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Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Kalimantan
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Kalimantan

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An elaborated version from Nicholas Wong's slides at http://www.slideshare.net/wong_teck_kiong_nicholas/kalimantan-2010

An elaborated version from Nicholas Wong's slides at http://www.slideshare.net/wong_teck_kiong_nicholas/kalimantan-2010

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  • Maps 78
  • Maps 78
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    1. DeforestationA case study of Kalimantan, Indonesia Chapter 11, pp. 205-210
    2. By the end of the lesson..You should be able to..• List and explain the causes of deforestation in Kalimantan• Describe the problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan
    3. Deforestation• Permanent clearing and destruction of forests for resources such as timber and purposes such as agriculture, settlement and transport.
    4. 5 Causes of deforestation in Kalimantan1. Increase in agricultural land2. Growth of settlements3. Improved transport networks4. Growth of industries – Logging – Mining5. Forest Fires
    5. 1. Increase in agricultural landIn Kalimantan, two groups of peopledemand for more agricultural land. 1) People resettled by the government in Kalimantan (1980s) 2) Plantation companies (esp. Oil palm)
    6. 1. Increase in agricultural landPeople resettled by the Indonesiangovernment to Kalimantan wantedpermanently clear forests to have smallfarms growing crops such as cocoa, riceand coffee. Since surplus crops can be sold for a profit, some of these new settlers extended their farmland by clearing more forests.
    7. 1. Increase in agricultural landGoverment resettled people toKalimantan> Population increase> new settlers want to grow crops onsmall plots of land> increased deforestation
    8. 1. Increase in agricultural landPlantation companies burn extensiveareas of Kalimantans forests to plant oilpalms as it is relatively cheap to grow butyields high profits for the companies andthe country. Between 1998 and 2003, about 10, 000km square of rainforests were cleared and converted into palm plantations.
    9. 2. Growth of SettlementsTowns and cities become urbanised as moreand more people move in from the ruraloutskirts. Rainforests surrounding these citiesare cleared to make way for housing andhuman development.E.g. Balikpapan, one of the largest cities inKalimantan, has cleared a third of itsneighbouring protected forest Sungei WainRainforest in its expansion.
    10. 3. Improved transport networksRailway tracks and roads are built toconnect settlements in Kalimantan.E.g. Trans-Kalimantan Highway (230kmlong) cuts through rainforests to linkBanjarmasin and Balikpapan.Unfortunately, improved accessibilitymeans it is easier for people to destroyforests.
    11. 4. Growth of industries (esp. logging and mining)Rapid pace at wood is processed andexported> Rainforests in Kalimantan have beenheavily logged for the past 30 years.E.g. West Kalimantan: 1656km² of forests losteach year to timber industries
    12. 5. Forest firesForest fires deliberately set by arsonists toclear land for oil palm plantation havedestroyed over 23 750 square ofrainforests in Kalimantan.The debris in the burnt forest (leaves,branches, twigs) means that it can easilycatch fire.
    13. Problems Deforestation CauseA case study of Kalimantan, Indonesia Chapter 11
    14. Whats to come... Mon Thurs Yesterday Today Tues5 Causes:Increase in agricultural TLanduse E 5 4Growth of settlements S Problems SolutionsImproved transport TnetworksGrowth of industries 2Forest fires
    15. By the end of the lesson,You should be able to: 1. List the problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan. 2. Explain the consequence of each of these problems.
    16. 5 Problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan1. Loss of biomass2. Loss of biodiversity3. Changes in the nutrient cycle4. Changes in water: quality + quantity• Air pollution
    17. 1. Loss of biomass(Biomass = total amount of stored energy in all livingorganisms)Biomass represents the total amount of food availableon Earth, and thus Earths ability to support life.Consequence #1: reduced ability to support lifeKalimantan is less able to support life with drastic falls inthe amount of green plants available to animals higherup in the food chains.
    18. 5 Problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan1. Loss of biomass2. Loss of biodiversity3. Changes in the nutrient cycle4. Changes in water: quality + quantity• Air pollution
    19. 2. Loss of biodiversity(Biodiversity = range of living organisms)Kalimantan rainforests is one of the richest rainforestsin the world according to World Wildlife Fund> 10, 000 plant species, 380 bird speciesConsequence #1: endangerment of speciesSome species have become endangered, e.g.:Proboscis monkey, Pygmy Squirrel (worlds smallestsquirrel)
    20. ProboscisMonkey (African) Pgymy Squirrel
    21. 5 Problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan1. Loss of biomass2. Loss of biodiversity3. Changes in the nutrient cycle4. Changes in water: quality + quantity• Air pollution
    22. 3. Changes in the nutrient cycleLoss of leaf litter➝ Reduce amount of nutrients returning to the soil+ Soil is leached due to the absence of roots toconsolidate it➝ rainwater washes nutrients away from the soilConsequence #1: soil infertility the land becomes infertile, and eventually derelict(permanently hostile to vegetative growth)
    23. Leaching of soilLand ends up infertile, Or even derelict
    24. Land ends up infertile, Or even derelict Kalimantans forests are being usedunsustainably (i.e. resources cannot last in the long run)!
    25. 5 Problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan1. Loss of biomass2. Loss of biodiversity3. Changes in the nutrient cycle4. Changes in water: quality + quantity• Air pollution
    26. 4. Changes in water: a) qualityBecause of deforestation, the absence of roots meansthat soil is easily washed off into rivers and reservoirs.Consequence #1: muddy watersThe soil washed away with the surface runoff increasesthe sediment level of rivers, making waters muddy.Consequence #2: increased acidityIncreased amount of soil causes rivers to become moreacidic. This has adversely affected the aquatic life ofKalimantans rivers.
    27. 4. Changes in water: b) quantityTrees are major contributors of water vapor in the watercycle. Forests > transpire water vapour > clouds are formed > precipitationConsequence #1: lower rainfall Deforestation > less trees > less transpiration > Reduced cloud formation > lower rainfallExtensive deforestation in Kalimantan could havetriggered the droughts or prolonged the dry seasonsthat happened in1997 to 1998.
    28. 4. Changes in water: b) quantityConsequence #2: severe floodingMassive and severe flooding can occur because thesoil is not porous enough for rainwater to seep into withthe absence of roots to consolidate it.E.g. Samarinda and Balikpapan were heavily flooded in2001 because Taman Nasional Kutai (nearby forestreserve) was over-logged.
    29. 4. Changes in water: b) quantityConsequence #2: Absence of roots to consolidate the soil > Soil is not porous enough to store rainwater > Massive and severe flooding
    30. 5 Problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan1. Loss of biomass2. Loss of biodiversity3. Changes in the nutrient cycle4. Changes in water: quality + quantity• Air pollution
    31. 4. Air pollutionWhen forests are cleared by burning, the resultant largevolumes of ash, dust and smoke released can suspend inthe air for prolonged periods of time as haze.Consequence #1: health problemsPeople affected by the haze suffered asthma attacks,headaches, and lung infections.Consequence #2: daily life is affectedSchools in Central Kalimantan were closed in September2002 as the Pollution Standard Index grew 15 times morethan the safe level of air pollutants possible.
    32. 4. Air pollutionConsequence #2: daily life is affectedSchools in Central Kalimantan were closed in September2002 as the Pollution Standard Index grew 15 times morethan the safe level of air pollutants possible.Consequence #3: Economy slowed downE.g. Tourism was hit by the haze. Flights had to becanceled in 1997 to 1998 because of poor visibility.
    33. Problems caused by deforestation in Kalimantan1. Loss of biomass2. Loss of biodiversity3. Changes in the nutrient cycle4. Changes in water: quality + quantity• Air pollution
    34. Managing the Rainforests Kalimantan Pg. 95
    35. Strategies1. Afforestation and reforestation2. Controlled logging3. Conservation• Controlling forests fires
    36. Afforestation• Refers to the replanting of trees on agricultural lands that had been abandoned by farmers• Common to plant teak as teak is commercially valuable
    37. AfforestationSuccess• Teak is fast growing and takes only about 5 years to mature, hence able to restore forest areas quickly• Teak logging industry brings about ready source of employment and incomeLimitations• Rates of which forests are replanted are slower than rates which they are cleared
    38. Reforestation• Refers to the planting of trees on areas that were originally covered with forests• Also common to plant teak for its value and early maturity
    39. ReforestationSuccess• Teak is fast growing and takes only about 5 years to mature, hence able to restore forest areas quickly• Teak logging industry brings about ready source of employment and incomeLimitations• Since only teak trees are planted, original biodiversity is lost and cannot support original floral and fauna
    40. Controlled logging• Refers to the careful management of forests that are being logged, thorough law enforcement and education and research• Timber companies caught for illegal logging have to face severe penalties• Timber companies informed of damage caused by deforestation and encouraged to do selective cutting
    41. Controlled logging
    42. Controlled loggingSuccess• Selective cutting enables forest to regenerate and minimizes soil erosionLimitations• Difficult to monitor logging and detect illegal logging activities• A significant variety of plant species could be damaged through selective cutting during removal of selected trees
    43. Conservation• Refers to the creation of nature reserves where activities that damage the forest environment are not allowed
    44. ConservationSuccess• Setting up of Betung Kerihun Reserve, spanning 8000 square kilometresLimitations• Difficult to monitor logging and detect illegal logging activities due to lack of manpower
    45. Controlling Forest Fires• Refers to the prevention of forest fires through law and educationLimitations• Plantation companies continue to burn forests as it is the cheapest• Local people reluctant to stop burning forests due to tradition
    46. LORMS Question• With reference to a named example(s), evaluate the effectiveness of strategies used in managing deforestation.
    47. Sample ParagraphP: Afforestation has been successful as a method that can be used to manage deforestation.D: Afforestation refers to the planting of trees on areas previously not covered with forests and is commonly carried out on agricultural lands that had been abandoned by farmers.E+: This method is effective as…E-: However, it has its limitations as…A: Overall, I feel that afforestation is effective/ineffective because… (Give your point of view)
    48. Nov 2009 Qn 11a)• Compare overall trend using figures• Compare general pattern of each country• Describe intersection and changes after intersection
    49. E. GE Paper 2 Nov. (2009)1 (c) How forests act as the ‘Green Lungs’ of the Earth’.• Generally, forests act as the “Green Lungs” of the Earth by taking in CO2 and giving out oxygen through the process of photosynthesis.• CO2 can be produced by natural processes such as respiration of animals and decomposition of waste products.
    50. • In addition, human processes such as industrial processes can also contribute CO2 to the atmosphere.• The process of photosynthesis then takes place when plants are exposed to sunlight, giving out oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide.
    51. E. GE Paper 2 Nov. (2009)2 (a)• Deforestation will reduce the amount of leaf litter and dead plants as plants are cleared wholesale from the land.• This will result in lesser decomposition as fungi and bacteria loses the inputs to convert plant material to humus, which is the source of nutrients for the plants.• The loss of tree roots will further lead to soil erosion as minerals and nutrients are washed away by weathering.
    52. • As less nutrients are available for the plants, the increased competition will lead to lesser plants in the rainforest.• This will lead to a reduction in the amount of nutrients or biomass stored in plants available in the rainforest.• The reduced biomass will then contribute to even lesser leaf litter hence resulting in a downward spiral of the nutrient cycle.

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