Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
介绍 Percona 服务器 XtraDB 和 Xtrabackup
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

介绍 Percona 服务器 XtraDB 和 Xtrabackup

1,437
views

Published on

介绍 Percona 服务器 XtraDB 和 Xtrabackup …

介绍 Percona 服务器 XtraDB 和 Xtrabackup

http://www.ossez.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=26841&fromuid=426
(出处: OSSEZ)

Published in: Technology

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,437
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Percona Server, XtraDB and Xtrabackup Morgan Tocker morgan@percona.com 1
  • 2. Who is Percona? 2 CONSULTING SUPPORT TRAINING MAINTENANCE .. for MySQL.
  • 3. Who is Percona? 2 CONSULTING SUPPORT TRAINING MAINTENANCE .. for MySQL.
  • 4. Who is Percona? 2 CONSULTING SUPPORT TRAINING MAINTENANCE .. for MySQL.
  • 5. Who is Percona? 2 CONSULTING SUPPORT TRAINING MAINTENANCE .. for MySQL.
  • 6. Who is Percona? 2 CONSULTING SUPPORT TRAINING MAINTENANCE .. for MySQL.
  • 7. Today’s Agenda ★ Percona products at 10 000 feet. ★ A closer look at Percona Server with XtraDB. ★ A closer look at XtraBackup. ★ A quick look into the future. ★ Finding more information. 3
  • 8. Percona Server? 4 Official Oracle Product License MySQL Server GPL/Commercial The InnoDB Storage Engine (Plugin edition) GPL/Commercial InnoDB Hot Backup Commercial Official Percona Product License Percona Server GPL The XtraDB Storage Engine GPL XtraBackup GPL
  • 9. Percona Server is... ★ A Percona sponsored distribution of the MySQL Server. ✦ Current releases are based on MySQL 5.1. ✦ Earlier releases based on MySQL 5.0 are available. ★ Contains all of the great work of the MySQL engineering team + additional enhancements on top. 5
  • 10. XtraDB is.. ★ An enhanced version of the InnoDB storage engine. ✦ We ship Percona Server 5.1 with XtraDB included. ✦ You don’t have to download it separately, or do anything special to enable it. ★ XtraDB is based on the “InnoDB plugin”. 6
  • 11. XtraBackup is... ★ An re-implementation of InnoDB’s hot backup utility. ★ XtraBackup can backup MyISAM, Archive and InnoDB tables. ★ It can backup MySQL, Percona and MariaDB servers. 7
  • 12. A fork or a spoon? ★ Percona Server and XtraDB are forks by definition. ✦ We change the name to help users identify our distinctively different set of features. ★ Don’t let the word fork scare you. ✦ ~30K lines changed out of millions. ✦ We rebase off newer official MySQL releases. ✦ License remains as GPL (Open Source). ✦ Compatibility is maintained. 8
  • 13. A word on compatibility: ★ The file format between MySQL with InnoDB to Percona Server with XtraDB does not change.* ★ XtraDB identifies itself as InnoDB: ✦ ALTER TABLE my_table ENGINE=INNODB; or CREATE TABLE my_table (a INT) ENGINE=INNODB; still works! ★ If you want to revert back, just remove the Percona Packages and install MySQL packages. ✦ Both Debian/Red Hat packages don’t remove the data directory when you remove the programs. 9 * By default. You must explicitly enable features for incompatibility.
  • 14. Compatibility (cont.) ★ When you connect from your PHP/Python/Perl/C/C++/ Ruby/.NET/<insert other language> application to Percona Server, you do not need to make any special changes. ★ Your application just sees “MySQL” on port 3306. ★ Really, nothing here changes. 10
  • 15. Today’s Agenda ★ Percona products at 10 000 feet. ★ A closer look at Percona Server with XtraDB. ★ A closer look at XtraBackup. ★ A quick look into the future. ★ Finding more information. 11
  • 16. Release Model ★ Safe high value changes, made to market fast. ✦ Short release cycle. ✦ Changes are mostly incremental enhancements. ★ Rebases against new MySQL releases. ✦ i.e. Version number should be reads as: Percona-Server-server-51-5.1.52-rel11.6.140.rhel5.x86_64.rpm 12 Major MySQL Version (MySQL 5.1) Minor MySQL Version (MySQL 5.1.52) XtraDB Release Version (Release 11.6)
  • 17. ★ Historical average of a new release every 2 months: Releases History 13 Release-1 Dec 2008 Release-2 Dec 2008 Release-3 Feb 2009 Release-4 April 2009 Release-5 April 2009 Release-6 July 2009 Release-7 August 2009 Release-8 Oct 2009 Release-9 Jan 2010 Release-9.1 March 2010 Release-10 April 2010 Release-10.1 May 2010 Release-11.0* June 2010 Release-11.1 June 2010 Release-11.2 July 2010 Release-11.3 September 2010 Release-12.0 September 2010 Release-11.4 October 2010 Release-12.1 October 2010 Release-11.5 October 2010 Release-11.6 November 2010 * Recalled Release. The 12.1 branch is now ‘Release Candidate’.
  • 18. So what changes? ★ Most of the enhancements fall into two categories: ✦ Performance Improvements ✦ Operational / Usability Features 14
  • 19. Performance Improvements 15 Improved Buffer Pool Scalability Faster Crash Recovery Improved IO Path + adaptive checkpointing Improved Rollback Segment Scalability*Separate purge thread Data dictionary memory consumption controls Increased number of undo slots* Faster page checksums* Support for different page sizes* Insert buffer controls Completely disable the query cache. Remove excess fcntl calls Per session configuration of innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit Separate location of double write buffer* Strip comments before using query cache Transaction logs larger than 4G supported. * Changes on disk format. Must use mysqldump to revert to regular MySQL releases.
  • 20. It’s not all raw performance ★ Many people get carried away with performance. ✦ Consistency of timing is also more important than raw throughput. ✦ Without diagnostics, you won’t get what you are entitled to. 16 An earlier benchmark showing Performance of XtraDB 9.x versus regular MySQL releases. Higher is better. Newer benchmarks are available at http://www.percona.com/ software/benchmarks/
  • 21. Stability of results ★ A lot of engineering work has been done to minimize variance. ★ Sharp drops in MySQL releases are caused by checkpointing activities. 17 Benchmarks is available at http://www.percona.com/software/benchmarks/
  • 22. Usability Enhancements 18 Show contents of the buffer pool Import / export of innodb_file_per_table tables Import / export of buffer pool contents Transactional Replication Better handling of corrupted tables Store buffer pool in shared memory segment Save index statistics between restarts Advise in processlist when waiting on Query cache mutex. Improved slow query log User / Index / Table statistics Disable automatic statistics regeneration Show data dictionary Deadlock counter Show Temporary Tables Log connection errors Retain query response time distribution. Bug fixes - ahead of time
  • 23. $ mysql -e “SET GLOBAL log_slow_verbosity = ‘full’;” $ tail /var/log/mysql.slow .. # Time: 100924 13:58:47 # User@Host: root[root] @ localhost [] # Thread_id: 10 Schema: imdb Last_errno: 0 Killed: 0 # Query_time: 399.563977 Lock_time: 0.000110 Rows_sent: 1 Rows_examined: 46313608 Rows_affected: 0 Rows_read: 1 # Bytes_sent: 131 Tmp_tables: 1 Tmp_disk_tables: 1 Tmp_table_sizes: 25194923 # InnoDB_trx_id: 1403 # QC_Hit: No Full_scan: Yes Full_join: No Tmp_table: Yes Tmp_table_on_disk: Yes # Filesort: Yes Filesort_on_disk: Yes Merge_passes: 5 # InnoDB_IO_r_ops: 1064749 InnoDB_IO_r_bytes: 17444847616 InnoDB_IO_r_wait: 26.935662 # InnoDB_rec_lock_wait: 0.000000 InnoDB_queue_wait: 0.000000 # InnoDB_pages_distinct: 65329 SET timestamp=1285336727; select STRAIGHT_JOIN count(*) as c, person_id FROM cast_info FORCE INDEX(person_id) INNER JOIN title ON (cast_info.movie_id=title.id) WHERE title.kind_id = 1 GROUP BY cast_info.person_id ORDER by c DESC LIMIT 1; $ tail /var/log/mysql.slow .. # Time: 100924 13:58:47 # User@Host: root[root] @ localhost [] # Query_time: 399.563977 Lock_time: 0.000110 Rows_sent: 1 Rows_examined: 46313608 SET timestamp=1285336727; select STRAIGHT_JOIN count(*) as c, person_id FROM cast_info FORCE INDEX(person_id) INNER JOIN title ON (cast_info.movie_id=title.id) WHERE title.kind_id = 1 GROUP BY cast_info.person_id ORDER by c DESC LIMIT 1; MySQL Server Percona Server 19 The slow query log
  • 24. Slow log (cont.) ★ In XtraDB 12.1, this is even further enhanced: 20 $ mysql -e “SET GLOBAL profiling_server = 1”; $ tail /var/log/mysql.slow .. # Query_time: 4.555235 Lock_time: 0.000000 Rows_sent: 1 Rows_examined: 0 Rows_affected: 0 Rows_read: 1 # Profile_starting: 4.554799 Profile_starting_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_checking_permissions: 0.000095 Profile_checking_permissions_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_Opening_tables: 0.000088 Profile_Opening_tables_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_init: 0.000056 Profile_init_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_optimizing: 0.000046 Profile_optimizing_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_executing: 0.000098 Profile_executing_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_end: 0.000049 Profile_end_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_query_end: 0.000045 Profile_query_end_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_freeing_items: 0.000084 Profile_freeing_items_cpu: 0.000000 Profile_logging_slow_query: 0.000045 Profile_logging_slow_query_cpu: 0.000000 # Profile_total: 4.555405 Profile_total_cpu: 0.000000 insert into teee4 select * from teee4 limit 10000000;
  • 25. mysql> SET GLOBAL userstat_running = 1; mysql> SELECT DISTINCT s.TABLE_SCHEMA, s.TABLE_NAME, s.INDEX_NAME FROM information_schema.statistics `s` LEFT JOIN information_schema.index_statistics IS ON (s.TABLE_SCHEMA = IS.TABLE_SCHEMA AND s.TABLE_NAME=IS.TABLE_NAME AND s.INDEX_NAME=IS.INDEX_NAME) WHERE IS.TABLE_SCHEMA IS NULL; +--------------+---------------------------+-----------------+ | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_NAME                | INDEX_NAME      | +--------------+---------------------------+-----------------+ | art100       | article100                | ext_key         | | art100       | article100                | site_id         | | art100       | article100                | hash            | | art100       | article100                | forum_id_2      | | art100       | article100                | published       | | art100       | article100                | inserted        | | art100       | article100                | site_id_2       | | art100       | author100                 | PRIMARY         | | art100       | author100                 | site_id         | ... +--------------+---------------------------+-----------------+ 1150 rows IN SET (1 min 44.23 sec) MySQL Server Percona Server ( Not Possible ) 21 Find indexes not being used
  • 26. Usability (cont.) ★ Internal locking on the query cache is a major problem on multi-core servers. ★ Wonder if you’re waiting on the Query Cache? ✦ We have a new SHOW PROCESSLIST state. 22
  • 27. Show Buffer Pool Contents 23 mysql> SELECT d.*,round(100*cnt*16384/(data_length+index_length),2) fit FROM (SELECT schema_name,table_name,count(*) cnt,sum(dirty),sum(hashed)  FROM INNODB_BUFFER_POOL_PAGES_INDEX GROUP BY schema_name,table_name ORDER BY cnt DESC LIMIT 20) d JOIN TABLES ON (TABLES.table_schema=d.schema_name AND TABLES.table_name=d.table_name); +-------------+---------------------+---------+------------+-------------+--------+ | schema_name | table_name          | cnt     | sum(dirty) | sum(hashed) | fit    | +-------------+---------------------+---------+------------+-------------+--------+ | db          | table1              | 1699133 |      13296 |      385841 |  87.49 | | db          | table2              | 1173272 |      17399 |       11099 |  98.42 | | db          | table3              |  916641 |       7849 |       15316 |  94.77 | | db          | table4              |   86999 |       1555 |       75554 |  87.42 | | db          | table5              |   32701 |       7997 |       30082 |  91.61 | | db          | table6              |   31990 |       4495 |       25681 | 102.97 | | db          | table7              |       1 |          0 |           0 | 100.00 | +-------------+---------------------+---------+------------+-------------+--------+ 7 rows in set (26.45 sec) Source: http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/ 2010/03/26/tables-fit-buffer-poo/
  • 28. Save Buffer Pool Contents ★ Export the contents of the buffer pool to a file called ‘ib_lru_dump’ in the data directory: ✦ SELECT * FROM information_schema.XTRADB_ADMIN_COMMAND /*! XTRA_LRU_DUMP*/; ★ Restored ib_lru_dump: ✦ SELECT * FROM information_schema.XTRADB_ADMIN_COMMAND /*! XTRA_LRU_RESTORE*/; 24 Note: Not the actual contents - it takes 8 bytes to remember the address of a 16K page.
  • 29. To summarize ★ Many MySQL users are not getting the performance they are entitled to. ✦ They lack visibility into internal operations of MySQL. ✦ Giving a 50% improvement through new features sounds nice. What they don’t realize is they’re losing 100% by not being aware. 25
  • 30. Today’s Agenda ★ Percona products at 10 000 feet. ★ A closer look at Percona Server with XtraDB. ★ A closer look at XtraBackup. ★ A quick look into the future. ★ Finding more information. 26
  • 31. Backup Overview in MySQL 27 mysqldump mysqldump Filesystem Snapshot (LVM) XtraBackup /InnoDB Hot Backup XtraBackup /InnoDB Hot Backup MySQLHotc opy Cold Backup Engines InnoDB ALL ALL INNODB ALL MyISAM ALL Warmth HOT WARM MOSTLY HOT HOT WARM WARM COLD Flexibility of Backup ROW ROW SYSTEM TABLE TABLE TABLE SYSTEM Flexibility of Restore MOST MOST SYSTEM TABLE TABLE TABLE SYSTEM Backup Time MED MED SLOW-MED FAST FAST FAST BEST Restore Time WORST WORST BEST BEST BEST BEST BEST Impact of Backup HIGH HIGH HIGH LOW LOW MED N/A Binary log Coordination YES YES YES YES YES YES YES Popular for small databases. Popular for databases with MyISAM Best choice when all InnoDB
  • 32. What’s the difference between..? ★ Performance when in snapshot mode with LVM on Linux is much worse. ✦ If your off-peak load is not six times less than your peak load, this may result in a need to over-provision. 28 See: http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2009/02/05/ disaster-lvm-performance-in-snapshot-mode/ Filesystem Snapshot (LVM) XtraBackup/ InnoDB Hot Backup Engines ALL INNODB Warmth MOSTLY HOT HOT Flexibility of Backup SYSTEM TABLE Flexibility of Restore SYSTEM TABLE Backup Time SLOW-MED FAST Restore Time BEST BEST Impact of Backup HIGH LOW Binary log Coordination YES YES
  • 33. But you said... ★ Mysqldump may be faster in a few cases. ★ Concern yourself more with recovery time and impact. 29 http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2010/11/08/an- argument-for-not-using-mysqldump-in-production/ mysqldump XtraBackup /InnoDB Hot Backup Engines InnoDB INNODB Warmth HOT HOT Flexibility of Backup ROW TABLE Flexibility of Restore MOST TABLE Backup Time MED FAST Restore Time WORST BEST Impact of Backup HIGH LOW Binary log Coordination YES YES
  • 34. XtraBackup is... ★ The best option when you have a considerable amount of data: ✦ Restore is as simple as moving the backup to your datadir. ✦ It causes the least impact while creating the backup - and is only blocking while backing up MyISAM tables. 30
  • 35. InnoDB Hot Backup (1) 31 Feature Percona XtraBackup MySQL Enterprise Backup (InnoDB Hot Backup) License GPL Proprietary Price Free $5000 per server Open source YES NO Non-blocking YES YES InnoDB backups YES YES MyISAM backups YES YES Compressed backups YES YES Partial backups YES YES Throttling YES YES Point-in-time recovery support YES YES Incremental backups YES YES More Information: http://www.percona.com/software/percona-xtrabackup/
  • 36. InnoDB Hot Backup (2) 32 Feature Percona XtraBackup MySQL Enterprise Backup (InnoDB Hot Backup) Streaming backups YES NO OS buffer optimizations YES NO Export individual tables YES NO Restore tables to a different server YES NO Analyze data & index files YES NO Familiar command-line behavior YES NO More Information: http://www.percona.com/software/percona-xtrabackup/
  • 37. Advanced Features ★ XtraBackup supports some advanced backup options: ✦ Backup to a stream (can be copied straight across the network, or fed through a compression program). ✦ Throttle to only a limited number of IOPS. ✦ Incremental backup.* 33 * Some special restrictions apply. Data Definition must not have changed since last backup.
  • 38. Advanced Features (cont.) ★ Report on fragmentation of indexes: ★ $ xtrabackup --stats --tables=art.link* -- datadir=/mnt/data/mysql/ ... table: art/link_out104, index: PRIMARY, space id: 12, root page 3 leaf pages: recs=25958413, pages=497839, data=7492026403 bytes, data/pages=91% ... 34 http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2009/09/14/statistics- of-innodb-tables-and-indexes-available-in-xtrabackup/
  • 39. Today’s Agenda ★ Percona products at 10 000 feet. ★ A closer look at Percona Server with XtraDB. ★ A closer look at XtraBackup. ★ A quick look into the future. ★ Finding more information. 35
  • 40. MySQL 5.5 ★ In Release Candidate now. ★ An awesome release! ✦ A greatly improved focus on performance. ✦ Some additional diagnostic/usability features. ★ Percona Server will rebase against 5.5. ✦ Work has already began porting features. ✦ We will continue to maintain our 5.1 series. 36
  • 41. Percona Server Plans ★ Our Blueprints are publicly available through LaunchPad: https://blueprints.launchpad.net/percona-server ★ Percona Server with XtraDB R12.1 is now a release candidate. ✦ It will include the ability to store the buffer pool in shared memory and built-in response time distribution stats. ✦ It will also feature HandlerSocket. 37
  • 42. XtraBackup Plans ★ XtraBackup 1.5 will support parallel backup: ✦ http://www.percona.com/docs/wiki/percona- xtrabackup:xtrabackup:option-and-variable- reference#parallel ★ This is very helpful for RAID controllers and some SSDs, which require multiple threads to exploit their capacity. 38
  • 43. Support & Maintenance ★ Feature development is customer-driven. ★ Commercial Support and Maintenance for Percona Server, XtraDB and XtraBackup are available. ✦ http://www.percona.com/support/mysql-support- maintenance/ 39
  • 44. Support & Maintenance (cont.) ★ Seeking sponsorship of parallel replication: http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2010/11/08/ implementing-parallel-replication-in-mysql/ ★ We need to get more customers involved, to share the cost of this large and ambitious project. 40
  • 45. Support & Maintenance (cont.) ★ Provides you with: ✦ Expert technical advice. ✦ Insurance against bugs in MySQL. ✦ Customized server binaries. 41
  • 46. Today’s Agenda ★ Percona products at 10 000 feet. ★ A closer look at Percona Server with XtraDB. ★ A closer look at XtraBackup. ★ A quick look into the future. ★ Finding more information. 42
  • 47. Getting Started ★ Percona Server with XtraDB and XtraBackup are free software released under the GPL license. ✦ More information can be found at: http://www.percona.com/software/percona-server/ http://www.percona.com/software/percona-xtrabackup/ ★ We provide YUM and APT repositories: ✦ http://www.percona.com/docs/wiki/release:start 43
  • 48. Training Classes ★ See www.percona.com/training to register. ★ Private training and combined onsite consulting/training is available. 44 ★ Chicago Tuesday, 01 Feb 2011 to Friday, 04 Feb 2011 ★ London Monday, 21 Feb 2011 to Thursday, 24 Feb 2011 ★ Frankfurt Monday, 28 Feb 2011 to Thursday, 03 Mar 2011
  • 49. Any Questions? 45 Slides and a recording will be made available after this presentation.