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References on the web

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  • ISBN; ISSN; DOI; URI - unique identifier
    Pros
    No special skills for authors
    Clarity
    Full descriptions can be held in appropriate systems
    No messy stuff in the HTML
    Cons
    Some Identifiers are not perfect
    Not all items have identifiers (although this can be
    Not all identifiers ‘resolvable’
    Error prone


  • OpenURL general framework
    However, only real use is for (mainly) bibliographic material – books, chapters, articles
    Was originally introduced because of ‘appropriate copy’ problem
    OpenURLs made up of ‘resolver address’ and context object. Works well in dynamic page with user context (e.g. bib database) but not so well on open web
    Hence COinS – Context Object in Span
    Pros:
    Well established in libraries, already used by Zotero and others to extract metadata
    Metadata in the page – stands alone
    Links into resolvers
    Doesn’t require identifier, but can exploit them if they are available
    Backwards compatible – wide range of browsers
    Cons:
    Someone has to create the COinS
    Lack of takeup outside library sector
    OpenURL is long and ugly standard – tends to be disliked by implementers!

  • Summary of Microformats – way of embedding structured data into web pages
    Microformats – build on existing standards to enable you to embed ‘semantics’ into XHTML
    Specifically hCard and hCalendar have proved popular
    Example http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/workshops/webmaster-2006/sessions/kelly/
    Pros
    Combine human readable and computer readable versions of data – no duplication
    Metadata in the page – stands alone
    Doesn’t require identifier
    Backwards compatible to any XHTML
    Cons:
    Mixes human readable and computer readable versions of data – leads to confusion, and more complex data structures
    Lack of take-up of microformats excepting hCard and hCalendar
    Possible accessibility issues (re BBC decision to drop hCalendar)
    No ‘use case’ (unlike COinS)
    As far as I know not consumed by existing tools (e.g. Zotero)
  • Pros
    Combine human readable and computer readable versions of data – no duplication
    Metadata in the page – stands alone
    Doesn’t require identifier
    Backwards compatible to any XHTML
    Cons:
    Mixes human readable and computer readable versions of data – leads to confusion, and more complex data structures
    Lack of take-up of microformats excepting hCard and hCalendar - is hCitation going anywhere?
    Possible accessibility issues (re BBC decision to drop hCalendar)
    No ‘use case’ (unlike COinS)
    As far as I know not consumed by existing tools (e.g. Zotero)

  • Javascript
    JSON (Javascript Notation)
    MARC-JSON
    BibJSON http://www.bibkn.org/bibjson/index.html
    CSL example http://serials.infomotions.com/code4lib/archive/2010/201004/1203.html
    CSL
    Citeproc-js

  • Pros:
    (seen as) simple
    in-line styling
    Separates display elements from data
    CSL
    Cons:
    Essentially a variation on use of identifier
    No well-established schema
    Not a single type of data
  • RDF is ‘Resource Description Framework’













  • RDFa – RDF in attributes
    Enables you to embed RDF statements into web pages
    Pros
    Combine human readable and computer readable versions of data – no duplication
    Metadata in the page – stands alone
    Doesn’t require identifier
    Growing number of tools that can extract RDFa – Zotero working on it?
    Part of growing ‘linked data’ movement
    Cons:
    Mixes human readable and computer readable versions of data – leads to confusion, and more complex data structures
    No widespread takeup yet – although some significant uses (e.g. O’Reilly)
    Requires new doc type = XHTML+RDFa
  • RDFa – RDF in attributes
    Enables you to embed RDF statements into web pages

  • Goes beyond just describing the resource
    Describes the way in which it is being used

  • Transcript

    • 1. References on the web Owen Stephens Project Manager: TELSTAR 21st June 2010
    • 2. citations 1
    • 3. references 1. Stephens, Owen (2010), References on the Web, [online], Available from: http:// slideshare.net/ostephens (Accessed 21 June 2010)
    • 4. hyperlinks
    • 5. Scholarly HTML http://ptsefton.com/2009/03/31/scholarly-html.htm “Dead simple reference management via links to trusted sources” www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 6. Scholarly HTML http://ptsefton.com/2009/03/31/scholarly-html.htm “just use a DOI – the publisher can be responsible to fetching the metadata and making a bibliography. ” www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 7. Scholarly HTML http://ptsefton.com/2009/03/31/scholarly-html.htm “let the user choose the referencing style and select it on the fly” www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 8. Scholarly HTML http://ptsefton.com/2009/03/31/scholarly-html.htm “let readers import the references into their own libraries” www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 9. Embedding References • Identifier + fetch mechanism • COinS and OpenURL • Microformats • JSON • RDF/RDFa www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 10. doi:10.1109/ISSTA.2002.1048560 www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 11. www.open.ac.uk/telstar/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/monkeyc/
    • 12. <span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004 &amp; rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3A kev%3Amtx%3Ajournal &amp;rft.issn=0028-0836"></span> www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 13. www.open.ac.uk/telstar/ http://microformats.org/
    • 14. hCitation www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 15. <span class="monograph"> <a name="sr06"> <span class="author firstauthor"> <span class="family-name" style="font- variant: small-caps; ">Miller</span> <span class="given-name">Michael</span> </span> (<span class="year">2006</span>): <span style="font-style: italic; "> <span class="title">Students' Jokes</span> <span class="place">München</span> : <span class="publisher">Weltbild</span> </a></span> www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 16. JSON www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 17. var publist = [ {"refid":"1","articletype":"article", "title":"Storage of electrons and holes in self-assembled InAs quantum dots","year":"1999","author":"M. C. Bodefeld, R. J. Warburton, K. Karrai, J. P. Kotthaus, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro and P. M. Petroff", "journal":"APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS“, "volume":"74","number":"4"}] www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 18. <rdf> www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 19. Jane Eyre has a creator whose name is Charlotte Bronte
    • 20. Jane Eyre Subject has a creator whose name is Charlotte Bronte
    • 21. Jane Eyre Subject has a creator Predicate whose name is Charlotte Bronte
    • 22. Jane Eyre Subject has a creator Predicate whose name is Charlotte Bronte Object
    • 23. Book Person is a Jane Eyre has publisher is a has creator Penguin Charlotte Bronte
    • 24. Book Person is a Jane Eyre has publisher is a has creator Penguin Charlotte Bronte
    • 25. Book Person is a Jane Eyre has publisher is a has creator Penguin Charlotte Bronte
    • 26. Book Person is a Jane Eyre has publisher is a has creator Penguin Charlotte Bronte
    • 27. Book Person is a Jane Eyre has publisher is a has creator Penguin Charlotte Bronte
    • 28. bibliontolgy www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 29. <rdfa> www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 30. <div typeof="foaf:Document"> <dl> <dd class="Pub"> <span class="Title" property="dc:title">Conceptual Framework for Recommendation System Based on Distributed User Ratings</span><br /> <span class="Author" property="dc:creator">H. J. Kim and J. J. Jung and G. S. Jo</ span><br /> <span class="Journal">LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE</span> &#160; <span class="Volume"></span> &#160; <span class="Pages">115--122</span> &#160; (<span class="Date" property="dc:date">2004 </span>)<br /> www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 31. cito www.open.ac.uk/telstar/
    • 32. Look out for … • HTML META tags • Wikipedia templates • Twitter Annotations www.open.ac.uk/telstar/

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