Underground mining Olga Shubkina Siberian Federal University e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @OlgaShubkina
Underground mining is done when the rocks, minerals,or gemstones are too far underground to get out with surfacemining.Some kinds of underground mining are: Borehole Mining Drift Mining Hard Rock Mining Shaft Mining Slope Mining
Borehole MiningIt can be used in open pit mining which is a kind of surface mining.With borehole mining: a hole is drilled deep enough into the ground to reach whatever is going to bemined; a long, tube-like tool is dropped into the hole; this tube has places for water to be forced down the tube and places where thewater can be pushed back up the tube; the water is forced down this tube; the stream of water breaks up the dirt and rock when it hits it; the water combines with the dirt, rock, and minerals to make a combinationcalled a slurry; the slurry is pumped back up to the surface where it is put into a storage tank; the water is drained and the ore is taken out of it; from that time on, the ore is treated depending on what it will be used for.
Drift MiningThis kind of mining is done when the rock or mineral is on the side of a mountain.This makes it an easy, cheaper way to mine.Whenever possible, the opening to the mine will be dug a little lower than the rockor mineral vein. This makes it easier to get the materials out because gravity helpsmove them downhill. The tunnels that are dug are horizontal and are called drifts.Drift mining was really dangerous in the early days. Many tunnels caved intrapping and killing miners.Ore was often mined this way. Ore is rock with minerals inside of it.
Hard Rock MiningHard rock mining is a kind of underground mining. With this kind, an opening ismade that is called an adit.Tunnels into the ground are dug, blasted with dynamite, or drilled out. Thesetunnels are called shafts. Shafts are dug straight down vertically into theground. Each shaft has a purpose. One shaft might be for miners to use to go inand out of the mine. One shaft might be just for mine machinery. Another shaft isused for air or ventilation.The tunnels in a hard rock mine are divided into rooms with rock pillars.Hard rock mining is one of the most dangerous kinds of mining: it can be very deep underground; some mines like coal ones have deadly gases in them.
Shaft miningThe shaft mine has a vertical manshaft, a tunnel where the men travel up anddown in an elevator. Equipment is taken into the mine using this shaft,too. Short tunnels to the ore are dug from that manshaft. When the ore isdynamited and broken into chunks, it is taken to the top and loaded into trucksthrough a second shaft. There is usually an airshaft that gives the mineventilation.
Slope minesWith slope mining, the coal or mineral bed is located very deep and parallel to theground. It is called a slope mine because the shafts are slanted.This kind of mining is done when there would be problems drilling shafts straightdown.
To take out the minerals out of the mine, the miners makeunderground rooms to work in. The mining companychooses the best way to get the minerals out. Mostmining is done using continuous mining that usesa continuous mining machine to cut coal from thewalls. This means there is less blasting and drilling andputs less miners down in the mines. It is safer than theold kind of mining.
Two of the ways that they mine underground are: Room and pillar mining: there are intersecting rooms with pillars of coal thathold up the roof. These pillars are mined when the mine, or a part of it, areclosing. They are careful when they do this because the roof caves in as theyleave. Longwall mining: usually a machine called a continuous miner slices layers ofcoal or minerals from the walls.
Rocks, minerals, and gemstones that are mined using the underground mining method:Alexandrite Amethyst Biotite Calcite Chalcopyrite Magnetite Muscovite NickelCopper Diamond Gold Emerald Galena/Lead Graphite Gypsum Halite/SaltHematite Olivine/Peridot Platinum Pyrite Ruby Silver Sphalerite Sulfur TurquoiseUraninite Zinc
Machinery used for underground mining: Dump trucks Shuttle car Continuous miner Longwall mining equipment Getman Underground Mining Equipment