual)
...
Cultivation
• Annual weeds
•
•
•
•

Annual bluegrass (winter annual)
Crabgrass (summer annual)
Purse lane (summer annual)
...
Cultivation

Non-selective pre-emergent herbicide.
Applied in the spring.
No inter-seeding.

• Annual weeds
• Pre-emergent...
Cultivation

Non-selective pre-emergent herbicide.
Applied in the spring.
No inter-seeding.

• Annual weeds
• Pre-emergent...
Inter-seeding
• Perennial ryegrass
• Growth habit
• Bunch type

• Germination
• 7 to 10 days

• Inter-seeding rate
• 8 to ...
CULTIVATION &
INTER-SEEDING
WEED MANAGEMENT
Weed Management
• Common turf weeds…
• 1. false dandelion
• 2. white clover
• 5. annual bluegrass

False dandelion

White ...
FALSE DANDELION
False dandelion
• Scouting and ID
• Perennial weed
• Spring seeding
• Drought tolerant
False dandelion
• Post emergence herbicides (curative)
• 3-way broadleaf herbicide
• 2,4-D
• MCPP
• Dicamba

Common dandel...
False dandelion
• Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy)
False dandelion
• Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy)
False dandelion
• Follow up applications…
• Apply and then apply again 2-4 weeks later
Effects of Defendor and Dimension on catsear dandelion
in perennial ryegrass, observed 8 weeks after Spring
treatment in C...
Effects of Defendor and Dimension on catsear dandelion
in perennial ryegrass, observed 8 weeks after Spring
treatment in C...
FALSE DANDELION
WHITE CLOVER
White clover
•
•
•
•

Perennial weed
Nitrogen deficient soil
White flower
Circular leaves
White clover
• Post emergence herbicides (curative)
• Triclopyr
• Fluroxypyr
• 2,4-D + triclopyr

White clover

Chickweed
...
False dandelion
• Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy)
• Apply and then apply again 2-4 weeks later
WHITE CLOVER
ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
Spreading ryegrass trial
• Initiated Summer 2010
• Lewis Brown Turf Farm, Corvallis, OR
Spreading ryegrass trial
• Seeding date: June 15, 2010
• Seeding rate: 6 lbs/1,000 ft2
• Fertility rate: 4 lbs N/1,000 ft2
Spreading ryegrass trial
• Mowing height
• 0.625”
• 1.25”
• 2.0”
Annual bluegrass encroachment
‘Natural Knit’

‘SR 4600’

0.625”

‘RPR’

‘Fiesta 4’
Lorenz Soccer Field, Corvallis, OR

‘SR4600’ maintained at 0.625”.
Seeded 2011.
Lorenz Soccer Field, Corvallis, OR

‘SR4600’ maintained at 0.625”.
Seeded 2011.
Some preemergence herbicides
effective on annual bluegrass
include…
Common name active ingredient
Pendulum pendimethalin
P...
Estimated costs of a Pre/Postemergence Chemical Control
Program of Annual bluegrass on a 54,000 ft2 field. It is
important...
OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR

Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and
annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR

Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and
annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR

Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and
annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
Annual bluegrass encroachment

Lorenz field
Seeded 2011

OSU Softball
Seeded 2000
Annual bluegrass encroachment

Lorenz field
Seeded 2011

OSU Softball
Seeded 2000
Weed Management
Practices for Sports
Fields
Alec Kowalewski
Turfgrass Specialist
Oregon State University
alec.kowalewski@o...
Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields
Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields
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Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields

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A presentation by Alec Kowalewski, Assistant Professor at Oregon State University.

Outline:
- Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
- Primary Cultural Practices
- Mowing
- Fertilization
- Irrigation
- Cultivation and inter-seeding
- Management of…
- False dandelion
- White clover
- Annual bluegrass

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  • You should think of a turfgrass system as a stool
  • This is why a golf course putting green is mowed as often as every day.
  • …which will produce a number of detrimental effects, probably most noticeable a brown appearance
  • …which will improve things like increased drought tolerance.
  • …on un-irrigated cool-season turfgrass mixture(Kowalewski et al., 2007; Calhoun et al., 2005)
  • Abu-Dieyeh and Watson, 2005
  • Lambsquarter population decrease and the turfgrass density increase over time
  • Look for a fertilizer with…
  • Michigan State University (Calhoun et al., 2005); University of Georgia (Johnson and Bowyer, 1981)
  • Other problems associated with over irrigation include…
  • Which can accelerate eutrophication, as mentioned earlier
  • Defendor™ specialty herbicide (common name florasulam) is a postemergence broadleaf herbicide effective in cool temperatures against key annual and perennial weeds in turf, such as white clover, dandelion, chickweed, shepherd’s-purse and common groundsel
  • Transcript of "Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields"

    1. 1. Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields Alec Kowalewski Turfgrass Specialist Oregon State University alec.kowalewski@oregonstate.edu
    2. 2. Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Primary Cultural Practices • Mowing • Fertilization • Irrigation • Cultivation and inter-seeding • Management of… • False dandelion • White clover • Annual bluegrass
    3. 3. Primary Cultural Practices 1. 2. 3. Mowing Fertilizing Irrigation
    4. 4. Primary Cultural Practices
    5. 5. Primary Cultural Practices Turfgrass
    6. 6. Primary Cultural Practices Turfgrass
    7. 7. Primary Cultural Practices
    8. 8. Primary Cultural Practices Turfgrass
    9. 9. MOWING
    10. 10. Mowing • The one-third rule 4.5” Desired Mowing Height 4” 3” 3” 2” 1.5” 1” Mowing following 1/3 Rule 6”
    11. 11. Mowing • The one-third rule
    12. 12. Mowing • The one-third rule • Prevent scalping • Scalping… • • • • Causes a brown appearance Stops growth and development Depletes carbohydrates Makes turf susceptible to environmental stress
    13. 13. Mowing • The one-third rule • Prevent weed seed germination Sunlight Sunlight 4” 3”
    14. 14. Mowing • The one-third rule • Prevent weed seed germination Sunlight Sunlight 4” 2”
    15. 15. Mowing • Raise your mowing height • Adhere to the one-third rule • Improve rooting
    16. 16. Mowing • Raise your mowing height • Prevent weed seed germination Sunlight Sunlight 4” 2”
    17. 17. Mowing • Raise your mowing height • Raising the height from 1.5” to 3.0” • Improved turfgrass quality • Reduced weed populations • Crabgrass cover by up to 52% • Dandelion populations by up to 45% • White clover by up to 58% Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass and fine fescue mixture
    18. 18. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard Ragweed Garlic mustard
    19. 19. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard 35 days
    20. 20. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard 42 days
    21. 21. Mowing • Increase your mowing frequency • Adhere to the one-third rule • Increase turfgrass density • Weed control • • • • Lambsquarter Ragweed Purslane Garlic mustard 49 days
    22. 22. Mowing • Weeds that indicate your mowing height is to low… • Annual bluegrass • Crabgrass • Dandelion Annual bluegrass Crabgrass
    23. 23. MOWING
    24. 24. FERTILIZATION
    25. 25. Fertilization • Select a fertilizer designed for turfgrass • Primary nutrient (N-P-K) • High N • Low P • 10:1
    26. 26. Fertilization • The holiday plan • 3-5 lbs N 1000 ft2 year • Memorial day • 1.0-1.5 lbs N 1000 ft2 • 4th of July • 0.5-1.0 lbs N 1000 ft2 • Labor day • 0.5-1.0 lbs N 1000 ft2 • Thanksgiving • 1.0-1.5 lbs 1000 ft2
    27. 27. Fertilization • The holiday plan • Cool-season turfgrass species • • • • Kentucky bluegrass Perennial ryegrass Fine fescue Tall fescue
    28. 28. Fertilization
    29. 29. Fertilization • Low fertility weeds include… • White clover • Plantain • Black medic White clover Black medic Plantain
    30. 30. FERTILIZATION
    31. 31. IRRIGATION
    32. 32. Irrigation • Adjust your rates with the seasons • Spring • 0.0-0.75 inch week • Summer • 0.75-1.5 inch week • Fall • 0.0-0.75 inch week
    33. 33. Irrigation • Check your rates • 20 minutes • 0.1 inch • 0.25 inch • 0.5 inch
    34. 34. Irrigation • Twice as much is not twice as good • Moss
    35. 35. Irrigation • Twice as much is not twice as good • Increased disease incidence Dollar spot Pythium blight Brown patch
    36. 36. Irrigation • Twice as much is not twice as good • Leaching pesticides and fertilizers • Waste of water and money
    37. 37. Irrigation • Weeds associated with drought conditions… • Summer annuals Crabgrass • Knotweed • Wood sorrel • Crabgrass Knotweed woodsorrel
    38. 38. Irrigation • Weeds associated with over irrigation… • Annual bluegrass • Rough bluegrass Rough bluegrass Annual bluegrass
    39. 39. IRRIGATION
    40. 40. CULTIVATION & INTER-SEEDING
    41. 41. Cultivation • What is your objective when cultivating the turfgrass?
    42. 42. Cultivation • Objectives • Relive compaction • Improves gas exchange and drainage • Remove organic matter • Decreases potential for disease • Improves drainage • Prepare for seeding • Ensures seed to soil contact
    43. 43. Cultivation
    44. 44. Cultivation
    45. 45. Cultivation • Annual weeds • • • • Annual bluegrass (winter annual) Crabgrass (summer annual) Purse lane (summer annual) Knotweed
    46. 46. Cultivation • Annual weeds • • • • Annual bluegrass (winter annual) Crabgrass (summer annual) Purse lane (summer annual) Summer annual germination Knotweed
    47. 47. Cultivation • Annual weeds • • • • Annual bluegrass (winter annual) Crabgrass (summer annual) Purse lane (summer annual) Knotweed
    48. 48. Cultivation Non-selective pre-emergent herbicide. Applied in the spring. No inter-seeding. • Annual weeds • Pre-emergent herbicides • Non-selective • Pendulum (a.i. pendimethalin) • $54/54,000 sq ft • Selective • Tupersan (a.i. siduron) • Tenacity (a.i. mesotrione) Knotweed – Summer annual • $98/54,000 sq ft • Inter-seeding • $1,440/54,000 sq ft • 600 lbs Fall – After 1st frost
    49. 49. Cultivation Non-selective pre-emergent herbicide. Applied in the spring. No inter-seeding. • Annual weeds • Pre-emergent herbicides • Non-selective • Pendulum (a.i. pendimethalin) • $54/54,000 sq ft • Selective • Tupersan (a.i. siduron) • Tenacity (a.i. mesotrione) Knotweed – Summer annual • $98/54,000 sq ft • Inter-seeding • $1,440/54,000 sq ft • 600 lbs Fall – After 1st frost
    50. 50. Inter-seeding • Perennial ryegrass • Growth habit • Bunch type • Germination • 7 to 10 days • Inter-seeding rate • 8 to 11 lbs/1,000 sq ft
    51. 51. CULTIVATION & INTER-SEEDING
    52. 52. WEED MANAGEMENT
    53. 53. Weed Management • Common turf weeds… • 1. false dandelion • 2. white clover • 5. annual bluegrass False dandelion White clover Annual bluegrass
    54. 54. FALSE DANDELION
    55. 55. False dandelion • Scouting and ID • Perennial weed • Spring seeding • Drought tolerant
    56. 56. False dandelion • Post emergence herbicides (curative) • 3-way broadleaf herbicide • 2,4-D • MCPP • Dicamba Common dandelion False dandelion Broadleaf plantain Sow thistle
    57. 57. False dandelion • Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy)
    58. 58. False dandelion • Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy)
    59. 59. False dandelion • Follow up applications… • Apply and then apply again 2-4 weeks later
    60. 60. Effects of Defendor and Dimension on catsear dandelion in perennial ryegrass, observed 8 weeks after Spring treatment in Corvallis. OR on July 2, 2013. Trt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 % Weed Control Treatments* 8 WAT Dimension 2 EW 0.0 Dimension 2 EW + 4Wks 0.0 Defendor 93.9 Defendor + 4 wks 100.0 Dimension 2 EW + Defendor 93.3 Rotation (See Below)** 100.0 Trimec Classic + Dimension 2 EW + 4 Wks 100.0 Trimec Classic 92.5 Untreated 0.0 LSD 4.6 • **Trt 6. Rotation: • 1st app Dimension 2 EW + Defendor (1.0 + 0.25 pt/A) • 2nd app Dimension 2 EW + Trimec Classic (1.0 + 4.0 pt/A)
    61. 61. Effects of Defendor and Dimension on catsear dandelion in perennial ryegrass, observed 8 weeks after Spring treatment in Corvallis. OR on July 2, 2013. Trt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 % Weed Control Treatments* 8 WAT Dimension 2 EW 0.0 Dimension 2 EW + 4Wks 0.0 Defendor 93.9 Defendor + 4 wks 100.0 Dimension 2 EW + Defendor 93.3 Rotation (See Below)** 100.0 Trimec Classic + Dimension 2 EW + 4 Wks 100.0 Trimec Classic 92.5 Untreated 0.0 LSD 4.6 • **Trt 6. Rotation: • 1st app Dimension 2 EW + Defendor (1.0 + 0.25 pt/A) • 2nd app Dimension 2 EW + Trimec Classic (1.0 + 4.0 pt/A)
    62. 62. FALSE DANDELION
    63. 63. WHITE CLOVER
    64. 64. White clover • • • • Perennial weed Nitrogen deficient soil White flower Circular leaves
    65. 65. White clover • Post emergence herbicides (curative) • Triclopyr • Fluroxypyr • 2,4-D + triclopyr White clover Chickweed English daisy Wild violet
    66. 66. False dandelion • Apply in the fall (October 4 = 10/4 Good Buddy) • Apply and then apply again 2-4 weeks later
    67. 67. WHITE CLOVER
    68. 68. ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
    69. 69. Spreading ryegrass trial • Initiated Summer 2010 • Lewis Brown Turf Farm, Corvallis, OR
    70. 70. Spreading ryegrass trial • Seeding date: June 15, 2010 • Seeding rate: 6 lbs/1,000 ft2 • Fertility rate: 4 lbs N/1,000 ft2
    71. 71. Spreading ryegrass trial • Mowing height • 0.625” • 1.25” • 2.0”
    72. 72. Annual bluegrass encroachment ‘Natural Knit’ ‘SR 4600’ 0.625” ‘RPR’ ‘Fiesta 4’
    73. 73. Lorenz Soccer Field, Corvallis, OR ‘SR4600’ maintained at 0.625”. Seeded 2011.
    74. 74. Lorenz Soccer Field, Corvallis, OR ‘SR4600’ maintained at 0.625”. Seeded 2011.
    75. 75. Some preemergence herbicides effective on annual bluegrass include… Common name active ingredient Pendulum pendimethalin Prograss ethofumesate Balan benefin Bensumec bensulide Dimension dithiopyr Quali-Pro Prodiamine prodiamine
    76. 76. Estimated costs of a Pre/Postemergence Chemical Control Program of Annual bluegrass on a 54,000 ft2 field. It is important to note that cost can vary considerably according to product and control is often variable. Product Pendulum Prograss Cost of Apps Total Product $54.00 2 $108.00 $297.00 3 $891.00 Grand Total $999.00
    77. 77. OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
    78. 78. OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
    79. 79. OSU Softball Complex, Corvallis, OR Mixed stand of perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass, 10 years plus
    80. 80. Annual bluegrass encroachment Lorenz field Seeded 2011 OSU Softball Seeded 2000
    81. 81. Annual bluegrass encroachment Lorenz field Seeded 2011 OSU Softball Seeded 2000
    82. 82. Weed Management Practices for Sports Fields Alec Kowalewski Turfgrass Specialist Oregon State University alec.kowalewski@oregonstate.edu
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