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Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass
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Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass

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  • 1. Fertility Management for Annual Bluegrass Tom Cook & Brian McDonald OSU Horticulture Dept. Oct 30, 2007
  • 2. Putting greens in Oregon range from 80% to almost 100 % annual bluegrass. Eugene Michelbook Country Club Country Club The reality of golf course maintenance in the PNW is that annual bluegrass will eventually dominate turf on tees, greens, and fairways. The sample on the left is nearly 100% annual T Cook photo bluegrass. The sample on the right is 94% annual bluegrass on a shoot count basis.
  • 3. Perennial type Annual type Virtually all Poa annua biotypes in PNW greens are perennial types. Annual types are rare. T Cook photo
  • 4. Compact spreading perennial type In older greens, it is easy to find 25-30 different phenotypes of annual bluegrass. The best turf quality comes from compact spreading types. On greens they often appear tight, dense, and fine textured. Many of these flower heavily in spring, very little in summer, with a slight burst in fall. Some don’t flower at all. T Cook photo
  • 5. Erect growing perennial type Erect growing perennial types tend to be among the early colonizers and tend to flower during most of the growing season. Most are coarse in texture and are generally easy to spot in between the distinctive compact spreading types. T Cook photo
  • 6. Natural occurrence of Poa annua in soils of different P levels Prevalence 200 150 100 50 0 low med- med med- high Basically, as P levels in soils low high Increased the researchers found more annual bluegrass. Relative soil P level From: Kamp 1981
  • 7. Natural occurrence of Poa annua on soils of varying K content Prevalence 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 low med- med med- high If K was adequate, the annual low high bluegrass levels were fairly constant. K had less impact on annual bluegrass than P. Relative Soil K From: Kamp 1981
  • 8. Natural occurrence of Poa annua at varying soil pH levels Prevalence 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 <5 5-5.5 5.5-6 6-6.9 >7 Annual bluegrass occurred over a wide range of soil pH levels. In the range from 5-7 it was very common. From: Kamp 1981
  • 9. There has been a modest amount of research on annual bluegrass fertility requirements. The following summaries detail what we have learned from these studies. 1937 Annual bluegrass and its requirements for growth. Sprague, H.B. and G.W. Burton. N.J. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull 630, 24 pp. General findings: 1. Acid soils (pH 5 or lower) do not favor annual bluegrass. 2. At optimum pH (6.5), balanced nitrate and ammonium favor annual bluegrass. 3. Liberal phosphate, nitrates, and calcium favor annual bluegrass. 4. In sand cultures, nitrate nitrogen was preferable to ammonium. Balanced nitrate and ammonium produced best shoot to root ratio. ex.) 1.8 vs. 2.4 – 3.0. 5. Sulfate of ammonia reduced root and shoot growth.
  • 10. 1969 Nutritional requirements of Poa annua L. Juska, F.V. & A.A. Hanson. Agron. J. 61: 466-468. Findings: 1. On loamy sand pH 6.5 produced 2X as much top growth as pH 4.5 2. Added P on loamy sand at pH 4.5, increased top growth. 3. Highest top yields from NPK on loamy sand and silt loam occurred at pH 6.5. 4. Roots increased with pH in loamy sand but not in silt loam. 5. Seedhead production on loamy sand increased with pH increase. pH had no effect on flowering on silt loam. General conclusions: Annual bluegrass is competitive on acid silt loam soil. It responds to lime and NPK on poor light textured soils.
  • 11. 1975 The effects of N, P, K, and S on Poa annua L. in bentgrass putting green turf. Goss, R.L., S.E. Brauen, & S.P. Orton. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 51:74-82. General Findings: 1. Unbalanced N-P-K reduced annual bluegrass encroachment. 2. Consistent high rates of Sulfur is detrimental to annual bluegrass. 3.5 lbs S/1000 sq ft per year reduced annual bluegrass. 3. Long term application of S lowered pH from 5.6 to 4.6. 3. Increased P levels increased annual bluegrass. 4. Adequate but not excessive S + P tended to increase annual bluegrass.
  • 12. 1978 The effects of nutrient supply on flowering and seed production in annual bluegrass. Ong. C. K., C. Marshall, & G.R. Sagar. J. Br. Grassland Society. 33:117-121. General Findings: 1. Seed production increased 30X as nutrient supply increased. 2. High nutrient levels increased flowers at the expense of roots.
  • 13. 1981 Influence of N & P fertilization on the growth and development of Poa annua L. Dest, W.M. & D.W. Allison. In Proc. of 4th Int. Turfgrass Res. Conf. pp. 325-335 General Findings: 1. On low P soil, annual bluegrass maintained adequate tissue P without added fertilizer P. 2. Leaf tissue P levels increased only slightly with added P No P = .42 % dry wt. High P = .56 % dry wt.
  • 14. Synthesis of historical research 1937-1981 1. Annual bluegrass tolerates a wide range of soil pH’s. Optimum is probably 5.5 – 6.5. 2. Annual bluegrass tolerates low soil P but responds to high P fertilization. 3. Flowering and seed set increases on fertile soils with adequate N & P. 4. Balanced nitrate & ammonium sources produce healthy annual bluegrass and optimum shoot/root ratios. 5. Excessive S on mineral soils is deleterious to annual bluegrass 6. Annual bluegrass responds vigorously to fertilizer on sandy soils.
  • 15. What’s the catch? >All historical studies were trying to figure out why annual bluegrass invaded other grasses. >The goal was to learn to manipulate fertility to discourage Poa annua . >None were directed at growing healthy annual bluegrass.
  • 16. Best Guess optimum N-P-K-S ratios 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 N P2O5 K2O S Based on historical research trial results
  • 17. OSU Poa annua fertility trial Questions: 1. How does N level affect turf ? 2. How do Ca and S affect turf? 3. Does fertility affect disease incidence? ex.) Microdochium patch Anthracnose
  • 18. Sand based Poa annua green at OSU L.B. Farm, Corvallis, OR. Constructed in spring 2004: 90/10 greens mix donated by Walrath Sand Products, Tacoma,WA. Established from aerifier cores from Corvallis Country Club. Basic maintenance: Mow 5X/week at .110” Toro Flex in summer, .140” in winter Topdress every two weeks Core and heavy topdress 2X per year Groom as needed Irrigate as needed T Cook photo
  • 19. Basic N, P2O5, K2O: Andersons 28-5-18 soluble with .02% B, .07% Cu, .10% Fe,.05% Mn,.05% Mg, .0005% Mo, .05% Zn N sources include KNO3 and Urea Applied 2X per month at .125 lb N or .25 lb N. S: Elemental Sulfur Applied 1X per month as per treatment plan Ca, Silica & Humates: Calcium Carbonate (35% Ca) Huma Ca (Ca from gypsum 18%, SO4 from gypsum 5%, Humates 35%) Huma Phos (P2O5 5% , Ca from gypsum 20%, SO4 from gypsum 5%, SiO2 10%, Humates 14%) Applied 2X per year after coring in spring and fall
  • 20. Low N trial annual nutrient target values in lbs/1000 sq ft trt # N P2O5 K2O S Ca SiO2 Humates 1 3.25 0.58 2.1 0 0 0 0 2 3.25 0.58 2.1 0 8.75 0 0 3 3.25 0.58 2.1 1.25 4.5 0 8.75 4 3.25 1.83 2.1 1.25 5 2.5 3.5 5 3.25 0.58 2.1 1.5 0 0 0 6 3.25 0.58 2.1 2.75 8.75 0 0 7 3.25 0.58 2.1 2.75 4.5 0 8.75 8 3.25 1.83 2.1 2.75 5 2.5 3.5 9 3.25 0.58 2.1 3 0 0 0 10 3.25 0.58 2.1 4.25 8.75 0 0 11 3.25 0.58 2.1 4.25 4.5 0 8.75 12 3.25 1.83 2.1 4.25 5 2.5 3.5
  • 21. High N trial annual nutrient target values in lbs/1000 sq ft trt # N P2O5 K2O S Ca SiO2 Humates 1 6.5 1.16 4.2 0 0 0 0 2 6.5 1.16 4.2 0 8.75 0 0 3 6.5 1.16 4.2 1.25 4.5 0 8.75 4 6.5 2.41 4.2 1.25 5 2.5 3.5 5 6.5 1.16 4.2 1.5 0 0 0 6 6.5 1.16 4.2 2.75 8.75 0 0 7 6.5 1.16 4.2 2.75 4.5 0 8.75 8 6.5 2.41 4.2 2.75 5 2.5 3.5 9 6.5 1.16 4.2 3 0 0 0 10 6.5 1.16 4.2 4.25 8.75 0 0 11 6.5 1.16 4.2 4.25 4.5 0 8.75 12 6.5 2.41 4.2 4.25 5 2.5 3.5
  • 22. Trial Timeline: 2004: Establish green with aerifier cores 2005: Initiate fertilizer treatments Plots treated all year but no data taken. 2006: Fertilizer treatments are modified to improve basic quality of low N plots. Temporarily increased N rates to 4+ lbs N per 1000 sq ft per year. High N plots receive 2X the low N plots. Data collected include soil tests, turf quality, and Microdochium patch activity. Fungicides applied three times through winter to manage disease. 2007: Fertilizer treatments adjusted back closer to design rates. All plots receive Primo applications through summer. Data collected include soil tests, turf quality, and Microdochium patch. Fungicides applied after disease ratings as needed to avoid turf damage.
  • 23. Results: Soil test values from Low Nitrogen Trial 2006 2007 CaCO3 S Ca Trt. lb/1000 lb/1000 ppm pH Ca ppm pH 1 0 0 589 5.3 366 6.2 2 25 0 741 5.8 755 7.1 6 25 2.75 597 5.9 760 6.6 10 25 4.25 739 5.7 630 6.6 12 0 4.25 551 5.5 504 5.9 Calcium alone or with sulfur has raised the pH notably and sulfur alone appears to be lowering pH slightly compared to no sulfur and no calcium.
  • 24. Results: Soil test values from High Nitrogen Trial 2006 2007 CaCO3 S Trt. lb/1000 lb/1000 Ca ppm pH Ca ppm pH 1 0 0 669 5.5 602 5.9 2 25 0 770 5.8 787 6.7 6 25 2.75 636 5.7 786 6.7 10 25 4.25 595 5.8 695 6.5 12 0 4.25 593 5.2 507 6 With calcium alone or calcium plus sulfur, soil pH has gone up. Where no calcium has been applied, the pH has stayed constant so far.
  • 25. Low N Trial: Turf quality ratings Trt Fert. S Ca Jul-06 Aug-06 Sep-06 Dec-06 Feb-07 Apr-07 May-07 Ave. 1 NPK 0.0 0.0 5.2 5.6 5.2 5.1 4.3 6.3 6.2 5.4 2 NPK 0.0 8.8 5.3 6.7 5.9 4.8 3.7 5.8 5.3 5.4 3 NPK 1.3 4.5 4.9 5.4 5.0 5.5 4.1 6.2 6.0 5.3 4 NPK 1.3 5.0 4.7 6.0 6.0 5.2 4.1 6.2 5.9 5.4 5 NPK 1.5 0.0 5.2 6.2 5.2 5.8 4.4 6.3 6.3 5.6 6 NPK 2.8 8.8 4.9 6.5 5.1 5.3 3.3 5.9 4.9 5.1 7 NPK 2.8 4.5 5.2 6.1 5.7 5.7 4.1 6.4 6.3 5.6 8 NPK 2.8 5.0 4.5 5.2 5.1 5.6 4.4 6.4 6.3 5.4 9 NPK 3.0 0.0 5.0 5.6 5.3 5.4 4.3 6.6 6.7 5.6 10 NPK 4.3 8.8 5.1 6.4 5.6 5.4 3.7 6.2 5.9 5.5 11 NPK 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.8 5.1 5.8 4.2 6.3 6.1 5.4 12 NPK 4.3 5.0 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.4 4.4 6.4 6.0 5.3 LSD @ 05 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Target quality ratings = 6+ . Under low N, none of the plots had high over all quality ratings.
  • 26. High N Trial: Turf quality ratings Trt Fert. S Ca Jul-06 Aug-06 Sep-06 Dec-06 Feb-07 Apr-07 May-07 Ave. 1 NPK 0.0 0.0 6.3 6.7 5.8 5.6 5.9 6.7 7.1 6.3 2 NPK 0.0 8.8 6.1 7.7 5.6 5.4 4.6 6.6 6.8 6.1 3 NPK 1.3 4.5 6.4 7.6 5.6 6.4 5.4 6.7 7.2 6.5 4 NPK 1.3 5.0 5.9 7.3 5.6 6.1 5.5 6.8 7.1 6.3 5 NPK 1.5 0.0 5.7 7.3 5.3 5.9 5.8 7.2 7.2 6.3 6 NPK 2.8 8.8 6.1 7.1 5.3 5.9 5.7 6.4 6.8 6.2 7 NPK 2.8 4.5 6.2 7.6 6.2 5.8 5.9 7.4 7.1 6.6 8 NPK 2.8 5.0 5.8 7.2 5.4 6.5 6.0 7.2 7.1 6.5 9 NPK 3.0 0.0 5.6 6.9 5.3 6.0 6.3 7.7 6.8 6.4 10 NPK 4.3 8.8 6.7 7.5 6.0 6.2 5.7 6.8 7.2 6.6 11 NPK 4.3 4.5 6.4 7.1 5.3 6.3 6.1 7.9 7.2 6.6 12 NPK 4.3 5.0 6.0 6.9 5.7 6.3 6.1 7.9 7.2 6.6 LSD @ 05 0.7 ns 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ns Target quality ratings = 6+. Turf quality ratings were notably higher at the high N rate.
  • 27. Low N Trial vs High N Trial: Turf quality ratings Trt Fert. S Ca Low N High N Dif. 1 NPK 0.0 0.0 5.4 6.3 .9 2 NPK 0.0 8.8 5.4 6.1 .7 3 NPK 1.3 4.5 5.3 6.5 1.2 4 NPK 1.3 5.0 5.4 6.3 .9 5 NPK 1.5 0.0 5.6 6.3 .7 6 NPK 2.8 8.8 5.1 6.2 1.1 7 NPK 2.8 4.5 5.6 6.6 1 8 NPK 2.8 5.0 5.4 6.5 1.1 9 NPK 3.0 0.0 5.6 6.4 .8 10 NPK 4.3 8.8 5.5 6.6 1.1 11 NPK 4.3 4.5 5.4 6.6 1.2 12 NPK 4.3 5.0 5.3 6.6 1.3
  • 28. High N plots General turf quality is acceptable for annual bluegrass putting turf. There is a balanced mix of bentgrass and annual bluegrass in most plots. Annual bluegrass is dominant in fall winter and spring and bentgrass comes on in summer. T Cook photo
  • 29. Fertility effects on Microdochium patch T Cook photos
  • 30. Microdochium (Fusarium) patch activity High N Trial Fall 2006, Spring 2007 NPK + S Ca SiO2 Humates # Spots Activity lbs / yr lbs / yr lbs / yr lbs / yr per plot 1–9 9 = worst 10 26 06 4 9 07 N, P, K 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.3 N, P, K + CaCO3 0.0 8.8 0.0 0.0 17.0 5.0 N, P, K + Huma Cal 1.3 4.5 0.0 8.8 9.0 4.0 N, P, K + Huma Phos 1.3 5.0 2.5 3.5 6.3 4.3 N, P, K 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 3.3 N, P, K + CaCO3 2.8 8.8 0.0 0.0 6.7 5.0 N, P, K + Huma Cal 2.8 4.5 0.0 8.8 4.7 4.3 N, P, K + Huma Phos 2.8 5.0 2.5 3.5 2.7 4.7 N, P, K 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.3 N, P, K + CaCO3 4.3 8.8 0.0 0.0 8.7 4.0 N, P, K + Huma Cal 4.3 4.5 0.0 8.8 1.7 1.3 N, P, K + Huma Phos 4.3 5.0 2.5 3.5 3.3 2.0
  • 31. Disease response: Based on visual observations we have observed an increase in Fusarium patch activity when lime is applied to the turf. This trend is dramatic in the high N trial and less apparent in the low N trial. The other trend that has emerged so far is that plots receiving higher levels of sulfur have less Fusarium patch activity than plots receiving lower levels of sulfur.
  • 32. We have utilized image analysis software to help us distinguish differences in disease activity. The red spots indicate turf damaged by Microdochium nivale. Estimating % area affected by disease via image analysis software. Software developed by Doug Karcher & Mike Richardson at U of Arkansas.
  • 33. Software computes area of damaged turf based on color differences between healthy and injured turf.
  • 34. Results: Microdochium (Fusarium) patch activity HIGH N Plots Fall 2006, Fall 2007 NPK + S Ca SiO2 Humates # Spots % plot lbs / yr lbs / yr lbs / yr lbs / yr per plot area 10 26 06 10 23 07 N, P, K 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.9 N, P, K + CaCO3 0.0 8.8 0.0 0.0 17.0 8.5 N, P, K + Huma Cal 1.3 4.5 0.0 8.8 9.0 7.3 N, P, K + Huma Phos 1.3 5.0 2.5 3.5 6.3 3.0 N, P, K 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 4.2 N, P, K + CaCO3 2.8 8.8 0.0 0.0 6.7 3.1 N, P, K + Huma Cal 2.8 4.5 0.0 8.8 4.7 2.2 N, P, K + Huma Phos 2.8 5.0 2.5 3.5 2.7 1.9 N, P, K 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.6 N, P, K + CaCO3 4.3 8.8 0.0 0.0 8.7 8.2 N, P, K + Huma Cal 4.3 4.5 0.0 8.8 1.7 0.4 N, P, K + Huma Phos 4.3 5.0 2.5 3.5 3.3 0.2 LSD .05 = 5.6
  • 35. Microdochium patch activity Fall 2007 Low N Trial Sulfur levels lbs./1000/yr. 0-1.3 1.5-2.75 3-4.25 % plot area affected N,P,K 3.5 2.3 2.4 N,P,K + CaCO3 2.6 3.2 2.3 N,P,K + Huma Cal 3.0 4.7 3.8 N,P,K + Huma Phos 3.3 3.2 1.6 High N Trial Sulfur levels lbs./1000/yr. 0-1.3 1.5-2.75 3-4.25 % plot area affected N,P,K 4.9 4.2 0.6 N,P,K + CaCO3 8.5 3.1 8.2 N,P,K + Huma Cal 7.3 2.2 0.4 N,P,K + Huma Phos 3.0 1.9 0.2 LSD @ 5% = 5.6
  • 36. General Trends Through Fall 2007 *: 1. Two full years of treatments starting to affect soil pH High lime plots are showing a slight pH increase High sulfur plots are showing a slight pH decrease 2. High N plots have higher plot quality 3. Microdochium patch generally worse in High N plots 4. High lime plots tend to have worse disease 5. High N without lime but with high S has less disease 6. No apparent effect from Humates * Variability in ratings makes interpretations difficult
  • 37. Thanks to: Western Canada Turfgrass Association Northwest Turfgrass Association Walrath Sand Products For financial and in kind support for this trial

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