Human motivation and behaviour


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Human motivation and behaviour

  1. 1. Presenter : Dr. Osman Ali
  2. 2. Scheme of presentation  Part 1 Introduction  Part 2 theories of motivation  Part 3 biological motivation  Part 4 social motivation  Part 5 motives to know and to be effective  Part 6 motivational conflict  Part 7 measurement of motivation  Part 8 conclusion
  3. 3. What is motivation?  Motivation refers to the driving and pulling forces which results in persistent behavior directed towards particular goal.
  4. 4. Significance of Motivation 1. Some one who understands your motives will understand. a) Why do you do the things you do. b) Can also make predictions about behavior – the range of things a person will do. 2. Many theories of personality are really theories about people’s motives. 3 . Unconscious Motivation is major concept of psychoanalytical theory of personality. 4. Ulterior motives is part of Transactional analysis.
  5. 5. What is motive?  Motive is Energetic force that which moves a person to act. (the activating force for motivation).  Similar older terms for motive are – needs, drives Features of motive a) we never observe them directly. b) They are inferences from behavior. c) We may or may not be aware of them.
  6. 6. What are types of Motivation? .  Biological – Hunger, thirst, Sex, other (Sleep, oxygen, temperature .regulation)  Psychosocial – Abasement, Achievement, Affiliation, Aggression, Autonomy, Counteraction, Defense, Deference(power), Dominance, Exhibition, Harm avoidance, In avoidance, Nurturance, Order, Play, Rejection, Sentience, Security, Esteem, , Self Expression, Self assertion.  Motives to know and to be effective- stimulus and exploration needs, effectance, self actualization.
  7. 7. Intrinsic V/s extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation  Goals are internal feelings of effectiveness, competence and self determination  works hard for fun of it , creatively and for satisfaction. Eg: Self actualization motivation, Effectance motivation. Extrinsic motivation  Directed towards goals external to the person, such as money or grades in school.  Excessive reliance on it stifle intrinsic motivation and impair performance.
  8. 8. Biological V/s Psychosocial Motivation V/s motivation to explore and effective Biological Motivation  The are fundamental for our survival.  They are basically unlearned in nature.  The arousal state is initiated (Departure from homeostasis ) by  hormones – Insulin, Glucagon, Testosterone, Estrogen.  Sensory stimuli (Incentives) – smell of food, image of opposite sex, pain.
  9. 9. Social Motivation  The are learned in Social groups (Social learning) Eg: Family, Peers, Teachers. Hence their strength differ greatly from individual to another.  They persist, never fully satisfied over the years – determine much of what a person does .  Important component of personality – the enduring and characteristic differences among people.  Knowledge of social motive dominant in a society may help us understand its history and predicts its future
  10. 10. Motive to know and to be effective  They are innate part of the human species heritage, seem to exist to one degree or another in everyone.  They are most powerful and most persistent of all.
  11. 11. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Drive theory (Push Theory)  1. Drive theories say that behavior is pushed towards goals by arousal internal states (Drive) with in the person or animal.  2. Sources of driving state can be  Inborn / instinctive – proposed by Freud, Ethologists – Tinberg, Lorenz, Leyhausan. Eg: Biological Motivation  Learned – hence they differ from one individual to another. Eg: Addictions, Social Motivation (achievement, power, aggression)  3. Motivational cycle of drive theories- Strength of drive depends upon strength of stimuli
  12. 12. Incentive theory (Pull Theory) 1. Incentive theory stress the ability of the goal to Pull behavior towards them. 2. Incentive is the goal object which motivate behavior. It can be a) Positive – when one expects pleasure from the attainment. b) Negative – when on expects pleasure from avoidance.
  13. 13. The Opponent – Process Theory (Theory of emotion) 1. The opponent process theory says that we are motivated to seek goals which give us good emotional feelings and avoids goals results in displeasure. 2. Basic to this theory is the observation that many emotionally motivating states are followed by opposing or opposite states. 3. Graphical representation of emotional states during first few stimulations and after many stimulations. Eg: Heroin addiction (Drug Tolerance), Parachute Jumper (Thrill seeking behavior
  14. 14. Optimal Level (Best level) theory (Just Right Theory) Optimal level theory says that behavior is directed towards maintaining an optimal level of arousal or state of homeostasis in internal physiological process. Eg: Work Load
  15. 15. Hunger motivation Stimuli –  For activation - Blood sugar level, Hormone leptin, external sensory stimuli – smell, appearance, taste.  For satisfaction -Blood sugar level, Hormone CCK, nutrient receptors in stomach. Centers in Brain  For activation – LH  For satisfaction – VMH.
  16. 16. Thirst motivation Stimuli – For activation - double depletion hypothesis a) Hypovolemia. b) Loss of water from hypothalamic receptors. Center in brain – supra optic nucleus
  17. 17. Sexual motivation Factors influencing  Hormones : Role of hormones in motivating sexual behavior is less in human compared to lower animals, where as external stimuli and learning are especially important on higher animals.  External stimuli Much sexual behavior is turned on by stimuli which act as incentives Eg : Looks (Style, dress), voice, touch, odor.  Learning Especially peoples early learning experience has influence on sexual behavior and account for much of variability from person to person. 
  18. 18. Male and female differences in sexual Motivation Female - Estrogen levels increases in mid of menstrual cycle and decreases following menstruation and after menopause. Consistent relationship between level of hormones and sexual drive has not been proved. External stimuli, habits and attitudes seem to be more important than hormones in activating the sexual behavior.
  19. 19. Male - Male needs a certain level of testosterone in order to maintain their sexual interest and to engage in sexual behavior. But increase of testosterone levels above the necessary threshold level do not turn on male sexual drive. The triggers in male with adequate androgen levels seems to be external stimuli , especially signals from the female that she is interested in sex.
  20. 20. Hunger V/s Thirst 1. Thirst motive is stronger than food motive. 2. Though hunger and thirst motives are basically unlearned (inborn), Psychosocial factors too play a role. Eg: Boredom, food habits, cultural demands. 3.These are regulated by feed back mechanisms.
  21. 21. Sexual V/s other biological motives Sex motivation differs from other biological motives. a) Not necessary to maintain life of an individual although it is necessary for survival of species. b) Not aroused by lack of substance. It is more under the influence of learning and ext stimuli. c) Regulated much by social pressure and religious beliefs. d) Provides intense pleasure as well as can give us agony and involve in many difficult situations.
  22. 22. Achievement motivation 1. Achievement is task oriented behavior that allows the individuals performance to be evaluated according to some internally or externally imposed criterion. 2. Achievement may or may not involve the individual in competing with others 3 . Sources of achievement motivation are a) Modeling – Parents, Peers and other important people. b) Expectation – of Parents etc.
  23. 23. 4. Characteristic features of n ach people. a) They work on risky / challenging task which promises success. b) They work on task where their performance can be compared with others. 5. Significance of Achievement – n ach is related to society’s economic and business growth
  24. 24. 6. Factors Influencing n ach a) Fear of failure as motive said to inhibit expression of achievement behavior. b) Fear of success – it is proposed for high n ach women who do not like to work on moderately risky tasks. Thus there is gender difference in the expression of need for achievement c) Competition motivation – improves performance for people with low achievement motivation, but actually impairs performance for those in whom achievement motivation is strong.
  25. 25. Power motivation 1. Social power is the ability or capacity of a person produce consciously or unconsciously intended effect’s the behavior or emotions of another person. 2. The goals of power motivation are to influence, control, cajole, persuade, lead, charm others to enhance one’s own reputation in the eyes of other people.
  26. 26. 3. Characteristic features of need for power people a) Impulsive and aggressive action b) Participation in competitive sports. c) Joining of Organizations. d) The collections of possessions. e) Associate with who are not particularly popular. f) Choice of occupation which have high impact on others (teaching, diplomacy, business, clergy) g) the building or disciplining of body. (esp seen in women) h) Drinking and sexual domination of women
  27. 27. Machiavellianism (Niccolo Machiavelli, 1469-1527,The prince ) A special form of power motivation is characteristic of people who express their power motivation by exploiting others in a deceptive and unscrupulous fashion.
  28. 28. Aggression motive Aggression is a General term applying to behavior aimed at hurting other people. What are the forms of aggressions?  Physical or Verbal  Active or Passive  Direct or Indirect What are the types of aggression?  Instrumental aggression – The individual uses aggression as a way of satisfying some other motive.  Hostile aggression – Is behavior which has its goal the harming of other living being who is motivated to avoid such harm.
  29. 29. Causes and regulation of aggressive behavior. Aggression while it has biological basis is primarily under the control of social factors, environmental factors, and learning factors. Environmental and Social factors of aggression:  Frustration – aggression hypothesis – all aggressive behavior is caused by frustration. For it to result in aggression – there must be intense expectation on goal and it must be perceived as being the result of arbitrary action.  Verbal Insult / Negative evaluation from other – The most common every day source of aggression. This may result in vicious cycle of aggression when insult is perceived as harmful intent..
  30. 30.  Compliance with an authority who orders us to aggress against others.  Unpleasant or aversive environmental conditions (high temperature, intense noise, crowding etc) seen especially in people who have already been angered in someway.  Weapon effect (controversial cause) – The presence of weapon was found to increase the aggression of angered people
  31. 31. Learning factors of aggression:  Social learning theory – by imitating aggressive models eg: Mass media (Television and films) – moderately enhanced aggression seen especially among boys.  Classical conditioning Certain stimuli situation are paired with each others. ↓ Repetition of stimuli ↓ generalization ↓ Aggressive behavior towards many similar stimuli.
  32. 32. Instrumental conditioning Aggressive behavior ↓ Reinforcement / reward ↓ Habituated
  33. 33. How can human aggression be controlled Punishment:Examples of punishers are – chastisement, fines, loss of social acceptance, embarrassment, imprisonment.  Draw backs of punishment are – punishment is a frustrator, Itself is an aggressive act which provides a model of aggression.  Conditions where punishment may be effective are when it is strong, when the aggressor is relatively sure of receiving it, when perceived as legitimate / appropriate, when instigation relatively weak, pay off not great.
  34. 34.  Catharsis – (Venting on emotion). It helps in short term but not in long term. Complete relief occur when we vent it on the same person. • Non aggressive models  Attribution - The thoughts or cognitions we have about the reason for another’s aggression play a role in helping us control our own aggression.  Incompatible responses – Anger and aggression can be reduced by incompatible responses such as smiling, empathy and mild sexual arousal
  35. 35. Stimulus and Exploration Needs  Each of us have optimal level of arousal. To reach it, we tend to seek out and prefer stimuli that ate both novel and complex.  Eg: Traveling, Watching Television, movies, sports contests and plays.
  36. 36. Effectance Motivation • A General motive to act competently and effectively when interacting with environment and becoming master in it.  Eg: Baby learning to stand from sitting • It is intrinsic motivation
  37. 37. Self Actualization Motivation What is self actualization  It refers to an individual’s need to develop his or her potentialities in other words, to do what he or she is capable of doing.  Self actualizers are people who make the fullest use of their capabilities
  38. 38. Characteristic features of self actualization motivation • The Goals which are sought in meeting thus need vary from person to person.  It is thought to be the top need in a hierarchy of need or motives and most of us do not (Maslow, 1954) make it to the top of the ladder.
  39. 39. According to Abraham Maslow , 5 sets of hierarchy of needs , Going down wards to highest need are  Physiological needs such as hunger and sex.  Safety needs – such as need for security, stability and order. (Job security, social security). These preoccupy most of us.  Belongingness and love needs – such as need for affection, affiliation and identification Eg: Feeling a part of society or a segment of it via our churches, school or companies.  Esteem needs – such as need for prestige success and self respect.  Need for self actualization.
  40. 40. Feature of Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs  Lower needs must be satisfied before meeting higher on the list.  People can be trying to satisfy Several order of needs at a time. (Multi motivation). because – Many people who move ahead only to find as the situation surrounding them changes, that lower needs must be met again.
  41. 41. Motivational conflict • Conflicts between and among motives – expression of one motive interferes with expression of other motive.  It is the most important sources of frustration E.g : Aggression – social approval Sexual behavior – Society’s standards of approval Independence – affiliation Career aspiration – economic realities.
  42. 42. Approach – approach conflict  The person is attracted towards two incompatible positive goals at the same time  It is usually easy to resolve and generate little emotional behavior.
  43. 43. Avoidance – avoidance conflict  The person is caught between two repelling situations.  There are usually barriers in the periphery of the field that prevent the person from leaving the field.  People usually leave the conflict situation by defense mechanism – regression (recreating in mind a care free world of child hood).
  44. 44. Approach – avoidance conflict  The individual is attracted to a positive goal, but this goal has fear or threat associated with it.  This conflict is most difficult to resolve.  Multiple approach – avoidance conflict is one where two or more goals attract, at the same time repel.  
  45. 45. MEASUREMENT OF MOTIVATION Direct Methods  Information gathered directly from the primary sources  Eg: Personality Questionnaires, motivation scale, check list, naturalistic observation, interview, autobiography and other self descriptive measures.  
  46. 46. Indirect Methods    Persons is exposed to fairly ambiguous or unstructured stimulus situations.  How he projects to these situations gives clues to his motives.  Used when the subject is unaware or determined not to reveal his motive
  47. 47.  Eg. All the projective techniques like Rorschach Ink blot test,  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Child, Apperception Test  (CAT), the Blacky pictures, Drawing completion test,  Sentence completion technique, Word Association  technique, Role playing and Socio – Drama, etc.    In TAT: Standard set of pictures depicting various  people  in various situations presented and the person being tested  is asked to make up stories describing what is happening in  the pictures.
  48. 48. Experimental Methods:  Consists of the measures involving objective observation under controlled conditions.  Eg: Situational tests
  49. 49. References Morgan and king