Thesis Defense Presentation

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Thesis defense presentation of Justin Phillips (SDSU). "The Role of Relatedness and Autonomy in Motivation of Youth Physical Activity: A Self-Determination Perspective."

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Thesis Defense Presentation

  1. 1. THE ROLE OF RELATEDNESS AND AUTONOMY IN MOTIVATION OF YOUTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE 1
  2. 2. THESIS COMMITTEE Susan Levy Ph.D. Committee Chair, ENS faculty Simon Marshall Ph.D. Within-Dept. Committee member, ENS faculty Guadalupe X. Suchi Ayala, Ph.D. Outside-Dept. Committee member, PH faculty 2
  3. 3. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree MASTER OF ARTS IN KINESIOLOGY by Justin M. Phillips Spring 2009 3
  4. 4. THE ROLE OF RELATEDNESS AND AUTONOMY IN MOTIVATION OF YOUTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE 4
  5. 5. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY Deci and Ryan (1985) autonomy SD competence Motivation relatedness 5
  6. 6. THE MOTIVATIONAL CONTINUUM (Deci and Ryan, 1991) Threshold- Whitehead (1995) 6
  7. 7. FROM MOTIVATION TO BEHAVIOR Increase motivation... Oman and McAuley (1993) Ryan, Frederick, Lepes, Rubio & Sheldon (1997) Haggar, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse & Biddle (2003) Vierling, Standage, & Treasure, (2007) ...influence behavior. 7
  8. 8. AUTONOMY Deci and Ryan 1985 Ryan and Deci 2000 Contexts Demonstrating Strength Younger Older (Vierling et al., 2007) (Edmunds et al., 2008) Male Female (Reinboth et al., 2004) (Edmunds et al., 2008) Majority Minority (Hollembeak and Amorose, 2005) (Vierling et al., 2007) Exercise Education (Standage et al., 2003) (Black and Deci, 2000) Motivation Behavior (Mouratidis et al., 2008) (Markland & Ingledew, 2007) 8
  9. 9. COMPETENCE RELATEDNESS Deci and Ryan, Deci and Ryan, 2002 2000 Standage et. al, Standage et al., 2005 2003 McDonough & Reinboth, Duda & Crocker, 2007 Ntoumanis, 2004 9
  10. 10. RELATEDNESS & AUTONOMY SCHWARTZ, 2000: “INHERENT TENSION BETWEEN BEING ONE’S SELF AND MEANINGFUL INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL GROUPS.” VS. RYAN AND SOLKY, 1996: NEEDS FOR RELATEDNESS AND AUTONOMY ARE “MUTUALLY FACILITATIVE” 10
  11. 11. MARKLAND 1999 N = 146 women (M age= 35.5 yrs old) community-based exercise class unexpected interactive effect 11
  12. 12. PURPOSE The aim of this study is to determine if perceptions of autonomy moderate the relationship between relatedness and self-determined motivation. 12
  13. 13. HYPOTHESIS Perceptions of autonomy will moderate the relationship between relatedness and self- determined motivation in a youth exercise setting. Those with high levels of autonomy will see increased levels of relatedness associated with higher levels of self-determined motivation. 13
  14. 14. PROCEDURES Approval: Thesis committee, IRB, SD Unified, Hoover Principal, Cooperating Teachers, Parents, participants Recruitment: Targeted: N=124 for sufficient power Classes: grades 9-12, English - Physical Education Invitation: first 3-5 minutes of class Consent: Spanish and English versions Response: 22% rate (224 of approx. 950) Data collection over 4 weeks 14
  15. 15. PARTICIPANTS Males and Females Grades 9-12 Ages: Range 14-18 Mean 16.13 yrs SD (1.1) Ethnically diverse 15
  16. 16. SAMPLE DIVERSITY BY ETHNICITY African American Asian or Pacific Islander Hispanic/ Latino Native American or Alaska Native Caucasian Other Decline to State 16
  17. 17. PROCEDURES Measurement: Informed consent verified Directions read aloud Context defined “sport, games and play” 15-20 minutes to complete Anonymity maintained Incentives to participate Opportunity to withdraw 17
  18. 18. MEASURING PERCEPTIONS OF COMPETENCE Modified version of Harter’s (1985) athletic competence subscale of the Self- Perception Profile for Children. 6-item measure Measures perceptions of competence in a variety of physical settings. Reliability and validity evidence Reliability (r =.74 -.92) and validity (r = .74-.93) Previous usage: (Cox & Williams, 2008) & (Ridgers, Fazey, & Fairclough, 2007). 18
  19. 19. MEASURING PERCEPTIONS OF AUTONOMY 5-item measure Developed by Standage, Duda, and Ntoumanis, 2003 5-point likert scale “sport, games and play” substituted for “PE class” Cronbach’s alpha: .81(2003)/ .80 (2006) 19
  20. 20. MEASURING PERCEPTIONS OF RELATEDNESS Goodenow’s (1993) Psychological Sense and School Membership Scale (PSSMS) 6-items measure general feelings of relatedness in P.E. Cronbach’s alpha = .78 (Cox and Williams, 2008) Contextual modifications to tap perceptions of belongingness, as perceived in “sport, games and play” 20
  21. 21. MEASURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 2-item measure Developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001) Validated with adolescents wearing accelerometers. Behavior correlated with composite scores (r=.40) Intraclass test/ retest reliability (R= .77) 21
  22. 22. MEASURING SELF- DETERMINED MOTIVATION Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2: Markland & Tobin, 2004). 19-item measure; 5-point scale Integrated regulation subscale is not included. Single score for self-determined motivation (RAI): Simplex pattern should confirm the proposed SDT continuum. Validity and reliability evidence. 22
  23. 23. PILOT STUDY RESULTS Reliability evidence Quasi-simplex pattern 23
  24. 24. DATA ANALYSIS Cross-sectional design Descriptive statistics reported ANOVA : 2 (hi / low autonomy) X 2 (hi / low relatedness) Alpha set to .05 Bonferroni 24
  25. 25. RESULTS .70 “acceptable” criteria Nunnally and Bernstein (1994) Critical measures “reliable” with this sample Competence scale exception N = 224 25
  26. 26. RESULTS- MODERATION? No interaction observed F (1, 220) = .039, p> .05, =.000 Effect of relatedness on self-determined motivation did not depend on autonomy level 26
  27. 27. MAIN EFFECTS Sign. main effect for relatedness, F (1, 220) = 65.812, p < .001, =.238 Relatedness explained 23.8% of the variance in self-determined motivation Main effect for autonomy, F (1, 220)= 6.899, p< .05, =.032 was observed in the analysis Autonomy explained 3.2% of the variance in self-determined motivation 27
  28. 28. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY RESULTS Consistent with RAI results Figure demonstrates the lack of interaction: F (1, 211) = .582, p > . 05, = .003. Main effect for relatedness, F( 1, 211) = 17.786, p < .001, = .078. No main effect was observed for autonomy 28
  29. 29. DISCUSSION Theoretical Implications Findings support the use of SDT as guiding framework for examining motivation of youth in the exercise domain. Supports previous research suggesting relatedness to be especially important for students in the exercise domain. Consistent with Markland (1999), results potentially undermine the assertion that autonomy is central to feeling self-determined in sport, games and play. Affirms focus on addressing psychological outcomes, as psychological needs were positively associated with relevant behavioral outcomes. 29
  30. 30. DISCUSSION Practical Implications Work to increase PE TEACHERS: Consider opportunities for implementing community- psychological need building activities at the start fulfillment in sports, games of semesters and play. PARENTS: Encourage Recognize and capitalize on friendships that begin in the the demonstrated potency sport context. of perceptions of relatedness in sport, play and games. COACHES: Increase on- field motivation through off- field outings 30
  31. 31. FUTURE RESEARCH Investigate factors influencing a sense of belonging in youth domain-specific peer/ teacher/ coach/ parent mastery vs. performance environment Determine relevancy of SDT tenants across ethnicity and culture Seek further development and validation of relatedness measures 31
  32. 32. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS asks an important research relatively large SDs in question low-relatedness groups. diversity of sample size of pilot study use of previously validated measures variance in motivation explained by use of pilot study psychological needs = investigates both small to moderate psychological and behavioral outcomes 32
  33. 33. CONCLUSION Perceptions of autonomy may be less essential for high school students than assumed. Genuine feelings of belonging to a group are associated with increased levels of motivation in sport, games and play. Populations in need of intervention. Deeper insight may help us address levels of inactivity and increase PA participation for youth in the future, leading to positive outcomes for individuals in both physical and mental health. 33
  34. 34. THE ROLE OF RELATEDNESS AND AUTONOMY IN MOTIVATION OF YOUTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE 34

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