Cassandra Storage Engine in MariaDB
MariaDB Cassandra interoperability
Sergei Petrunia
Colin Charles
Who are we
● Sergei Petrunia
– Principal developer of CassandraSE, optimizer
developer, formerly from MySQL
– psergey@mari...
Agenda
● An introduction to Cassandra
● The Cassandra Storage Engine
(Cassandra SE)
● Data mapping
● Use cases
● Benchmark...
Background: what is Cassandra
• A distributed NoSQL database
– Key-Value store
● Limited range scan suppor
– Optionally fl...
Background: Cassandra's data model
• “Column families” like tables
• Row key → columns
• Somewhat similar to SQL but
some ...
CQL – Cassandra Query Language
Looks like SQL at first glance
6
bash$ cqlsh -3
cqlsh> CREATE KEYSPACE mariadbtest
... WITH...
CQL is not SQL
Similarity with SQL is superficial
7
cqlsh:mariadbtest> select * from cf1 where pk='row1';
pk | data1 | dat...
Cassandra Storage Engine
8
Provides a “view” of Cassandra's data
from MariaDB.
Starts a NoCQL movement
1. Load the Cassandra SE plugin
• Get MariaDB 10.0.1+
• Load the Cassandra plugin
– From SQL:
9
MariaDB [(none)]> install ...
2. Connect to Cassandra
• Create an SQL table which is a view of a column family
10
MariaDB [test]> set global cassandra_d...
Possible gotchas
11
• SELinux blocks the connection
MariaDB [test]> create table t1 ( ... ) engine=cassandra ... ;
ERROR 1...
Accessing Cassandra data
●
Can insert data
12
MariaDB [test]> insert into t2 values ('row2','data-from-mariadb', 123);
Que...
Data mapping between
Cassandra and SQL
Data mapping between Cassandra and SQL
14
create table tbl (
pk varchar(36) primary key,
data1 varchar(60),
data2 bigint
)...
Data mapping between Cassandra and SQL
15
create table tbl (
pk varchar(36) primary key,
data1 varchar(60),
data2 bigint
)...
Data mapping between Cassandra and SQL
16
create table tbl (
pk varchar(36) primary key,
data1 varchar(60),
data2 bigint
)...
Datatype mapping
Cassandra MariaDB
blob BLOB, VARBINARY(n)
ascii BLOB, VARCHAR(n), use charset=latin1
text BLOB, VARCHAR(n...
Dynamic columns
• Cassandra supports “dynamic column families”
• Can access ad-hoc columns with MariaDB's
dynamic columns ...
Data mapping is safe
create table t3 (pk varchar(60) primary key, no_such_field int)
engine=cassandra `keyspace`='mariadbt...
Command mapping
Command Mapping
● Cassandra commands
– PUT (upsert)
– GET
● Scan
– DELETE (if exists)
● SQL commands
– SELECT → GET/Scan
–...
SELECT command mapping
● MariaDB has an SQL interpreter
● Cassandra SE supports lookups and scans
● Can now do
– Arbitrary...
DML command mapping
● No SQL semantics
– INSERT overwrites rows
– UPDATE reads, then writes
● Have you updated what you re...
Cassandra SE use cases
Cassandra use cases
● Collect massive amounts
of data
– Web page hits
– Sensor updates
● Updates are naturally non-conflic...
Cassandra SE use cases (1)
● Send an update to Cassandra
– Be a sensor
● Grab a piece of data from Cassandra
– “This web p...
Cassandra SE use cases (2)
● Want a special table that is
– auto-replicated
– fault-tolerant
– Very fast?
● Get Cassandra,...
Cassandra Storage Engine non-use cases
• Huge, sift-through-all-data joins
– Use Pig
• Bulk data transfer to/from Cassandr...
A “benchmark”
• One table
• EC2 environment
– m1.large nodes
– Ephemeral disks
• Stream of single-line
INSERTs
• Tried Inn...
Conclusions
• Cassandra SE can be used to peek at
data in Cassandra from MariaDB.
• It is not a replacement for Pig/Hive
•...
Going Forward
• Looking for input
• Do you want support for
– Fast counter columns updates?
– Awareness of Cassandra clust...
Resources
• https://kb.askmonty.org/en/cassandrase/
• http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/DataModel
• http://cassandra.apache...
Thanks!
33
Q & A
Extra: Cassandra SE internals
• Developed against Cassandra 1.1
• Uses Thrift API
– cannot stream CQL resultset in 1.1
– C...
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Maria db cassandra interoperability cassandra storage engine in mariadb

  1. 1. Cassandra Storage Engine in MariaDB MariaDB Cassandra interoperability Sergei Petrunia Colin Charles
  2. 2. Who are we ● Sergei Petrunia – Principal developer of CassandraSE, optimizer developer, formerly from MySQL – psergey@mariadb.org ● Colin Charles – Chief Evangelist, MariaDB, formerly from MySQL – colin@mariadb.org
  3. 3. Agenda ● An introduction to Cassandra ● The Cassandra Storage Engine (Cassandra SE) ● Data mapping ● Use cases ● Benchmarks ● Conclusion
  4. 4. Background: what is Cassandra • A distributed NoSQL database – Key-Value store ● Limited range scan suppor – Optionally flexible schema ● Pre-defined “static” columns ● Ad-hoc “dynamic” columns – Automatic sharding / replication – Eventual consistency 4
  5. 5. Background: Cassandra's data model • “Column families” like tables • Row key → columns • Somewhat similar to SQL but some important differences. • Supercolumns are not supported 5
  6. 6. CQL – Cassandra Query Language Looks like SQL at first glance 6 bash$ cqlsh -3 cqlsh> CREATE KEYSPACE mariadbtest ... WITH REPLICATION ={'class':'SimpleStrategy','replication_factor':1}; cqlsh> use mariadbtest; cqlsh:mariadbtest> create columnfamily cf1 ( pk varchar primary key, ... data1 varchar, data2 bigint ... ) with compact storage; cqlsh:mariadbtest> insert into cf1 (pk, data1,data2) ... values ('row1', 'data-in-cassandra', 1234); cqlsh:mariadbtest> select * from cf1; pk | data1 | data2 ------+-------------------+------- row1 | data-in-cassandra | 1234
  7. 7. CQL is not SQL Similarity with SQL is superficial 7 cqlsh:mariadbtest> select * from cf1 where pk='row1'; pk | data1 | data2 ------+-------------------+------- row1 | data-in-cassandra | 1234 cqlsh:mariadbtest> select * from cf1 where data2=1234; Bad Request: No indexed columns present in by-columns clause with Equal operator cqlsh:mariadbtest> select * from cf1 where pk='row1' or pk='row2'; Bad Request: line 1:34 missing EOF at 'or' • No joins or subqueries • No GROUP BY, ORDER BY must be able to use available indexes • WHERE clause must represent an index lookup.
  8. 8. Cassandra Storage Engine 8 Provides a “view” of Cassandra's data from MariaDB. Starts a NoCQL movement
  9. 9. 1. Load the Cassandra SE plugin • Get MariaDB 10.0.1+ • Load the Cassandra plugin – From SQL: 9 MariaDB [(none)]> install plugin cassandra soname 'ha_cassandra.so'; [mysqld] ... plugin-load=ha_cassandra.so – Or, add a line to my.cnf: MariaDB [(none)]> show plugins; +--------------------+--------+-----------------+-----------------+---------+ | Name | Status | Type | Library | License | +--------------------+--------+-----------------+-----------------+---------+ ... | CASSANDRA | ACTIVE | STORAGE ENGINE | ha_cassandra.so | GPL | +--------------------+--------+-----------------+-----------------+---------+ • Check it is loaded
  10. 10. 2. Connect to Cassandra • Create an SQL table which is a view of a column family 10 MariaDB [test]> set global cassandra_default_thrift_host='10.196.2.113'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) MariaDB [test]> create table t2 (pk varchar(36) primary key, -> data1 varchar(60), -> data2 bigint -> ) engine=cassandra -> keyspace='mariadbtest' -> thrift_host='10.196.2.113' -> column_family='cf1'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) – thrift_host can be set per-table – @@cassandra_default_thrift_host allows to ● Re-point the table to different node dynamically ● Not change table DDL when Cassandra IP changes.
  11. 11. Possible gotchas 11 • SELinux blocks the connection MariaDB [test]> create table t1 ( ... ) engine=cassandra ... ; ERROR 1429 (HY000): Unable to connect to foreign data source: connect() failed: Permission denied [1] MariaDB [test]> create table t1 ( ... ) engine=cassandra ... ; ERROR 1429 (HY000): Unable to connect to foreign data source: Column family cf1 not found in keyspace mariadbtest • Cassandra 1.2 and CFs without “COMPACT STORAGE” – Packaging bug – To get running quickly: echo 0 >/selinux/enforce – Caused by a change in Cassandra 1.2 – They broke Pig also – We intend to update CassandraSE for 1.2
  12. 12. Accessing Cassandra data ● Can insert data 12 MariaDB [test]> insert into t2 values ('row2','data-from-mariadb', 123); Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec) cqlsh:mariadbtest> select * from cf1; pk | data1 | data2 ------+-------------------+------- row1 | data-in-cassandra | 1234 row2 | data-from-mariadb | 123 • Cassandra sees inserted data MariaDB [test]> select * from t2; +------+-------------------+-------+ | pk | data1 | data2 | +------+-------------------+-------+ | row1 | data-in-cassandra | 1234 | +------+-------------------+-------+ • Can get Cassandra's data
  13. 13. Data mapping between Cassandra and SQL
  14. 14. Data mapping between Cassandra and SQL 14 create table tbl ( pk varchar(36) primary key, data1 varchar(60), data2 bigint ) engine=cassandra keyspace='ks1' column_family='cf1' • MariaDB table represents Cassandra's Column Family – Can use any table name, column_family=... specifies CF.
  15. 15. Data mapping between Cassandra and SQL 15 create table tbl ( pk varchar(36) primary key, data1 varchar(60), data2 bigint ) engine=cassandra keyspace='ks1' column_family='cf1' • MariaDB table represents Cassandra's Column Family – Can use any table name, column_family=... specifies CF. • Table must have a primary key – Name/type must match Cassandra's rowkey
  16. 16. Data mapping between Cassandra and SQL 16 create table tbl ( pk varchar(36) primary key, data1 varchar(60), data2 bigint ) engine=cassandra keyspace='ks1' column_family='cf1' • MariaDB table represents Cassandra's Column Family – Can use any table name, column_family=... specifies CF. • Table must have a primary key – Name/type must match Cassandra's rowkey • Columns map to Cassandra's static columns – Name must be the same as in Cassandra – Datatypes must match – Can any subset of CF's columns
  17. 17. Datatype mapping Cassandra MariaDB blob BLOB, VARBINARY(n) ascii BLOB, VARCHAR(n), use charset=latin1 text BLOB, VARCHAR(n), use charset=utf8 varint VARBINARY(n) int INT bigint BIGINT, TINY, SHORT uuid CHAR(36) (text in MariaDB) timestamp TIMESTAMP (second precision), TIMESTAMP(6) (microsecond precision), BIGINT boolean BOOL float FLOAT double DOUBLE decimal VARBINARY(n) counter BIGINT • CF column datatype determines MariaDB datatype
  18. 18. Dynamic columns • Cassandra supports “dynamic column families” • Can access ad-hoc columns with MariaDB's dynamic columns feature 18 create table tbl ( rowkey type PRIMARY KEY column1 type, ... dynamic_cols blob DYNAMIC_COLUMN_STORAGE=yes ) engine=cassandra keyspace=... column_family=...; insert into tbl values (1, column_create('col1', 1, 'col2', 'value-2')); select rowkey, column_get(dynamic_cols, 'uuidcol' as char) from tbl;
  19. 19. Data mapping is safe create table t3 (pk varchar(60) primary key, no_such_field int) engine=cassandra `keyspace`='mariadbtest' `column_family`='cf1'; ERROR 1928 (HY000): Internal error: 'Field `no_such_field` could not be mapped to any field in Cassandra' create table t3 (pk varchar(60) primary key, data1 double) engine=cassandra `keyspace`='mariadbtest' `column_family`='cf1'; ERROR 1928 (HY000): Internal error: 'Failed to map column data1 to datatype org.apache.cassandra.db.marshal.UTF8Type' • Cassandra SE will refuse incorrect mappings
  20. 20. Command mapping
  21. 21. Command Mapping ● Cassandra commands – PUT (upsert) – GET ● Scan – DELETE (if exists) ● SQL commands – SELECT → GET/Scan – INSERT → PUT (upsert) – UPDATE/DELETE → read+write.
  22. 22. SELECT command mapping ● MariaDB has an SQL interpreter ● Cassandra SE supports lookups and scans ● Can now do – Arbitrary WHERE clauses – JOINs between Cassandra tables and MariaDB tables ● Batched Key Access is supported
  23. 23. DML command mapping ● No SQL semantics – INSERT overwrites rows – UPDATE reads, then writes ● Have you updated what you read – DELETE reads, then deletes ● Can't be sure if/what you have deleted ● Not as bad as it sounds, it's Cassandra – Cassandra SE doesn't make it SQL.
  24. 24. Cassandra SE use cases
  25. 25. Cassandra use cases ● Collect massive amounts of data – Web page hits – Sensor updates ● Updates are naturally non-conflicting – Keyed by UUIDs, timestamps ● Reads are served with one lookup ● Good for certain kinds of data – Moving from SQL entirely may be difficult
  26. 26. Cassandra SE use cases (1) ● Send an update to Cassandra – Be a sensor ● Grab a piece of data from Cassandra – “This web page was last viewed by …” – “Last known position of this user was ...”. Access Cassandra data from SQL
  27. 27. Cassandra SE use cases (2) ● Want a special table that is – auto-replicated – fault-tolerant – Very fast? ● Get Cassandra, and create a Cassandra SE table. Coming from MySQL/MariaDB side:
  28. 28. Cassandra Storage Engine non-use cases • Huge, sift-through-all-data joins – Use Pig • Bulk data transfer to/from Cassandra cluster – Use Sqoop • A replacement for InnoDB – No full SQL semantics 28
  29. 29. A “benchmark” • One table • EC2 environment – m1.large nodes – Ephemeral disks • Stream of single-line INSERTs • Tried Innodb and Cassandra • Hardly any tuning
  30. 30. Conclusions • Cassandra SE can be used to peek at data in Cassandra from MariaDB. • It is not a replacement for Pig/Hive • It is really easy to setup and use 30
  31. 31. Going Forward • Looking for input • Do you want support for – Fast counter columns updates? – Awareness of Cassandra cluster topology? – Secondary indexes? – …? 31
  32. 32. Resources • https://kb.askmonty.org/en/cassandrase/ • http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/DataModel • http://cassandra.apache.org/ • http://www.datastax.com/docs/1.1/ddl/column_family 32
  33. 33. Thanks! 33 Q & A
  34. 34. Extra: Cassandra SE internals • Developed against Cassandra 1.1 • Uses Thrift API – cannot stream CQL resultset in 1.1 – Cant use secondary indexes • Only supports AllowAllAuthenticator • In Cassandra 1.2 – “CQL Binary Protocol” with streaming – CASSANDRA-5234: Thrift can only read CFs “WITH COMPACT STORAGE” 34
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