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Projective tests dr ali

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  • 1. Chair person: Dr S Radha Rani Prof of Psychiatry Presenter: Dr Mohd Osman Ali
  • 2. Scheme of presentation INTRODUCTION TO PROJECTIVE TESTS RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST (RIBT) THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT) DRAW A PERSON TEST (DAPT)  SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST (SCT)
  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECTIVE TESTS Types of psychological tests projective tests Theoretical basis Validity and usefulness
  • 4. Types of psychological tests Objective/direct/paper pencil Vs Projective tests RESPONSES ARE ANALYSED ACCORDING TO UNIVERSAL STANDARD (FOR EXAMPLE, A MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAM) CONTENT ANALYZED FOR MEANING RATHER THAN BEING BASED ON PRESUPPOSITION ABOUT MEANING
  • 5. Projective tests • IS A PERSONALITY TEST DESIGNED TO LET A PERSON RESPOND TO AMBIGUOUS STIMULI, PRESUMABLY REVEALING HIDDEN EMOTIONS AND INTERNAL CONFLICTS – DESIGNED TO EVOLVE HIGHLLY INDIVIDUAL ,VARIETY RESPONSE WITH LESS CONSCIOUS CONTROL – SCORING PROCEDURED IS LESS STRUCTURED AND INTERPRETER MUST OFTEN RELY HEAVILY ON A SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF RESPONSE – LESS DEPENDENT ON THE SUBJECTS WILLINGNESS OR ABILITY TO GIVE PERSONAL INFORMATION – SUBJECTS ARE UNAWARE OF THE PURPOSE OF THE TEST AND UNABLE TO JUDGE HOW PARTICULAR RESPONSES ARE INTERPRETED
  • 6. Vs projection defense mechanism (Sigmund Freud) • PROJECTION IS THE UNCONSCIOUS ACT OF DENIAL OF A PERSON'S OWN ATTRIBUTES, THOUGHTS, AND EMOTIONS, WHICH ARE THEN ASCRIBED TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD, OR TO OTHER PEOPLE. • IT INVOLVES IMAGINING OR PROJECTING THAT OTHERS HAVE THOSE FEELINGS
  • 7. Types of projective test depending on the type of task involved ( LIindzey, 1961) • ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUE: ASK THE SUBJECT TO TELL WHAT IS SUGGESTED BY A VERBAL, VISUAL, OR AUDITORY STIMULI – WORD ASSOCIATION, RORSCHACH • CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE INVOLVE THE CREATING OF AN IMAGINAL PRODUCTION FOR WHICH THE TEST MATERIALS PROVIDE A FRAME WORK – TAT, MAKE A PICTURE STORY, BLACKY
  • 8. • COMPLETION TECHNIQUE REQUIRES THAT SUBJECTS COMPLETE A STATEMENT OR STORY; THEY ARE MORE STRUCTURED CONSTRUCTURED PROCEDURE (SEMISTRUCTURED) – ROSENZWEIG PICTURE-FRUSTATION STUDY, SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS • CHOICE OR ORDERING TECHNIQUE INVOLVE ARRANGING MATERIAL IN STORY TELLIN SEQUENCES, IN ORDER OF CHOICE, ETC., OFTEN WITH NO VERBAL ELABORATION – • TOMKINS-HORN PICTURE ARRANGEMENT TEST, SZONDI EXPRESSINVE TECHNIQUE DO NOT DEPEND ON TEST STIMULI, BUT RATHER ASK THE SUBJECT TO PERFORM AN ARITISTIC OR CREATIVE ACTI – DRAW A PERSON, FINGER PAINTING, PLAY, PSYCHODRAMA
  • 9. Theoretical basis • PROJECTIVE TESTS HAVE THEIR ORIGINS IN PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY, WHICH ARGUES THAT HUMANS HAVE CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATIONS THAT ARE BEYOND OR HIDDEN FROM CONSCIOUS AWARENESS
  • 10. The projective hypothesis (Lawrence Frank, 1939): “WHEN PEOPLE TRY TO UNDERSTAND VAGUE OR AMBIGUOUS UNSTRUCTURED STIMULI, THE INTERPRETATION THEY PRODUCE REFLECTS THEIR NEEDS, FEELINGS, EXPERIENCE, PRIOR CONDITIONING, THOUGHT PROCESSES”
  • 11. • WHENEVER A SPECIFIC QUESTION IS ASKED, THE RESPONSE WILL BE CONSCIOUSLY-FORMULATED AND SOCIALLY DETERMINED. THESE RESPONSES DO NOT REFLECT THE RESPONDENT'S UNCONSCIOUS OR IMPLICIT ATTITUDES OR MOTIVATIONS. • THE RESPONDENT'S DEEP-SEATED MOTIVATIONS MAY NOT BE CONSCIOUSLY RECOGNIZED BY THE RESPONDENT OR THE RESPONDENT MAY NOT BE ABLE TO VERBALLY EXPRESS THEM IN THE FORM DEMANDED BY THE QUESTIONER. • AMBIGUITY OF THE STIMULI PRESENTED WITHIN THE TESTS ALLOW SUBJECTS TO EXPRESS THOUGHTS THAT ORIGINATE ON A DEEPER LEVEL THAN TAPPED BY EXPLICIT QUESTIONS.
  • 12. Validity and usefulness • IN MOST CASES, EVIDENCE FOR VALIDITY IS QUITE MODEST • INTERPERTATION OF MOST SUCH TESTS REMAINS MORE AN ART THAN A SCIENCE • MOST OF THE AVAILABLE EVIDENCE CASTS DOUBTS ON THE VALIDITY OF MOST PROJECTIVE TESTS • NONETHLESS PSYCHOLOGISTS WHO ARE USE PROJECTIVE TESTS REGULARLY FEEL THAT THE TESTS ARE USEFUL IN THE RIGHT HANDS • PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES AND PAPER PENCIL TESTS ARE OFTEN USED IN COMBINATION WITH INTERVIEWS TO MAKE JUDGEMENT ABOUT PEOPLE • The unstructured nature of the tasks and the variety of the responses possibilities puts the burden of interpretation on the psychologists clinical judgment
  • 13. RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST  Historical aspects  Testing material  Method of administration  Scoring and interpretation  Importance of the test  examples
  • 14. Historical aspects •DEVELOPOED SWISS PSYCHOLOGIST HERMANN RORSCHACH IN 1921 BEFORE RORSCHACH -- LEONARDO DAVINCI ( 15TH CENTURY) J. KERNER'S (1857), ALFRED BINET(1896) AFTER RORSCHACH– DAVID LEVY, SAMUEL BECK, JOHN EXNER
  • 15. Testing material • CONSISTS OF TEN symmetrical inkblots appear on separate CARDS – BLACK AND WHITE(5), – TWO COLOURED (2), – MULTICOLOURED(3)
  • 16. Card-1 • FAIRLY LARGE OVER-ALL BLACK-GRAY BLOT • MORE IMAGINATIVE AND LESS CONSTRICTED • SUBJECTS USE IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS ANY CREATURE WITH WINGS AT THE SIDE (P-1)
  • 17. Card - 2 • • FIRST BLOT WITH A COLOR FACILITATES MORE THAN ONE RESPONSES RATHER THAN TAKING IN THE ENTIRE BLOT • SUBJECTS WHO HAVE ORGANIZATIONAL INTEREST OR ABILITY GIVE WHOLE RESPONSE • SEXUAL RESPONSES ARE QUITE LIKELY (CENTER AND LOWER PART) WHOLE OR PART OF AN ANIMAL (BEARS OR DOGS) (P-2)
  • 18. Card - 3 • • VERY DISTINCT AREAS, CLEARLY SEPARATED AND HIGHLY SUGGESTIVE VERY UNUSUAL TO ATTEMPT TO USE BLACK AND RED AREAS FOR ONE CONCEPT TWO HUMAN BEINGS OR ANIMALS DRESSED AS HUMANS (MUST BE SEEN IN ACTION) (P-3) AND, BOW TIE, HAIR RIBBON, BUTTERFLY (P-4)
  • 19. Card - 4 • • MASSIVE, COMPACT, DENSELY SHADED GIANT, APE OR MONSTER • REFERRED TO AS FATHER • NO UNIVERSAL POPULAR R CARD
  • 20. Card - 5 • DEFINITE OUTLINE, EASY CARE FOR MOST • REALITY TESTING CARD ANY WINGED CREATURE (P-5)
  • 21. Card - 6 • • CALLED SEX CARD BECAUSE THE UPPER PART IS INTERPRETED AS PHALLIC SYMBOL FREQUENTLY SEEN AS WHOLE, BUT UPPER AND LOWER PORTIONS MAY BE PERCEIVED AS SEPARATE UNITS SKIN OF AN ANIMAL OR A PIECE OF FUR (P-6)
  • 22. Card - 7 • • LIGHT AND AIRY, ONLY SMALL DARKER AREA IN THE BOTTOM (SUGGEST FEMALE SEX ORGAN) OFTEN CLOUDS, SMOKE, MAPS OR HUMAN FIGURE IN ACTION • REFERRED TO AS MOTHER CARD NO UNIVERSAL POPULAR RESPONSE
  • 23. Card - 8 • • • FIRST OF THE THREE ENTIRELY COLORED CARDS SEVERAL DEFINITE AND DISTINCT AREAS COLORED BUTTERFLY, ANATOMICAL CHART, EMBLEM ETC. ANY FOUR-LEGGED ANIMAL IN MOTION (P-7)
  • 24. Card - 9 • • • LARGE BUT VAGUE IN OUTLINE WITH NO CLEARLY DISTINGUISHABLE SMALL PORTIONS, COLORS RUN INTO ONE ANOTHER DIFFICULT TO RESPOND EITHER WHOLE OR PART OFTEN WITCHES, HUMAN HEAD, BOMB EXPLOSION NO UNIVERSAL POPULAR RESPONSE
  • 25. Card - 10 • • MORE COLOR THAN ANY OTHER CARD, COLORS ARE LARGELY DISTRIBUTED WHOLE RESPONSE IS DIFFICULT HENCE GENERATE MORE RESPONSES, FACILITATE NUMBER OF ANIMAL RESPONSES MOSTLY IN ACTION ANY MANY LEGGED ANIMAL SPIDER, CRAB, OCTOPUS (P-8) ANY ELONGATED GREENISH (COLOR MUST BE USED) ANIMAL SUCH AS GARDEN SNAKE, CATERPILLAR ON LEAVES (P-9) HEAD OF AN ANIMAL WITH LONG EARS OR HORNS EG. RABBIT’S HEAD (P-10)
  • 26. administration • Seating side by side • Cards are shown one a time in the same order •
  • 27. two phases • FREE ASSOCIATION PHASE – SUBJECTS ARE PRESENTED WITH THE CARDS, ONE AT A TIME AND ASKED QUESTIONS SUCH AS – “WHAT MIGHT THIS BE?” – “WHAT DOES THIS REMIND YOU OF?” – EXAMINER WRITES DOWN AS MANY ANSWERS AS THE SUBJECT CARES TO GIVE EACH BLOT • INQUIRY PHASE – EXAMINER GOES BACK THROUGH THE SET ASKING THE SUBJECT FOR MORE DETAILS, INCLUDING WHAT IT WAS ABOUT THE BLOT THAT DETERMINED THE SUBJECTS RESPONSE-WHAT WHERE WHY OF EACH RESPONSE • THIRD PHASE– TESTINF OF LIMITS– WHETHER THE SUBJECT IS CAPABLE OF OTHER SORT OF RESPONSES BY CALLING ATTENTION TO PARTICULAR AREAS, HINTING OR ASKING OUTRIGHT “ MIGHT THIS ALSO BE-----?”
  • 28. • TIME UNTIL THE FIRST RESPONSE, AND TOTAL TIME FOR EACH CARD IS NOTED • GROSS AND SUBTLE BEHAVIOUR, INCIDENTAL COMMENT AND VISIBLE FEELINGS ARE CAREFULLY OBSERVED • THE AVERAGE RECORD HAS ABOUT 25 RESPOSNES • LARGE RESPONSES– BRIGHT PEOPLE WITH BROAD RANGE OF INTERESTS • SMALL RESPONSES– LOW INTELLECTUAL LEVEL, INHIBITION OR RETARDATION AS IN A DEPRESSED PERSON, OR METICULOUS CONCERN THAT EACH RESPONSE BE PERFECTLY CORRECT
  • 29. Scoring and interpretation • JOHN EXNER’S COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM IS THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED SYSTEM FOR INTERPRETING THE RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST, WHICH IS INTEGRATION OF - FIVE COMPETING INTERPRETATIVE SYSTEMS BECK (SAMUEL BECK),HERTZ (MARGUERITE HERTZ),KLOPFER (BRUNO KLOPFER),PIOTROWSKI (ZIGMUND PIOTROWSKI),RAPPAPORT (DAVID RAPPAPORT ) • EACH RESPONSE IS SCORED IN TERMS OF 1. ITS LOCATION 2. THE DETERMINANTS USED IN FORMING THE RESPONSE 3. THE LEVEL OF ACCURACY OF PERCEPT 4. ITS CONTENT, INCLUDING THE CONNECTIVITY OR ORIGINALITY SHOWN • Location, determinants and accuracy-- Represent the formal structure of protocol and describe the more stable personality- cognitive characteristics of the patient, Depend on spontaneous and automatic response characteristics and less open to conscious control than the content of the response
  • 30. location • THE AREA CHOSEN INDICATES, IN GENERAL, THE SUBJECT’S COGNITIVE ORIENTATION( I.E. WHETHER HE INTEGRATES OR SEGREGATES EXPERIENCES, DEADS IN MORE ABSTRACT OR IS LIMITED TO CONVENTIONAL CATEGORIES OR WHETHER HE IS DRAW TO THE TRIVIAL ANS UNUSUAL) • RESPOND TO WHOLE BLOT (W) – – • MANY W RESPONSES– SHOW A CAPACITY FOR ABSTRACTION AND INTEGRATION EASY OR WAGUE W– IS OFTEN GIVEN BY MENTALLY RETARDED TO LARGE AND COMMONLY SUGGESTED AREAS (D) • • IS THE MARK OF CONVENTIONAL THOUGHT • THE SUBJECT CAN REVERSE FIGURE AND GROUND AND RESPONSE AND RESPOND THE WHITE SPACE INSTEAD OF INK (S )– MORE THAN ONE OR TWO IN A RECORD (>5%) OFTEN INDICATES OPPOSITIONAL OR NEGATIVISTIC TENDENCIES ANS IS FOUND IN PASSINVE-AGGRESSIVE PEOPLE, THEY MAY HOWEVER ALSO FOUND IN CREATIVE AND ORIGINAL THINKERS • • TO SMALL BUT UNUSUAL DETAIL (d) TINY OR RARE DETAILS (dd)
  • 31. Determinants • INDICATES WHETHER FORM, COLOR, MOVEMENT, OR SHADING ALONE OR IN COMBINATION, UNDERTAKE THE RESPONSE
  • 32. -- form • Represents the individuals concern with external realities • In general sense it indexes ego control • Very high proportion of F responses– LITERAL AND FACTUAL, A COLOUR LESS PERSON WITH LITTLE CAPACITY FOR SPONTANIETY, EMOTIONAL WARMTH, OR FANTASY, AT THE EXMTREME, RIGID AND UNFEELING • Very low proportion of F responses– impulsivity, emotional dominance, low capacity for logical thinking
  • 33. -- colour • Responses are related to – the emotional life of the individual – • • His responsivity and readiness to discharge rather delay tension into action Neurotics seemed to be particularly prone to color shock to be discourted and disorganised when first confronted with clour blots Shading responses often signal anxiety and the use of achromatic colour ( black bird ) often gives with depressive trends • Pure colour response( C ) Lack of individual control and correspondingly readiness for intensely impulsive acts, hyperstimulativity, and mininal thought or logic before leaping • • Form is involved, but colour is more important ( CF ) Form is involved, but shape is more important ( FC ) The affects are modulated and socialized The person is warm, able to relate to others, without intruding egocentric needs Balance between FC, CF and C relative proportion of all C responses to F and M • •
  • 34. -- movement • LIVING MOVING HUMAN BEING (M) • Animal (FM) • Inanimate (m)
  • 35. accuracy
  • 36. content • A HEALTHY RECORD SHOWED AN OVERALL BALANCE AMONG THE LOCATION SORES • SELECTIVELY NONATTENDING TO PARTICULAR PORTIONS IS OF AFFECTIVE OR SEXUAL SIGINFICANCE ALLOWS INTERPRETATION OF PARTICULAR AREAS OF CONFLICT
  • 37. • Each response is scored along these dimensions and total are obtained for each category • Although each score represents a particular aspects of psychological functioning, their interpretation depends on how they relate to and balance with each other
  • 38. • MOST COMBINE OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE PROCEDURE • IF ONE OR MORE OF THESE EMERGED ON SEVEREL OTHER BLOTS, THE TESTER MIGHT TAKE NOTE AND JUDGE THEME TO BE OF SPECIAL SIGNIFICANCE AND MEANING FOR THIS PARTICULAR SUBJECT
  • 39. Importance of the test • THE RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED PROJECTIVE TEST – IN A 1971 SURVEY OF TEST USAGE, IT WAS USED IN 91% OF 251 CLINICAL SETTINGS SURVEY – IT IS ONE OF THE MOST WIDELY USED TESTS THAT EXISTS – IT IS WIDELY CITED IN RESEARCH – USED IN ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY AND THOUGHT DISORDER
  • 40. THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST  Historical aspects  Testing material  Method of administration  Scoring and interpretation  Importance of the test  examples
  • 41. Historical aspects DEVELOPED BY HENRY A. MORGAN AND HIS HARVARD COLLEAGUE CHRISTIAN D. MURRAY IN 1935. IT IS BASED ON MURRAYS THEORY OF NEEDS –IT IS DESIGNEDTO FERRET OUT PEOPLE’S BASIC NEEDS BY HAVING THEM TO TELL STORIES
  • 42. Testing material • IN THE PRESENT FORM, IT CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF 31 PICTURES ONE OF WHICH IS BLANK • THE PRESENT TAT PICTURES ARE THE THIRD SET TO BE USED SINCE 1935. • ASIDE FROM ADDITIONS AND OMISSIONS MADE SINCE THE FIRST SERIES WAS ISSUED, THE CARDS IN THE SECOND AND THIRD SERIES ARE DISTINGUISHED BY BEING TWICE THE ORIGINAL SIZE. • TAT WAS STANDARDIZED FOR INDIAN CONDITIONS BY CHOUDARY(1974) FOR THE CLINICAL USAGE. UMA
  • 43. 1ST CARD -- boy looking down some what pensively at violin before him
  • 44. Method of administration • IN THE RECOMMENDED ADMINISTRATION 20 CARDS ARE USED, SELECTED ACCORDING TO PATIENTS AGE AND SEX, HALF OF WHICH ARE SHOWN ON ONE OCCASION AND OTHER HALF A LATER TIME (HA MURRAY,1943) • LIMIT TESTING TO ONE-HOUR LONG DURATION
  • 45. • instructions are as follows • • THIS IS A TEST OF IMAGINATION. I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU SOME PICTURES, ONE AT A TIME, AND YOUR TASK WILL BE TO MAKE UP A STORY AS DRAMATIC AND IMAGINATIVE AS POSSIBLE. • WHAT IS HAPPENING AT THE MOMENT AND WHAT THE CHARACTERS ARE FEELING AND THINKING? • WHAT WENT BEFORE/ WHAT LED • WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN/ WHAT THE BE? • • SPEAK YOUR THOUGHTS AS THEY COME TO YOUR MIND. STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF TAT– HOW THE STORIES ARE TOLD, LANDUAGE, AND EXPRESSION ARE ALSO OBSERVED UP TO IT? OUTCOME WILL
  • 46. Scoring and interpretation • UNLIKE RORSCHACH, THERE ARE NO GENERELLY ACCEPTED SYSTEMS OF TAT SCORING AND INTERPRETATION • USUALLY LOOK FOR THEMES THAT SURFACE SEVEREL TIMES IN RESPONSE TO SEVEREL DIFFERENT PICTURES
  • 47. Content of TAT stories / major elements of the story include 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The hero The needs, strivings and characteristics of the hero The environmental forces acting on him The theme( press- need- outcome strategies) Affective tone of the story generally and of the major actors 6. The outcome • The “hero assumption” is pivotal in that the subject identifies with central figure and represents in him, directly or symbolically, his own needs, values and expectations (Lindzey, 1952)
  • 48. Mode of analysis involves 1. Careful reading and rereading of the set of story productions 2. Noting repetitive themes 3. Characteristic ways in which the hero (usually taken to represent patient himself) and other are described 4. The range of feeling expressed 5. How the stories are resolved 6. Whether outcomes tend to be happy or not and reasonably related to story plots • THE CLINICIANS TASK IS, ULTIMATELY TO CONSTRUCT A SET OF HYPOTHESIS WHICH CAN BEST EXPLAIN WHY THESE PARTICULAR STORIES WERE TOLD AND WHAT KIND OF PERSON LIES BEHIND STORY PRODUCTIONS
  • 49. • DISTANCE THEMES MORE LIKELY REFLECTED UNCONSCIOUS NEEDS THAN THE SAME MATERIAL SET CLOSES IN TIME, PLACE, OR CHARACTER • A COMMON ERROR IN THE TAT INTERPRETATION IS TO PROJECT ISOMORPHICALLY STORY THEMES TO PATIENTS LIFE. IT IS EQUALLY POSSIBLE THAT THE STORY REPRESENTS THEMES WHICH ARE WISHED FOR, FEARED, DEFENSIVE PROJECTIONS, OR UNCONSCIOUS DENIALS • WHICH OF THESE ALTERNATE INTERPRETATIONS CAN BE MADE DEPENDS ON EVIDENCE FROM OTHER TAT STORIES • UNDER SOME CONDITIONS, TAT PERFORMANCE CLEARLY PARALLELS AND PREDICTS OVERT BEHAVIOUR( MORE LIKELY IF EXPRESSION OF THE NEED IS SOCIALLY APPROVED) • THE WAY THE TEST IS ADIMINISTERED, VARIATIONS IN STIMULUS MATERIAL AND IN INSTRUCTIONS, CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXAMINER, AMONG OTHER FACTORS, ALL INFLUENCE PERFORMANCE
  • 50. Importance of the test • IT IS SECOND ONLY TO RORSCHACH IN POPULARITY AND VOLUME OF PUBLISHED RESEARCH • IT IS WIDELY USED TEST FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURE OF SUBTLE AND DYNAMICS OF PERSONALITY • AS IT MANIFESTS ITSELF IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND IN THE APPERCEPTION OR MEANINGFUL INTERPRETATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTS. • IT GIVES THE BASIC DATA ON THE TESTEE’S RELATIONSHIP TO MALE OR FEMALE AUTHORITY FIGURES, TO CONTEMPORARIES OF BOTH SEXES, AND FREQUENTLY IT SHOWS THE GENESIS IN TERMS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS.
  • 51. • IT MAY NOT CLEARLY INDICATE THE INTENSITY OF FEARS AS DO THE RORSCHACH, BUT IT TELLS ONE THE NATURE OF THEM – • • • • FEAR OF LACK OF SUPPORT OR FEAR OF ATTACK BY MALES IN SPECIFIC SITUATIONS – AND IT SHOWS THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS AND THE STRUCTURE OF COMPROMISES AMONG ID, EGO AND SUPEREGO. THIS TEST CAN BE ADMINISTERED INDIVIDUALLY AND ALSO SELF. TAT REQUIRES IMAGINATION --- REVEALS CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE AND CAPACITY FOR IMAGINATIVE PLAY THE ACCURACY WITH WHICH THE PICTURE ELEMENTS IS DESCRIBED IS OF CONSIDERABLE IMPORTANCE AND PARALLELS CONCEPTUALLY THE FORM LEVEL OF RORSCHACH More structured than rorschach and said to add information about content of personality to the knowledge of its structure and organization gained from rorschach
  • 52. applications • A DEPRESSED PT PREDICTABLY EMPHASIZES THE PAST, WITH ONLY MINOR CONCERN WITH THE PRESENT, AND VIRTUALLY NONE WITH FUTURE • REPRESSINVE PEOPLE, SUCH AS HYSTERICAL PATIENTS, STAY PRIMARILY IN THE PRESENT, WITH VAGUE AND ARITFICIALLY HAPPY EVENTS FORECAST AHEAD • SCHIZOPHRENICS ARE LIKELY TO SHIFT ARBITRARILY BETWEEN PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE EVENTS • • EVIDENCE OF INTACT EGO--- PT IS CAPABLE OF FULFILLING THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE TASK, TELLING A WELL ORGANISED STORY IN REASONABLY GOOD PROSE SPANNING AN APPROPRIATE TIME PERSPECTIVE, WITH REALISTIC MEANS- ENDS RELATIONSHIPS
  • 53. DRAW- A – PERSON TEST  Historical aspects  Testing material  Method of administration  Scoring and interpretation  Importance of the test  examples
  • 54. Historical aspects •DEVELOPED ORIGINALLY BY FLORENCE GOODENOUGH IN 1926, THIS TEST WAS FIRST KNOWN AS THE GOODENOUGH DRAWA-MAN TEST. •DR. THE DALE B. HARRIS TEST AND IT IS LATER REVISED AND EXTENDED NOW KNOWN AS GOODENOUGH-HARRIS DRAWING TEST. THE THE REVISION AND EXTENSION IS DETAILED IN HIS BOOK CHILDREN'S DRAWINGS AS MEASURES OF INTELLECTUAL MATURITY (1963).
  • 55. Testing material • JUST THE SHEETS AND PENCILS. • CAN BE ADMINISTERED ANYWHERE, WHERE THE CHILD IS REQUIRED TO WORK AS REQUIRED
  • 56. Method of administration • TEST ADMINISTRATION INVOLVES THE ADMINISTRATOR REQUESTING CHILDREN TO COMPLETE THREE INDIVIDUAL DRAWINGS ON SEPARATE PIECES OF PAPER. • CHILDREN ARE ASKED TO DRAW A MAN, A WOMAN, AND THEMSELVES. • NO FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS ARE GIVEN AND THE CHILD IS FREE TO MAKE THE DRAWING IN WHICHEVER WAY HE/SHE WOULD LIKE. • BE PARTICULAR IN GETTING THE CHILD’S DESCRIPTION OF THE PICTURE WHEN IT APPEARS CONFUSING OR OBSCURE
  • 57. • THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG TYPE OF DRAWING, ALTHOUGH THE CHILD MUST MAKE A DRAWING OF A WHOLE PERSON EACH TIME I.E. HEAD • TO FEET, NOT JUST THE FACE. THE TEST HAS NO TIME LIMIT, HOWEVER, CHILDREN RARELY TAKE LONGER THAN ABOUT 10 OR 15 MINUTES TO COMPLETE ALL THREE DRAWINGS. • FOLLOWING ARRANGEMENTS ARE MADE – ROOM WHICH IS LIKELY TO BE LESS DISTURBED. – REMOVE ALL THE PICTURES, AND POSTURES. – GIVE A COMFORTABLE PLACE TO WORK. – PROVIDE ADEQUATE MATERIALS (HB BLACK PENCIL, AVOID CRAYONS, AND DRAWING SHEETS) – CHECK THE USE OF ERASERS TO THE MINIMUM. – ALLOW THE CHILD TO USE OTHER SIDE OF THE SHEET OR PROVIDE A NEW SHEET IF THE CHILD SPOILS THE SHEET,
  • 58. Scoring and interpretation • SCORING IS TOTALLY BASED ON HOW EACH PART OF THE BODY IS DRAWN. • EACH IS GIVEN POINTS BASED ON THE CRITERIA. AND EVERY THING IS ADDED UP TO OBTAIN A RAW SCORE AND IT IS COMPARED WITH THE NORMS FOR THE AGE GROUP OF THE CHILD TO OBTAIN IQ. • HARRIS'S BOOK (1963) PROVIDES SCORING SCALES WHICH ARE USED TO EXAMINE AND SCORE THE CHILD'S DRAWINGS.
  • 59. Importance of this test • THE TEST IS COMPLETELY NON-INVASIVE AND NON-THREATENING TO CHILDREN - WHICH IS PART OF ITS APPEAL. • DRAW – A – PERSON TEST CAN BE ADMINISTERED FOR THE CHILD FROM 4 YEARS TO 15 YEARS. • IT MAY BE ADMINISTERED TO A SINGLE CHILD AT A TIME OR TO A GROUP OF CHILDREN. • USED TO EVALUATE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FOR NONVERBAL INTELLIGENCE OR TO SCREEN FOR EMOTIONAL OR BEHAVIOR DISORDERS the Draw-a-Person: QSS (Quantitative Scoring System)-14 ASPECTS,64SCORING ITEMS. Draw-a-Person: SPED (Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance
  • 60. applications • DAPT In schizophrenia • PSYCHOLOGIST JULIAN JAYNES, IN THE 1976 BOOK, THE ORIGIN OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE BREAKDOWN OF THE BICAMERAL MIND WROTE THAT THE TEST IS "ROUTINELY ADMINISTERED AS AN INDICATOR OF SCHIZOPHRENIA," AND THAT WHILE NOT ALL SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS HAVE TROUBLE DRAWING A PERSON, WHEN THEY DO, IT IS VERY CLEAR EVIDENCE OF A DISORDER. • AND THAT SUCH SIGNS MIGHT BE A PATIENT'S NEGLECT TO INCLUDE "OBVIOUS ANATOMICAL PARTS LIKE HANDS AND EYES," WITH "BLURRED AND UNCONNECTED LINES," AMBIGUOUS SEXUALITY AND GENERAL DISTORTION. • THERE HAS BEEN NO VALIDATION OF THIS TEST AS AN INDICANT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.
  • 61. • SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST  Historical aspects  Testing material  Method of administration  Scoring and interpretation  Importance of the test  examples
  • 62. Historical aspects • SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST WAS DEVELOPED BY JOSEPH M. SACKS.
  • 63. Testing material • THIS TEST WAS DESIGNED TO OBTAIN SIGNIFICANT CLINICAL INFORMATION IN FOUR REPRESENTATIVE AREAS OF ADJUSTMENT SUCH AS – FAMILY, – SEX, – INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, – AND SELF – CONCEPT.
  • 64. • The Family area • INCLUDES THREE My mother and I …, • my family like………….. SET OF ATTITUDES, threats THOSE TOWARDS FOUR SENTENCE MOTHER, FATHER AND FAMILY UNIT. • EACH OF THESE IS REPRESENTED BY COMPLETION ITEMS me
  • 65. The sex area • I think most ……….. …….. girls WOMEN AND TOWARDS HETEROSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS. • INCLUDES • THE EIGHT ITEMS IN THIS AREA ALLOW THE SUBJECT TO EXPRESS HIMSELF ATTITUDES TOWARDS
  • 66. • INCLUDES “When I see the boss coming ………………”, “The people who work for me ………..” • • • • The area of interpersonal relationships “When I am not …………………….” and “At work I get along best with ………………. ATTITUDES ACQUAINTANCES, around, my friends FRIENDS AND COLLEAGUES AT WORK OR TOWARD SUPERVISORS, AND PEOPLE SUPERVISED. • THE SIXTEEN ITEMS IN THIS AREA AFFORD AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE SUBJECT TO EXPRESS HIS FEELINGS
  • 67. Self concept • • • • • • “I wish I could lose the fear of ……………” “My greatest mistake was ……………….” “I believe I have the ability to ……………” “When I was a child …………….,” “Some day I ………….,” “What I want most out of life ……….” FEARS, GUILT FEELINGS, GOALS, AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONE’S OWN ABILITIES, PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. • SELF CONCEPT INVOLVES • CONSISTS TWENTY FOUR ITEMS
  • 68. Method of administration • THE SUBJECT IS ASKED TO RESPOND TO STRUCTURED ITEMS (SENTENCE STEMS) BY COMPLETING THE OTHER HALF OF THE SENTENCE WITH THEIR OWN WORDS (BY PROJECTING THEIR IDEAS, ATTITUDES ETC.) • AND REQUIRES FROM TEST. • INDIVIDUALLY OR TO A GROUP 20 TO 40 MINUTES COMPLETING THE SCT CAN BE ADMINISTERED IT IS EMPHASIZED THAT RESPONSES SHOULD CONSIST OF THE FIRST SPONTANEOUS REACTION TO EACH STIMULUS ITEM, AND THAT THE SUBJECT SHOULD NOT STOP TO THINK OF A LOGICAL COMPLETION.
  • 69. Scoring and interpretation • BY EVALUATING THE ITEMS OF EACH AREA AND THEIR SUB – AREAS QUALITATIVELY • AND COMING TO THE CONCLUSION THAT WHAT KIND OF ATTITUDES, CONFLICTS THE PERSON HAS IN EACH OF THOSE AREAS
  • 70. Importance of the test • PRESENT THE SUBJECT WITH SUFFICIENT OPPORTUNITIES TO EXPRESS HIS ATTITUDES • SO THAT CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST MAY INFER HIS DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRENDS AND SCREEN PATIENTS FOR THERAPY
  • 71. references • Sheldon J. Korchin.(1986, first indian edition). modern clinical psychology. CBS publishers & distributors. • Morgan and King. Introduction to psychology. Tata Mc Graw Hill • Kaplan and Saddock. Synopsis of psychiatry
  • 72. THANK YOU
  • 73. discussion