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Vegetative Identification
of Common Turfgrasses in the
      Pacific Northwest



          Tom Cook
    Oregon State Univ...
General tips:

Identifying lawn grasses requires a basic knowledge of plant structure and
the ability to distinguish betwe...
Key Identification Structures

Vernation: As new leaves emerge from the surrounding leaf sheaths,
they tend to be either r...
Vernation

Rolled in shoot                                                    Folded in shoot

                  All bentg...
Key Identification Structures

Leaf tips: Leaves tend to be either pointed or boat shaped at the tip.
While this can be a ...
Leaf Tips

Pointed                    Intermediate                            Boat

           All bentgrasses            ...
Key Identification Structures

Leaf Surface Morphology: The upper leaf surface of cool season
grasses is generally, either...
Key Identification Structures

Leaf Surface Morphology: The lower leaf surface of cool season
grasses is generally smooth ...
Leaf morphology


Ridged on top               Smooth on top                           Pubescent

            All bentgrass...
Key Identification Structures

Ligule:   At the junction of the leaf blade and sheath is a structure called a ligule.
Ligu...
Key Identification Structures


Auricles: Appendages located at the collar near the ligule.
They can be absent, rudimentar...
Auricles

        Present                                                                     Absent

                    ...
Common Cool Season Turfgrasses:
 This list includes cool season grasses that might be found in lawns in the PNW.

Bluegras...
Kentucky bluegrass                           Poa pratensis

West of the Cascade Mountains:
Kentucky bluegrass is rarely pl...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933




  Leaf characteristics

                              Vernation: Fold...
Kentucky bluegrass
  Kentucky bluegrass               Small ligule
Smooth upper leaf
Smooth top




               Folded ...
Thatch




             Rhizomes



         Kentucky bluegrass is an upright grower
         and a vigorous rhizome produ...
Roughstalk bluegrass                            Poa trivialis

West of the Cascade Mountains:
Roughstalk bluegrass is a sp...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933



   leaf characteristics


                          Vernation: Folded
...
Poa trivialis stolon leaf sheaths often (but not always) develop an intense red color. This is
different than the red colo...
Poa trivialis appearance in summer under heat and drought stress.




     Poa trivialis                                  ...
Poa trivialis appearance during the winter period in western Oregon.




 Poa trivialis grows vigorously starting in late ...
Roughstalk bluegrass in Spokane Washington growing as a contaminant
In a Kentucky bluegrass lawn. It tends to look wavy wh...
Annual bluegrass                                Poa annua
West of the Cascade Mountains:
Annual bluegrass is ubiquitous th...
Vernation: Folded
  leaf characteristics




                                                      Top: smooth




    Bot...
Annual bluegrass

                           Boat shaped leaf tip




 Large membranous ligule




T Cook photos
Annual bluegrass is one of the few grasses that can flower and set seed
under regular mowing. Annual seed set enables it t...
Annual bluegrass encroaching into a perennial ryegrass sports field in Seattle, WA.
Annual bluegrass often totally dominat...
Comparing bluegrass ligules




Ky. bluegrass has a short truncate ligule,                 Annual bluegrass has a white me...
Bentgrasses                           Agrostis sp.

West of the Cascade Mountains:
While they are rarely planted on purpos...
Bentgrass invasion of lawns

  early stage




                Bentgrass Agrostis sp.

climax stage




                  ...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933

leaf characteristics
                                         Vernation:...
Creeping bentgrass


Long feathered ligule




                        T Cook photo
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933




   leaf characteristics

                              Vernation: rol...
Colonial bentgrass


Short truncate ligule




                                      T Cook photo
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933




    leaf characteristics

                                           ...
Velvet bentgrass



 Long ligule
often pointed




                   T Cook photo
Comparing bentgrass ligules




Normally, creeping bentgrass has a long ligule           Colonial bentgrass, Agrostis capi...
Perennial ryegrass                       Lolium perenne


West of the Cascade Mountains:
Perennial ryegrass is the most wi...
leaf characteristics                                      Vernation: folded




   Top: distinctly ridged




Bottom:
 smo...
Ridges on top of leaf   Bottom of leaf is smooth and shiny




   Auricles                                             Lig...
Color range of                Color comparison of ryegrass
      perennial ryegrass cultivars.       planted into an old c...
Annual ryegrass                              Lolium multiflorum


West of the Cascade Mountains:
Annual ryegrass is a comm...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933


 leaf characteristics
                                         Vernatio...
Annual Ryegrass




                    This is one grass that
                    will always have distinct
             ...
The coarse type grasses are all
annual ryegrass. This photo was
taken about four weeks after
planting in late fall.




  ...
Notice the rank coarse textured appearance of the annual ryegrass in this
young planting. This is one reason to avoid chea...
Tall fescue                    Lolium arundinaceum

West of the Cascade Mountains:
Tall fescue has been planted extensivel...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933

leaf characteristics




                                               ...
Vernation is rolled
         Tall fescue

 Leaves have ridges on top




                                    Small ligule
...
Tall fescue remains one of the coarsest grasses we grow. While some of
the newer varieties are finer textured than the old...
Tall fescue mowed at 2”   Kentucky bluegrass mowed at 2”




                                               T Cook photos
Winter diseases including Fusarium patch (Microdochium nivale) and
Net Blotch (Drechslera dictyoides) can severely thin ou...
The K-31 types are the most persistent and least
attractive of the tall fescues. The dark green clumps
are most likely rec...
Tall fescue is commonly found as green clumps in severely drought stressed lawns.
Deep roots enable it to stay green longe...
Fine fescues                         Festuca sp.

West of the Cascade Mountains:
Fine leaved fescues have long been plante...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933


 Top: distinctly ridged
                              leaf characterist...
Strong creeping red fescue has rhizomes




Red fescue is normally very fine textured when mowed at 2.5”
or lower. When mo...
Thatch development in a
   2 yr. old lawn in Corvallis, OR.




Fine fescue lawn in Klamath Falls, OR.
                   ...
Unplanted perennial and annual grasses found in PNW lawns:
Perennial grasses:
Roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis)*
Annual...
Velvetgrass Holcus lanatus



West of the Cascade Mountains:
Velvetgrass can be found in nearly all lawns throughout this ...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933


Leaf characteristics
                        Vernation rolled




     ...
Older leaf sheathes have
parallel red veins near
the base of the sheath




 Velvetgrass Holcus lanatus
                  ...
Velvetgrass patch in an old Seattle WA. lawn. Color is always gray green
and texture is always coarser than most other gra...
Orchardgrass                        Dactylis glomerata


West of the Cascade Mountains:
This is a common contaminant in la...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933



   leaf characteristics

                                   Vernation:...
Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon

West of the Cascades:
Bermudagrass occurs throughout much of this area. It can be found in...
Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon

   Ligule:
   a fringe of hairs




Tufts of long hairs
at the collar          Vernation: f...
Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon




                 Bermudagrass is folded in the shoot and has
                 long hair...
Bermudagrass encroaching into a mixed stand of cool season grasses in Medford, OR. Wild
types are generally blue-green in ...
Rat-tail fescue                           Vulpia myuros

West of the Cascade Mountains:
This unusual grass looks identical...
Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933



leaf characteristics




                                         Vern...
Rat-tail fescue in winter.
The bright green grass all
germinated in fall with the
onset of the fall rains. By
the end of w...
Rat-tail fescue Vulpia myuros




Rat-tail fescue flowers in late spring and dies leaving a
dead lawn until new plants ger...
Crabgrass
     Large                                Digitaria sanguinalis
     Smooth                               Digita...
Large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis)




                        This crabgrass started to grow vigorously towards the ...
Large Crabgrass




                  Note the
                  membranous
                  ligule
Large Crabgrass




Leaves & sheaths are
covered with hairs
Large Crabgrass




Flowers are racemes with
3 to several branches.
Flowers start to show by     Florets are arranged
Augu...
Smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)




Okanogan, WA
                                          T Cook photo
Smooth Crabgrass




Smooth crabgrass is hairless
except for a few hairs on the collar




                              T...
Side by side it is easy to tell smooth crabgrass from large crabgrass




                                                ...
Smooth Crabgrass in August




Corvallis, OR

                             T Cook photo
Smooth crabgrass has completely dominated the turf from the screen to the
cart path at this golf course. This may have bee...
References:

Burr, S. and D.M. Turner. 1933. British economic grasses; their identification by
the leaf anatomy. E. Arnold...
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Vegetative Identification of Common Turfgrasses in the Pacific Northwest

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Transcript of "Vegetative Identification of Common Turfgrasses in the Pacific Northwest"

  1. 1. Vegetative Identification of Common Turfgrasses in the Pacific Northwest Tom Cook Oregon State University 2008
  2. 2. General tips: Identifying lawn grasses requires a basic knowledge of plant structure and the ability to distinguish between those structures to categorize specific grasses. To get really good at identifying turfgrasses you have to learn the characteristics of the common grasses. Identification also involves developing a general awareness of what grasses you expect to find in a given scenario. For example, if I know the geographical location, age of a lawn, and sun or shade orientation, I can usually come up with a short list of possible grasses before I ever see the lawn. Example 1) In Portland or Seattle old shady lawns typically have a mix of grasses including bentgrass, roughstalk bluegrass, annual bluegrass, and occasionally some fine fescue. Example 2) In Bend, Oregon a new sod lawn will generally be either straight Kentucky bluegrass or a mix of Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, and fine fescue. Knowing what to expect helps narrow down the possibilities.
  3. 3. Key Identification Structures Vernation: As new leaves emerge from the surrounding leaf sheaths, they tend to be either rolled or folded. T Cook photos
  4. 4. Vernation Rolled in shoot Folded in shoot All bentgrasses All bluegrasses Agrostis sp. Poa sp. Annual ryegrass Perennial ryegrass Lolium multiflorum Lolium perenne Tall fescue Fine fescues Lolium arundinaceum Festuca sp.& Vulpia myuros Velvetgrass Orchardgrass Holcus lanatus Dactylis glomerata Quackgrass Bermudagrass Elytrigia repens Cynodon dactylon Crabgrass Digitaria sp.
  5. 5. Key Identification Structures Leaf tips: Leaves tend to be either pointed or boat shaped at the tip. While this can be a useful ID characteristic, leaves often show intermediate forms which can create confusion. Bluegrasses and Orchardgrass have the most distinctly boat shaped leaf tips among cool season turfgrasses. Boat shaped leaf tip Pointed leaf tip Stephanie Korshun line drawing T Cook photo
  6. 6. Leaf Tips Pointed Intermediate Boat All bentgrasses Perennial ryegrass All bluegrasses Agrostis sp. Lolium perenne Poa sp. Annual ryegrass Orchardgrass Lolium multiflorum Dactylis glomerata Tall fescue Bluegrasses have distinctly boat shaped tips that range from a Lolium arundinaceum canoe shape in Ky. bluegrass and annual bluegrass to a speedboat in the case of roughstalk bluegrass. I always refer mentally to bluegrass when trying to decide what kind of leaf tip an unknown grass has. Fine fescues Festuca sp.& Vulpia myuros Grasses with pointed tips are generally distinct but will sometimes curl a bit where the sides converge to form the point. The key is to not dwell on the minutiae but take a quick read in comparison to Ky. bluegrass or Velvetgrass annual bluegrass. Holcus lanatus Perennial ryegrass is intermediate, in my opinion, in that it ranges from a speedboat shape to a point. If I can’t make sense of the pointed or boat Bermudagrass characteristic, I just move on to other characteristics and ignore the leaf tip characteristics. Cynodon dactylon
  7. 7. Key Identification Structures Leaf Surface Morphology: The upper leaf surface of cool season grasses is generally, either smooth or distinctly ridged. The ryegrasses and bentgrasses all have ridged upper leaf surfaces. Bluegrasses have smooth upper leaf surfaces. Smooth leaf surface Ridged leaf surface T Cook photos
  8. 8. Key Identification Structures Leaf Surface Morphology: The lower leaf surface of cool season grasses is generally smooth and with or without a distinct keel running down the center. In the field the underside of the leaf in some grasses is very shiny (ryegrasses and Poa trivialis). Other grasses are dull (bentgrasses). Many grasses tend to look shiny in the greenhouse. Large distinct keel Smooth leaf surface Small distinct keel T Cook photos
  9. 9. Leaf morphology Ridged on top Smooth on top Pubescent All bentgrasses All bluegrasses Velvetgrass Agrostis sp. Poa sp. Holcus lanatus Perennial ryegrass Orchardgrass Lolium perenne Dactylis glomerata Annual ryegrass Bermudagrass Lolium multiflorum Cynodon dactylon Tall fescue Crabgrass Lolium arundinaceum Digitaria sp Ridges are very distinct on grasses like tall fescue and annual ryegrass. Fine fescues Most of the time, they are very clear on perennial ryegrass as well. Festuca sp. & Vulpia myuros Grasses with smooth tops can sometimes be confusing since you can see distinct lines running up and down the leaf. I wrap a leaf over my finger so I can get a perpendicular look at the surface and that tends to Quackgrass make the ridges or smoothness show very clearly. Elytrigia repens
  10. 10. Key Identification Structures Ligule: At the junction of the leaf blade and sheath is a structure called a ligule. Ligules can be absent, short, or long. Some are truncate and others are pointed. They can also be feathery ,membranous, or translucent. Short truncate Medium membranous Long and feathery T Cook photos
  11. 11. Key Identification Structures Auricles: Appendages located at the collar near the ligule. They can be absent, rudimentary, pointed, or clasping. Clasping auricles T Cook photo
  12. 12. Auricles Present Absent Annual ryegrass All bluegrasses Lolium multiflorum Poa sp. Perennial ryegrass* All bentgrasses Lolium perenne Agrostis sp. Tall fescue* Fine fescues Lolium arundinacea Festuca sp.& Vulpia myuros Quackgrass Orchardgrass Elytrigia repens Dactylis glomerata *Auricles are distinct on unmowed plants. Velvetgrass As mowing heights decrease, auricle development Holcus lanatus is often diminished. There may also may be variability associated with specific cultivars. Some may not show fully developed auricles.
  13. 13. Common Cool Season Turfgrasses: This list includes cool season grasses that might be found in lawns in the PNW. Bluegrasses (Poa) Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) Roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis) Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) Bentgrasses (Agrostis) Colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris) Dryland bentgrass (Agrostis castellana) Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) Velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina)* Ryegrasses (Lolium) Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) Fine fescues (Festuca) Strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra) Slender creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. litoralis) Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata) Sheep fescue (Festuca ovina ssp. hirtula) Hard fescue (Festuca trachyphylla) * Well adapted but not widely planted. It is unlikely to be found in lawns.
  14. 14. Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis West of the Cascade Mountains: Kentucky bluegrass is rarely planted by itself west of the Cascades, but often appears in commercial mixtures. I find it commonly in fall as emerging rhizomes in unirrigated lawns when they recover due to fall rains. Even though I find it in many lawns, it is never a dominant component in mature lawns. Where it makes up a significant portion of a lawn, it often stands out in fall due to rust disease and in late winter due to leafspot disease. East of the Cascade Mountains: Kentucky bluegrass is the dominant grass planted in areas east of the Cascade Mountains throughout the Pacific Northwest. It is the grass you expect to see in lawns throughout this region.
  15. 15. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 Leaf characteristics Vernation: Folded Thin walled bulliform cells Top: smooth show up as two white lines running along the mid rib. Bottom: smooth, usually dull sometimes shiny Keel: Distinct but small Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis L.
  16. 16. Kentucky bluegrass Kentucky bluegrass Small ligule Smooth upper leaf Smooth top Folded vernation Boat shaped tip T Cook photos
  17. 17. Thatch Rhizomes Kentucky bluegrass is an upright grower and a vigorous rhizome producer. Rhizomes make it an aggressive sod former and heavy thatch producer. T Cook photos
  18. 18. Roughstalk bluegrass Poa trivialis West of the Cascade Mountains: Roughstalk bluegrass is a special use grass that is logically only planted in shady lawns. It is often found in wet shady sites. It is a common component of the soil seed bank in areas west of the Cascade Mountains throughout the PNW. It is also a common contaminant in cheap discount store seed mixes and uncertified perennial ryegrass seed. It has become a climax component of most old lawns west of the Cascades. It has a perfect niche as a vigorous winter grower throughout this region and stands out due to vigorous growth and its light green color in the winter months. In summer it is quick to turn reddish brown and will go dormant when subjected to even moderate drought stress. East of the Cascade Mountains: Roughstalk bluegrass is only found as a contaminant in seed or in sod that is shipped from areas west of the Cascades. I find it most often in Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass lawns that are intensively irrigated.
  19. 19. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: Folded Top: smooth Bottom: smooth, always shiny Keel: Distinct but small Rough Stalk bluegrass Poa trivialis L.
  20. 20. Poa trivialis stolon leaf sheaths often (but not always) develop an intense red color. This is different than the red color often found at the base of perennial ryegrass sheaths because it extends right up to the juncture of the blade and the sheath. The red color is not present in all phenotypes of rough bluegrass, but it is very common. T Cook photo
  21. 21. Poa trivialis appearance in summer under heat and drought stress. Poa trivialis Tall fescue Normally, Poa trivialis gets a reddish tinge to leaves and sheaths during summer heat stress. At this time of the year it is generally very fine textured compared to other times of the year T Cook photo
  22. 22. Poa trivialis appearance during the winter period in western Oregon. Poa trivialis grows vigorously starting in late fall as temperatures drop and the rainy season begins in earnest. Its light green color and stoloniferous habit are most obvious at this time. When it grows vigorously, it is less likely to develop the red color in the sheaths. T Cook photo
  23. 23. Roughstalk bluegrass in Spokane Washington growing as a contaminant In a Kentucky bluegrass lawn. It tends to look wavy when mowed above 1”. T Cook photo
  24. 24. Annual bluegrass Poa annua West of the Cascade Mountains: Annual bluegrass is ubiquitous throughout this region. It is the dominant grass on all old golf courses and is common in park turf. It grows in sun or shade. Intensively watered and fertilized home lawns are often dominated by annual bluegrass. Annual bluegrass is often an important component in shady lawns that receive regular irrigation. It can behave as a true winter annual in disturbed areas or as a long lived perennial where it is regularly irrigated. It flowers intensely each spring and sporadically the rest of the year. East of the Cascade Mountains: Annual bluegrass is very common on old golf courses, parks and athletic fields in this region. It can occur in lawns as a contaminant and may colonize damaged areas. It is not as persistent in lawns in this region unless it receives intense maintenance. It stands out in spring due to intense flowering.
  25. 25. Vernation: Folded leaf characteristics Top: smooth Bottom: smooth & dull Keel: Distinct but small Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 Annual bluegrass Poa annua L.
  26. 26. Annual bluegrass Boat shaped leaf tip Large membranous ligule T Cook photos
  27. 27. Annual bluegrass is one of the few grasses that can flower and set seed under regular mowing. Annual seed set enables it to dominate lawns by constantly re-establishing itself. T Cook photo
  28. 28. Annual bluegrass encroaching into a perennial ryegrass sports field in Seattle, WA. Annual bluegrass often totally dominates athletic and golf type turf. Vigorous winter growth makes annual bluegrass very competitive with poor winter growers west of the Cascade Mountains. T Cook photos
  29. 29. Comparing bluegrass ligules Ky. bluegrass has a short truncate ligule, Annual bluegrass has a white membranous ligule kind of like the pencil mustaches the old time that is generally fairly large and is always larger than villains used to have. the ligule on Ky. bluegrass. Roughstalk bluegrass has a variable ligule. It is most often translucent, small and triangular in side view. In spring, when the plants get stemmy in preparation for flowering, the ligule increases dramatically in size. T Cook photos
  30. 30. Bentgrasses Agrostis sp. West of the Cascade Mountains: While they are rarely planted on purpose, bentgrasses are found in most lawns throughout areas west of the Cascade Mountains. The most common bentgrasses in lawns include Dryland bentgrass and wild creeping bentgrass. Colonial bentgrass is also found though not as often. Bentgrasses stand out due to their lighter gray green color, fine texture, and tendency to form dense patches. Old lawns that are maintained with minimal inputs are generally dominated by bentgrass. East of the Cascade Mountains: Bentgrass is less common in areas east of the Cascade’s and when present is generally a contaminant that arrived in dirty seed or in sod grown out of the area. Old lawns (50+ yrs.) may be dominated by bentgrass. For example, there are many bentgrass lawns in the Manito area of Spokane, WA. I have found a few bentgrass lawns in nearly every city I have examined in Oregon and Washington.
  31. 31. Bentgrass invasion of lawns early stage Bentgrass Agrostis sp. climax stage T Cook photos
  32. 32. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: rolled Top: distinct ridges Keel: small, often distinct Bottom: smooth, always dull Creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera L.
  33. 33. Creeping bentgrass Long feathered ligule T Cook photo
  34. 34. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: rolled Top: distinctly ridged Bottom: smooth, always dull Keel: small, often indistinct Colonial bentgrass Agrostis capillaris L.
  35. 35. Colonial bentgrass Short truncate ligule T Cook photo
  36. 36. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: rolled Top: distinctly ridged Bottom: smooth, always dull Keel: small, often distinct Velvet bentgrass Agrostis canina L.
  37. 37. Velvet bentgrass Long ligule often pointed T Cook photo
  38. 38. Comparing bentgrass ligules Normally, creeping bentgrass has a long ligule Colonial bentgrass, Agrostis capillaris, has a small truncate that is feathered at the tip. With all of the breeding ligule and I find that to be pretty constant. The problem lies work that has occurred, there is more variability in with the Dryland bentgrass (Highland), Agrostis castellana, ligule size than was once the case. While most often which looks similar but has variable ligule sizes ranging from ligules are large, at times I find surprisingly small small truncate up to large and feathery. ligules. In that case I try to look at other qualities Many times all you can do in the field is call it bentgrass. I often such as stolon development. grow samples out so I can get a better look. T Cook photos
  39. 39. Perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne West of the Cascade Mountains: Perennial ryegrass is the most widely planted grass throughout this region. Essentially all common seed mixes have a perennial ryegrass base. Most commercial sod is straight ryegrass or ryegrass mixed with other species. Ryegrass is a medium green to dark green grass that grows in an upright fashion. It has a high fertility requirement and loses color fast when nitrogen is low. It tends to be encroached on and dominated by other grasses over time. East of the Cascade Mountains: Perennial ryegrass has become more common in this region in recent years. It may be planted alone but is most often included in mixtures with other species. Some sod growers grow mixtures containing ryegrass. Newer varieties look similar to Kentucky bluegrass in general appearance.
  40. 40. leaf characteristics Vernation: folded Top: distinctly ridged Bottom: smooth, very shiny Keel: large, distinct Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 Perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L.
  41. 41. Ridges on top of leaf Bottom of leaf is smooth and shiny Auricles Ligule is small The ligule in perennial Perennial ryegrass auricles ryegrass is fairly small are quite variable. The lower and non descript. the grass is mowed the smaller and less distinct they get. Sometimes they are not visible at all. The leaf blade characteristics are the best features to aid vegetative identification. T Cook photos
  42. 42. Color range of Color comparison of ryegrass perennial ryegrass cultivars. planted into an old climax lawn in western Oregon. Climax turf P. rye. Perennial ryegrass lawn Perennial ryegrass lawn in Hood River, OR. in Jacksonville, OR. T Cook photos
  43. 43. Annual ryegrass Lolium multiflorum West of the Cascade Mountains: Annual ryegrass is a common component in cheap seed mixes. It germinates quickly and grows much faster than other turfgrasses. In this region it stands out in winter because of its relatively vigorous growth. It is coarse textured, light colored, and short lived. It normally dies out in summer after it finishes trying to flower. You will rarely see annual ryegrass in older lawns. East of the Cascade Mountains: Annual ryegrass is less common in the interior areas of the Northwest due to poor cold tolerance. If planted in fall it will likely die that winter. If planted in spring it will grow vigorously in summer but likely die in winter. You will never find annual ryegrass in mature lawns in this region.
  44. 44. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: rolled Top: distinctly ridged Bottom: smooth very shiny Keel: large, distinct Annual ryegrass Lolium multiflorum Lam.
  45. 45. Annual Ryegrass This is one grass that will always have distinct auricles. Clasping Auricles T Cook photo
  46. 46. The coarse type grasses are all annual ryegrass. This photo was taken about four weeks after planting in late fall. T Cook photo
  47. 47. Notice the rank coarse textured appearance of the annual ryegrass in this young planting. This is one reason to avoid cheap seed mixes! Annual ryegrass Perennial ryegrass T Cook photo
  48. 48. Tall fescue Lolium arundinaceum West of the Cascade Mountains: Tall fescue has been planted extensively on roadsides and pastures, and has naturalized in many Riparian areas. It does not compete well in maintained lawns and usually persists only as scattered clumps from 1-3 ft in diameter. It is deep rooted and often stays green long after other grasses turn brown and go dormant in summer. Newer cultivars are finer textured and more attractive than wild types. Winter diseases can destroy tall fescue plantings in this area. East of the Cascade Mountains: Generally, tall fescue is only found as a contaminant in lawns throughout this region. In this area it looks much like Quackgrass but grows in clumps instead of the diffuse growth common to Quackgrass. Because of its deep rooting and resulting drought resistance, tall fescue has potential as an important turfgrass in this region. Newer cultivars look much like coarse textured Kentucky bluegrasses.
  49. 49. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: rolled Top: distinctly ridged Bottom: Keel: distinct at leaf base, smooth, sometimes irregular often disappears toward leaf tip Tall fescue Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.
  50. 50. Vernation is rolled Tall fescue Leaves have ridges on top Small ligule Note hairs at collar margins Variable sized auricles T Cook photos
  51. 51. Tall fescue remains one of the coarsest grasses we grow. While some of the newer varieties are finer textured than the old common types, tall fescue still stands out in the crowd. Ky. bluegrass Tall fescue Fine fescues T Cook photo
  52. 52. Tall fescue mowed at 2” Kentucky bluegrass mowed at 2” T Cook photos
  53. 53. Winter diseases including Fusarium patch (Microdochium nivale) and Net Blotch (Drechslera dictyoides) can severely thin out tall fescue during the mild wet winters common in areas west of the Cascade Mountains. East of the Cascades Snow mold diseases are a potential threat. Damage from diseases opens up the turf for invading grasses. B. McDonald photo
  54. 54. The K-31 types are the most persistent and least attractive of the tall fescues. The dark green clumps are most likely recovering K-31 plants that have survived over time in this unirrigated lawn. The finer grasses include Dryland bentgrass and Rat-tail fescue. T Cook photo
  55. 55. Tall fescue is commonly found as green clumps in severely drought stressed lawns. Deep roots enable it to stay green longer than other grasses under extended dry weather. Unfortunately, pure plantings of tall fescue tend to be dominated by other grasses during the cool wet months of the year. T Cook photo
  56. 56. Fine fescues Festuca sp. West of the Cascade Mountains: Fine leaved fescues have long been planted as components of lawn mixtures throughout this region. Almost every lawn mix available at retail centers includes fine fescues. These grasses stand out due to their fine texture and persistence on low fertility sites. They will normally dominate stands when mixed with perennial ryegrass. Over time they will generally be replaced by other grasses such as bentgrass and will show up as patches throughout the lawn. Even though they are considered shade tolerant they often thin out badly due to disease in this region. East of the Cascade Mountains: Fine fescues are widely used in seed mixtures and in some sod mixtures in this region. Fine fescues dominate most shady lawns but will also grow aggressively in full sun. They are notably finer in texture than Kentucky bluegrass. Like bluegrass, fine fescues are strong thatch producers.
  57. 57. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 Top: distinctly ridged leaf characteristics Vernation: folded Bottom: Keel: distinct smooth Strong creeping red fescue Festuca rubra ssp. rubra
  58. 58. Strong creeping red fescue has rhizomes Red fescue is normally very fine textured when mowed at 2.5” or lower. When mowed higher or left unmowed, it will be coarser and at times can approach the texture of perennial ryegrass. T Cook photo
  59. 59. Thatch development in a 2 yr. old lawn in Corvallis, OR. Fine fescue lawn in Klamath Falls, OR. T Cook photo
  60. 60. Unplanted perennial and annual grasses found in PNW lawns: Perennial grasses: Roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis)* Annual bluegrass (Poa annua)* Perennial grasses that invade lawns can get there as contaminants in grass seed mixes. They are also Dryland bentgrass (Agrostis castellana)* Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)* commonly part of the soil seed bank (naturally occurring seed that lays dormant in soil). They can Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)* even be transported in by animals like dogs and cats. Since grasses are widespread in the PNW, there are Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata)** many opportunities for them to find their way into lawns. Common velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus)** German velvetgrass (Holcus mollis) Quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)** Annual grasses: Rat-tail fescue (Vulpia myuros)** Most annual grasses are summer annuals that Crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum and D. sanguinalis)** germinate in spring and die in fall after producing Foxtail (Setaria viridis and S. glauca) fresh crop of seed. Rat-tail fescue is a true winter annual that germinates in fall and dies in Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) early summer. * Described above with common cool season turfgrasses ** Described below
  61. 61. Velvetgrass Holcus lanatus West of the Cascade Mountains: Velvetgrass can be found in nearly all lawns throughout this region. Along with bentgrass, roughstalk bluegrass, and annual bluegrass, it is one of the climax grasses found in this region. It generally stands out because of its light gray green color, coarse texture, and soft velvety feel. East of Cascade Mountains: This grass is not common in this region but I have seen it in some lawns in Central Oregon.
  62. 62. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 Leaf characteristics Vernation rolled Leaf surface is soft and hairy Slight keel Velvetgrass Holcus lanatus
  63. 63. Older leaf sheathes have parallel red veins near the base of the sheath Velvetgrass Holcus lanatus T Cook photo
  64. 64. Velvetgrass patch in an old Seattle WA. lawn. Color is always gray green and texture is always coarser than most other grasses. Leaf blades always have a soft velvety feel. T Cook photo
  65. 65. Orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata West of the Cascade Mountains: This is a common contaminant in lawns throughout the region. It rarely shows up as more than an occasional clump in most lawns. Its general appearance is similar to Kentucky bluegrass but it is coarser textured, always grows in distinct clumps, and has a gray green color much like velvetgrass. It has a rapid vertical growth rate which makes it stand out in a lawn setting. Because it is a bunch grass it is easily removed by digging. East of Cascade Mountains: Orchardgrass is adapted to this region but is not nearly as common in lawns as in western parts of the Northwest. It is probably introduced via cheap seed mixes In this region.
  66. 66. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: folded Top: smooth Bottom: smooth, dull Keel: very distinct Orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L.
  67. 67. Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon West of the Cascades: Bermudagrass occurs throughout much of this area. It can be found in the Willamette Valley from Eugene to Portland. It can even be found in Bandon on the Oregon Coast. It is very common from Roseburg, OR to Medford, OR and can be a major component of lawns in those areas. It is probably common throughout much of Western Washington. Even hybrid bermudagrass can survive nicely throughout much of Western Oregon. In this region it turns straw brown during winter and greens up slowly in late spring. East of the Cascades: Bermudagrass is very common throughout the Columbia Basin in both Washington and Oregon. The Tri-cities in Washington and Hermiston to Ontario in Oregon have lots of bermudagrass. The Boise / Twin Falls area has bermudagrass and it is probably common in most of southern Idaho.
  68. 68. Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon Ligule: a fringe of hairs Tufts of long hairs at the collar Vernation: folded Stephanie Korshun line drawing
  69. 69. Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon Bermudagrass is folded in the shoot and has long hairs attached to the collar. It spreads by stolons and rhizomes. T Cook photos
  70. 70. Bermudagrass encroaching into a mixed stand of cool season grasses in Medford, OR. Wild types are generally blue-green in color, very coarse textured, and do not blend well with the planted grasses. During winter they are straw brown due to dormancy. T Cook photo
  71. 71. Rat-tail fescue Vulpia myuros West of the Cascade Mountains: This unusual grass looks identical to other fine fescue grasses, but instead of being a long lived perennial, it is a winter annual. Each fall it germinates with the onset of the fall rains and grows vigorously through the winter. It has a bright apple green color and forms a very attractive dense turf. In June, it flowers and dies leaving unsightly brown areas throughout lawns. It is most common in lawns that are not irrigated during summer. I find it routinely throughout western Oregon and Washington. East of the Cascade Mountains: I have never seen this grass east of the Cascade mountains associated with lawns.
  72. 72. Line drawings from Burr, S. and D.M. Turner 1933 leaf characteristics Vernation: folded Top: distinct ridges Bottom: smooth Keel: small distinct Rat-tail fescue Vulpia myuros L.
  73. 73. Rat-tail fescue in winter. The bright green grass all germinated in fall with the onset of the fall rains. By the end of winter, it will look like a nice fine fescue lawn. T Cook photo
  74. 74. Rat-tail fescue Vulpia myuros Rat-tail fescue flowers in late spring and dies leaving a dead lawn until new plants germinate from seed in late fall. It makes a very attractive winter lawn. T Cook photo
  75. 75. Crabgrass Large Digitaria sanguinalis Smooth Digitaria ischaemum West of the Cascade Mountains: Homeowners generally think that any coarse textured off type grass in their lawns is crabgrass. While crabgrass does occur in the western parts of Washington and Oregon, it only occurs in sporadic hotspots. It is most often observed in flower and shrub beds and less often in lawns. With good turf culture, you could live a lifetime and never have significant crabgrass problems in this region. Since crabgrass is a summer annual, it needs adequate soil temperatures and enough moisture to promote germination in late spring and development in summer. Why it isn’t more common is a bit of a mystery. It may be that with 9 months of good growing weather, our common lawn grasses are simply too competitive and dense to allow germination and development of crabgrass. In unirrigated lawns, the soil is too dry in summer to support healthy development of crabgrass. Both smooth and large crabgrass grow in the Willamette Valley. East of the Cascade Mountains: Crabgrass can be found in most of this area, but generally it is not as bad here as it is in the Midwestern and Northeastern parts of the United States. Crabgrass can be found throughout Central and Eastern Washington and Eastern Oregon, and Idaho. There is surprisingly little crabgrass in the high desert region in Central Oregon. The Okanogan Valley in Washington is a hotspot for crabgrass and the foxtails.
  76. 76. Large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) This crabgrass started to grow vigorously towards the end of July in Corvallis, OR. Note that the turf it is growing in is thin and weak, which is exactly where crabgrass grows best. Crabgrass really grows fast when we get to the hottest weather of summer. Sometimes it seems to show up almost over night. Corvallis, OR T Cook photo
  77. 77. Large Crabgrass Note the membranous ligule
  78. 78. Large Crabgrass Leaves & sheaths are covered with hairs
  79. 79. Large Crabgrass Flowers are racemes with 3 to several branches. Flowers start to show by Florets are arranged August and often turn dark in double rows along reddish brown. one side of each branch
  80. 80. Smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) Okanogan, WA T Cook photo
  81. 81. Smooth Crabgrass Smooth crabgrass is hairless except for a few hairs on the collar T Cook photo
  82. 82. Side by side it is easy to tell smooth crabgrass from large crabgrass Hairy Hairless Smooth Crabgrass T Cook photo Large Crabgrass
  83. 83. Smooth Crabgrass in August Corvallis, OR T Cook photo
  84. 84. Smooth crabgrass has completely dominated the turf from the screen to the cart path at this golf course. This may have been due to importing soil infested with crabgrass seed to create this elevated tee. The tee surface is free of crabgrass possibly because a sand cap was placed on the base soil and the sand source was seed free. Crabgrass Perennial ryegrass & annual bluegrass T Cook photo
  85. 85. References: Burr, S. and D.M. Turner. 1933. British economic grasses; their identification by the leaf anatomy. E. Arnold & Co., London.
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