Scheme of presentation
Part 1 Introduction
Part 2 theories of motivation
Part 3 biological motivation
Part 4 social motivation
Part 5 motives to know and to be
Part 6 motivational conflict
Part 7 measurement of motivation
Part 8 conclusion
What is motivation?
Motivation refers to the driving and pulling forces
which results in persistent behavior directed
towards particular goal.
Significance of Motivation
1. Some one who understands your motives will understand.
a) Why do you do the things you do.
b) Can also make predictions about behavior – the range of
things a person will do.
2. Many theories of personality are really theories about people’s
3 . Unconscious Motivation is major concept of psychoanalytical theory of
4. Ulterior motives is part of Transactional analysis.
What is motive?
Motive is Energetic force that which moves a person to
act. (the activating force for motivation).
Similar older terms for motive are – needs, drives
Features of motive
a) we never observe them directly.
b) They are inferences from behavior.
c) We may or may not be aware of them.
What are types of Motivation?
Biological – Hunger, thirst, Sex, other (Sleep, oxygen,
Psychosocial – Abasement, Achievement, Affiliation,
Aggression, Autonomy, Counteraction, Defense,
Deference(power), Dominance, Exhibition, Harm avoidance, In
avoidance, Nurturance, Order, Play, Rejection, Sentience,
Security, Esteem, , Self Expression, Self assertion.
Motives to know and to be effective- stimulus and
exploration needs, effectance, self actualization.
Intrinsic V/s extrinsic
Goals are internal feelings of effectiveness, competence and self
works hard for fun of it , creatively and for satisfaction.
Eg: Self actualization motivation, Effectance motivation.
Directed towards goals external to the person, such as money or
grades in school.
Excessive reliance on it stifle intrinsic motivation and impair
Biological V/s Psychosocial
V/s motivation to explore and
The are fundamental for our survival.
They are basically unlearned in nature.
The arousal state is initiated (Departure from
homeostasis ) by
hormones – Insulin, Glucagon, Testosterone, Estrogen.
Sensory stimuli (Incentives) – smell of food, image of
opposite sex, pain.
The are learned in Social groups (Social learning)
Eg: Family, Peers, Teachers. Hence their strength differ greatly
from individual to another.
They persist, never fully satisfied over the years – determine
much of what a person does
Important component of personality – the enduring and
characteristic differences among people.
Knowledge of social motive dominant in a society may help us
understand its history and predicts its future
Motive to know and to be effective
They are innate part of the human species
heritage, seem to exist to one degree or another in
They are most powerful and most persistent of
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Drive theory (Push Theory)
1. Drive theories say that behavior is pushed towards goals by
arousal internal states (Drive) with in the person or animal.
2. Sources of driving state can be
Inborn / instinctive – proposed by Freud, Ethologists –
Tinberg, Lorenz, Leyhausan. Eg: Biological Motivation
Learned – hence they differ from one individual to another.
Eg: Addictions, Social Motivation (achievement, power,
3. Motivational cycle of drive theories- Strength of drive
depends upon strength of stimuli
Incentive theory (Pull Theory)
1. Incentive theory stress the ability of the goal to Pull behavior
2. Incentive is the goal object which motivate behavior.
It can be
a) Positive – when one expects pleasure from the
b) Negative – when on expects pleasure from avoidance.
The Opponent – Process Theory (Theory of emotion)
1. The opponent process theory says that we are motivated to seek
goals which give us good emotional feelings and avoids goals
results in displeasure.
2. Basic to this theory is the observation that many emotionally
motivating states are followed by opposing or opposite states.
3. Graphical representation of emotional states during first few
stimulations and after many stimulations.
Eg: Heroin addiction (Drug Tolerance), Parachute Jumper
(Thrill seeking behavior
Optimal Level (Best level) theory (Just Right Theory)
Optimal level theory says that behavior is directed
towards maintaining an optimal level of arousal or state
of homeostasis in internal physiological process.
Eg: Work Load
For activation - Blood sugar level, Hormone leptin,
external sensory stimuli – smell, appearance, taste.
For satisfaction -Blood sugar level, Hormone CCK,
nutrient receptors in stomach.
Centers in Brain For activation – LH
For satisfaction – VMH.
For activation - double depletion hypothesis
b) Loss of water from hypothalamic receptors.
Center in brain – supra optic nucleus
Role of hormones in motivating sexual behavior is less in human compared to
lower animals, where as external stimuli and learning are especially important on
Much sexual behavior is turned on by stimuli which act as incentives Eg :
Looks (Style, dress), voice, touch, odor.
Especially peoples early learning experience has influence on sexual behavior
and account for much of variability from person to person.
Male and female differences in sexual Motivation
Estrogen levels increases in mid of menstrual cycle and
decreases following menstruation and after menopause.
Consistent relationship between level of hormones and sexual drive
has not been proved.
External stimuli, habits and attitudes seem to be more important than
hormones in activating the sexual behavior.
Male needs a certain level of testosterone in order to maintain
their sexual interest and to engage in sexual behavior.
But increase of testosterone levels above the necessary
threshold level do not turn on male sexual drive.
The triggers in male with adequate androgen levels seems to be
external stimuli , especially signals from the female that she is
interested in sex.
Hunger V/s Thirst
1. Thirst motive is stronger than food motive.
2. Though hunger and thirst motives are basically unlearned
(inborn), Psychosocial factors too play a role.
Eg: Boredom, food habits, cultural demands.
3.These are regulated by feed back mechanisms.
Sexual V/s other biological
Sex motivation differs from other biological motives.
a) Not necessary to maintain life of an individual although it
is necessary for survival of species.
b) Not aroused by lack of substance. It is more under the
influence of learning and ext stimuli.
c) Regulated much by social pressure and religious beliefs.
d) Provides intense pleasure as well as can give us agony and
involve in many difficult situations.
1. Achievement is task oriented behavior that allows the individuals
performance to be evaluated according to some internally or
externally imposed criterion.
2. Achievement may or may not involve the individual in
competing with others
3 . Sources of achievement motivation are
a) Modeling – Parents, Peers and other important people.
b) Expectation – of Parents etc.
4. Characteristic features of n ach people.
a) They work on risky / challenging task which
b) They work on task where their performance can be
compared with others.
5. Significance of Achievement – n ach is related to
society’s economic and business growth
6. Factors Influencing n ach
a) Fear of failure as motive said to inhibit expression of
b) Fear of success – it is proposed for high n ach women who do not
like to work on moderately risky tasks. Thus there is gender
difference in the expression of need for achievement
c) Competition motivation – improves performance for people
with low achievement motivation, but actually impairs
performance for those in whom achievement motivation is
1. Social power is the ability or capacity of a person produce
consciously or unconsciously intended effect’s the behavior or
emotions of another person.
2. The goals of power motivation are to influence, control,
cajole, persuade, lead, charm others to enhance one’s own
reputation in the eyes of other people.
3. Characteristic features of need for power people
a) Impulsive and aggressive action
b) Participation in competitive sports.
c) Joining of Organizations.
d) The collections of possessions.
e) Associate with who are not particularly popular.
f) Choice of occupation which have high impact on others (teaching,
diplomacy, business, clergy)
g) the building or disciplining of body. (esp seen in women)
h) Drinking and sexual domination of women
(Niccolo Machiavelli, 1469-1527,The prince )
A special form of power motivation is characteristic of
people who express their power motivation by exploiting
others in a deceptive and unscrupulous fashion.
Aggression is a General term applying to behavior aimed at
hurting other people.
What are the forms of aggressions?
Physical or Verbal
Active or Passive
Direct or Indirect
What are the types of aggression?
Instrumental aggression – The individual uses aggression as a way of satisfying
some other motive.
Hostile aggression – Is behavior which has its goal the harming of other living
being who is motivated to avoid such harm.
Causes and regulation of aggressive behavior.
Aggression while it has biological basis is primarily under
the control of social factors, environmental factors, and learning
Environmental and Social factors of aggression:
Frustration – aggression hypothesis – all aggressive behavior is
caused by frustration. For it to result in aggression – there must
be intense expectation on goal and it must be perceived as being
the result of arbitrary action.
Verbal Insult / Negative evaluation from other – The most
common every day source of aggression. This may result in
vicious cycle of aggression when insult is perceived as harmful
Compliance with an authority who orders us to aggress
Unpleasant or aversive environmental conditions (high
temperature, intense noise, crowding etc) seen especially in
people who have already been angered in someway.
Weapon effect (controversial cause) – The presence of
weapon was found to increase the aggression of angered
Learning factors of aggression:
Social learning theory – by imitating aggressive models eg: Mass
media (Television and films) – moderately enhanced aggression
seen especially among boys.
Certain stimuli situation are paired with each others.
Repetition of stimuli
Aggressive behavior towards many similar stimuli.
How can human aggression be controlled
Punishment:Examples of punishers are – chastisement,
fines, loss of social acceptance, embarrassment, imprisonment.
Draw backs of punishment are – punishment is a frustrator,
Itself is an aggressive act which provides a model of aggression.
Conditions where punishment may be effective are when it is
strong, when the aggressor is relatively sure of receiving it,
when perceived as legitimate / appropriate, when instigation
relatively weak, pay off not great.
Catharsis – (Venting on emotion). It helps in short term but not
in long term. Complete relief occur when we vent it on the same
Non aggressive models
Attribution - The thoughts or cognitions we have about the
reason for another’s aggression play a role in helping us control
our own aggression.
Incompatible responses – Anger and aggression can be reduced
by incompatible responses such as smiling, empathy and mild
Stimulus and Exploration Needs
Each of us have optimal level of arousal.
To reach it, we tend to seek out and prefer stimuli
that ate both novel and complex.
Eg: Traveling, Watching Television, movies,
sports contests and plays.
A General motive to act competently and
effectively when interacting with environment
and becoming master in it.
Eg: Baby learning to stand from sitting
It is intrinsic motivation
What is self actualization
It refers to an individual’s need to develop his or her
potentialities in other words, to do what he or she is
capable of doing.
Self actualizers are people who make the fullest use of
Characteristic features of self actualization
• The Goals which are sought in meeting thus need vary
from person to person.
It is thought to be the top need in a hierarchy of need or
motives and most of us do not (Maslow, 1954) make it to
the top of the ladder.
According to Abraham Maslow , 5 sets of hierarchy of
needs , Going down wards to highest need are
Physiological needs such as hunger and sex.
Safety needs – such as need for security, stability and order. (Job
security, social security). These preoccupy most of us.
Belongingness and love needs – such as need for affection, affiliation
and identification Eg: Feeling a part of society or a segment of it via
our churches, school or companies.
Esteem needs – such as need for prestige success and self respect.
Need for self actualization.
Feature of Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs
Lower needs must be satisfied before meeting higher on the list.
People can be trying to satisfy Several order of needs at a time.
because – Many people who move ahead only to find as the
situation surrounding them changes, that lower needs must be met
Conflicts between and among motives – expression of
motive interferes with expression of other motive.
It is the most important sources of frustration
E.g : Aggression – social approval
Sexual behavior – Society’s standards of approval
Independence – affiliation
Career aspiration – economic realities.
Approach – approach conflict
The person is attracted towards two
incompatible positive goals at the same time
It is usually easy to resolve and generate little
Avoidance – avoidance conflict
The person is caught between two repelling situations.
There are usually barriers in the periphery of the field
that prevent the person from leaving the field.
People usually leave the conflict situation by defense
mechanism – regression (recreating in mind a care free
world of child hood).
Approach – avoidance conflict
The individual is attracted to a positive goal, but this goal has
fear or threat associated with it.
This conflict is most difficult to resolve.
Multiple approach – avoidance conflict is one where two or
more goals attract, at the same time repel.
MEASUREMENT OF MOTIVATION
Information gathered directly from the primary
Eg: Personality Questionnaires, motivation scale,
check list, naturalistic observation, interview,
autobiography and other self descriptive
Persons is exposed to fairly ambiguous or
unstructured stimulus situations.
How he projects to these situations gives clues to
Used when the subject is unaware or determined not
to reveal his motive
Eg. All the projective techniques like Rorschach Ink blot test,
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Child, Apperception Test
(CAT), the Blacky pictures, Drawing completion test,
Sentence completion technique, Word Association
technique, Role playing and Socio – Drama, etc.
Standard set of pictures depicting various people
in various situations presented and the person being tested
is asked to make up stories describing what is happening in
Consists of the measures involving objective
observation under controlled conditions.
Eg: Situational tests