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Naip proposal book

  1. 1. NAIP Full ReseARch PRoPosAl A Value of Chain on CompositeDairy Foods with Enhanced Health Attributes Funded by: National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) Indian council of Agricultural Research (IcAR) (component - 2) Consortium Partners: National Dairy Research Institute Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology, Ludhiana Arpana Research & Charities, Madhuban, Karnal New Millennium Health Foods Pvt. Ltd., Noida
  2. 2. Published by: Director, National Dairy Research Institute, (Deemed University) Karnal-132001, India Tel: 0184-2252800 Fax: 0184-2250042Compiled &: Dr. A.K. Singh & Dr. Gopal SankhalaEdited byPrinted by: Intech Printers & Publishers # 353, Ground Floor, Mughal Canal Market, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana Contact No. 0184-4043541, 3292951 E-mail:
  3. 3. ContEntsNAIP Full Research Proposal 1Abstract 3Value chains : Before intervention & After intervention 8Detailed Research Proposal 17Major achievements/ technologies/ success stories emanating from the center 31Brief Resume of Consortium Leader 77Brief Resume of Consortium Principal Investigator 78Brief Resume (Dr. A.A. Patel) 80Brief Resume (Dr. S. Balasubramanian) 82Brief Resume (Dr. Nepal Singh) 85Environmental and Social Safeguards Management in NAIP 86
  4. 4. NAIP Full ReseARch PRoPosAlTitle of proposal : A value Chain on Composite Dairy Foods with Enhanced Health AttributesComponent code : 02Consortium Leader : Dr. A. K. Srivastava Director & Vice Chancellor, NDRI (Deemed University), KarnalName of CPI : Dr. Ashish Kumar Singh, Senior Scientist, Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, KarnalName of Co PI : Dr. A. A. Patel, Head & Principal Scientist, DT Division, NDRI, KarnalInstitution : National Dairy Research Institute, KarnalMailing Address : Dairy Technology Division National Dairy Research Institute Karnal-132001 (Haryana) Phone – 0184-2259291, 2259240 Fax – 91-184-2250042 Email – aksndri@gmail.comConsortium partners Public : 1. Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology,Institutions PAU Campus, Ludhiana NGO 1. Arpana Research & Charities, Madhuban, karnal-132001 : Industry 1. M/S New Millennium Health foods Pvt. Ltd.., Noida :Linkages International 1. Cornell University, USA. 2. University of Georgia, Athens, USA : 1. NIN, Hyderabad, 2.SHGs, 3.Consultants 4. Dairy and Food Industry, 5. Society for Innovation and National Entrepreneurship in Dairying (SINED), National Dairy Research Institute, karnal-132001 : 6. Farmers 7. Government OrganizationDate of start of proposal : 1st March, 2009Planned duration : 3 1/2 years 1
  5. 5. Fund Requirement Type of Budget head Proposed budget % of Total expenditure (Rs. In lakhs) TA (National Travel) 7.700 2.72 Workshops/Meetings etc 2.500 0.88 Contractual Services 34.210 12.08 International & National Training / Conference 14.500 5.12 Recurring attendance including training conducting 2. Consultancy (national & international) 0.00 0.00 HRD sub-total 58.91 20.81 Operational Expenses 81.430 28.76 Sub-Total 140.34 49.57 Indigenous & Imported Equipment 122.850 43.39 Works (new & renovation) 2.000 0.72 Furniture (lab and office) 2.500 0.88 Non-Recurring Others (Books, Journals, soft ware) 4.750 1.67 Institutional charges 10.636 3.75 Sub-Total 142.736 50.43 Grand Total 283.076 100.00 Funds requested from NAIP Indirect support of scientists’ salary, support Funds available from other sources services, infrastructural amenities to about Rs.100 lakhs/year. The institute has model dairy plant, food processing incubator, quality testing labs besides (Non tangible) resource personnel. Expected Resource Generation/ Year Rs. 10 lakhs per year2
  6. 6. I. AbstRActA spectacular achievement in almost every agricultural sector since independence has en-abled the country to be placed among top most nations. However, every segment of the so-ciety have not been benefited by these achievements and still hunger and prevalence of mal-nutrition is on rise. India has the largest number of the under-weight and low birth weightchildren. According to an estimate more than 75% children are anemic. 57% suffer with sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency and similar scenario exists with women as well. In the recentpast the growth rate agriculture sector has slowed down considerably, posing a serious threatto food security, nutritional security and moreover to farming community. Newer challengeslike climate change, depleting water table, faster erosion of soil nutrients, multifold increasein incidence of pests and diseases are emerging at global level. A two pronged policy ap-proach to solve food insecurity and malnutrition is needed; continued and increased growthof the agricultural sector and revitalization of nutrition-centered farming systems based onminor cereals, millets, oilseeds and leguminous crops. Minor cereal and millet crops whichcan be grown under diverse agro-climatic conditions, with lesser inputs and at the same timepossess unique nutrients and bioactive components that may promote health of consumersspecially those belongs to less privileged groups. The value addition and by-product utiliza-tion scenario in our country is quite dismal resulting in huge losses in revenues, poor returnsto farmers and unavailability of quality nutrients to masses.Indian dairy sector with over 100 MT milk productions and 20% level of processing is consideredas source of livelihood for 70 million farmers. The pace and the level of value addition in dairyindustry are better if compared with other food processing sector. However substantial amountof skim milk and some other by-products including whey, could not be processed due to thelack of alternatives. Technological advancements and nutritional benefits milk solids present inby-products offer an opportunity to utilize them for product development. Dairy based foodsalways have been an integral part of our rich cultural heritage and the nutritional advantagesassociated with consumption of these products is unparallel. The proposed project has beenconceptualize to investigate the opportunities for effective utilization of milk by-products andtwo neglected agricultural crops viz. pearl millet and barley, by developing nutritious andhealth foods. The technological packages for such food products encourage farmers to cultivateimproved cultivars on larger scales, sell their produce at higher price and thus improve theirlivelihood. Successful commercialization and marketing strategy formulation provide greatscope to industry to develop nutritious and functional dairy foods with specified nutrientsand health target.the following researchable gaps are identified:¾ Absence of efficient and sustainable processing technologies for utilization of milk by- products i.e. whey and skim milk¾ Decline in production and consumption of minor agricultural commodities like pearl millet & barley due to absence of suitable varieties and appropriate value addition technologies. 3
  7. 7. ¾ Unutilized nutritional and bioactive components present in pearl millet & barley for human consumption ¾ Absence of low cost complementary foods based on milk by-products and pearl millet & barley malt in the Indian market. ¾ Unexplored promising technological packages for composite dairy foods with enhanced health attributes, based on milk by-products and underutilized pearl millet and barley grains. ¾ Lack of nutritional profiling data and validated health effects of composite dairy foods meant for specific target groups ¾ Absence of effective marketing, technology transfer and entrepreneurship strategies for promotion and adoption of newer health foods for successful commercialization based on the identified gaps, the proposal focuses on the following objectives: ¾ To harness the nutritional and therapeutic potential of milk by-products (whey and skim milk) and underutilized plant species (pearl millet & barley) for development of functional foods ¾ To develop technological package for composite dairy foods (complementary foods, fortified convenience foods and probiotic milk-cereal foods) with enhanced health attributes ¾ To validate the consumer acceptability and targeted health benefits composite dairy foods ¾ To assess the techno-economic feasibility of the newly developed technologies through linkages with industry, marketing personnel and Self-help group list of Innovations ¾ Membrane processing technologies for milk by-product utilization in formulation and manufacture of health foods ¾ Suitable varieties of pearl millet and barley for processing and product development ¾ Primary processing equipments for pearl millet & barley ¾ Low cost complementary foods based on milk by-products and minor agricultural commodities 1. Validated health benefits and nutritional profiling of composite health foods 2. Communication and extension tools for creation of awareness among society for enhanced consumption of composite dairy foods 3. Entrepreneurship development for processing of pearl millet, barley and milk by- products processing 4. Technology transfer for commercialization of composite dairy foods to industry, entrepreneurship and Self Help Group (SHG’s) using concept of Technology Business Incubator (TBI)4
  8. 8. III. list of consortia partners and addresses Consortium Name of the Full address with Phone S.No. Designation Partners Collaborative PIs Fax and Email A NDRI, Karnal Dr. A. A. Patel Head & Principal Dairy Technology Division (Co PI) Scientist (Dairy National Dairy Research Institute Technology) Karnal-132001 (Haryana) Phone – 0184-2259291, 2259240 Fax – 91-184-2250042 B CIPHET Dr. S. Balasubramanian Senior Scientist Food Grains and Oilseeds Ludhiana Processing Division Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology PAU Campus,Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab (M): 09915649680 C ARPANA Mrs. Aruna Dayal Project Officer ARPANA Head Office, Madhuban, Karnal (Haryana)-132037 Ph. 0184-2380806, 9896431695 D M/S New Dr. Nepal Singh Managing New Millennium Health Foods Millennium Director Pvt. Ltd. G-25, Site-B UPSIDC Health foods Industrial Area, Greater Noida (UP) Pvt. Ltd. Noida Ph. No. +919910063214, Email. singhnepal@gmail.comsignatures of Representatives of consortium Partners1. Dr. Balasubramanian Co PI CIPHET. Ludhiana _________________________2. Mrs. Aruna Dayal, Co PI ARPANA, Karnal. _________________________3. Dr. Nepal Singh, Co PI New Millennium Health Foods Pvt. Ltd. Pvt. Ltd. Noida __________________________ 5
  9. 9. This application is submitted by Lead institution for this Consortium on behalf of all other partners. It has been made with the full agreement of the participating institutions after several interaction sessions. The application is approved by the Heads of the Lead Consortium, together with those of Co PIs of (Consortia Partners) all institutions agree to provide logistic and administrative support as necessary. Participating institutions agree to allow the CPI and Co PIs to devote adequate time and undertake tours, etc., as required. Consortium Leader will discharge his duties for facilitation functions and undertake monitoring and timely reporting on this project. Accounts will be maintained and funds disbursed and project implementation supervised in accordance with ICAR/ NAIP guidelines for handling NAIP funds. The Consortium leader and the Consortium partners solemnly declare that they will be abided by the ICAR guidelines on IPR on the issues arising out of this project. (Dr. Ashish Kumar Singh) (Dr. A. K. Srivastava) Consortium Principal Investigator Head of Lead Consortium Date: 14.10.2008 Date: 14.10.20086
  10. 10. IV. AbbreviationsAbbreviation Expansion of abbreviationASF Agriculture Science FoundationCFTRI Central Food Technological Research Institute (Mysore)CL Consortium LeaderCMU Consortium Monitoring UnitCo-PI Co Principal InvestigatorCPI Consortium Principal InvestigatorCIPHET Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & TechnologyGMP Good manufacturing PracticesHACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control PointICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research (New Delhi)ICMR Indian Council of Medical ResearchIPR Intellectual Property RightsNAIP National Agricultural Innovation Project (New Delhi)NCD Non Communicable disordersNDRI National Dairy Research InstituteNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationNIN National Institute of NutritionPRA Participatory Rural AppraisalRRA Rural Rapid AppraisalSHG Self Help GroupsSINED Society for Innovation in Entrepreneurship and DairyingWPC Whey Protein Concentrate 7
  11. 11. VAlue chAINs : beFoRe INteRVeNtIoN & AFteR INteRVeNtIoN8
  12. 12. 9
  13. 13. V. Details of lead consortium applying for research proposal 1. Date of establishment of the institution: 1953 2. Mandate of the Institution ¾ To undertake basic and applied research in the area of Dairying covering production, processing, economics and management ¾ To develop Dairy Farming Systems for different agro-climatic conditions and demonstrate models for transfer of technology ¾ To organize and conduct programmes at under-graduate and post-graduate levels in various branches of dairy science ¾ To organize short term specialized training programmes and vocational courses ¾ To collaborate with National and International agencies for dairy research and developments ¾ To provide consultancy to Dairy Industry, Dairy Farmers and other Dairy Development Agencies ¾ To act as Referral Centre on Dairy Research 3. Full Address with Fax/ e-mail National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University) Karnal-132001 (Haryana) Phone No. +91-1842259002, 2252800, 2259004 Fax No. +91-184-2250042 e-mail: 4. Name and Address of the head of Institution Dr. A. K. Srivastava, Director & Vice Chancellor, National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University) Karnal-132001 (Haryana) Phone No. +91-1842259002, 2252800, 2259004 Fax No. +91-184-2250042 e-mail: dir@ndri.res.in10
  14. 14. 5. brief details of work done by the consortium leader and associates in the area of the proposalNational Dairy Research Institute, Karnal has a strong tradition of research in the area of dairyand food processing. The institute since its establishment in 1953 at Karnal is continuouslyworking for development of technological packages for dairy products, analytical tools forquality assurance and training of entrepreneurs & industry personnel in the field of milkprocessing. Some of the work that has been done at the institute are listed here:¾ Ethnic dairy foods: Technologies have been developed for indigenous dairy products, which were hitherto in the strict domain of halwais. Many of these technologies have been successfully commercialized. In order to trap the overseas market shelf-life extension innovations has successfully developed including retort processing, hurdle technology application for long-life milk cake & paneer curry.¾ Convenience traditional dairy products: Innovative processes for ready-to-reconstitute (RTC) convenience mixes like RTC rasmalai mix, basundi mix, kheer mix, instant dalia mix, have been developed..¾ Dairy products with enhanced health attributes: Dairy foods with enhanced health attributes such as probiotic cheese and dahi, sports drinks, low cholesterol ghee, arjuna herbal ghee and products like dietetic ice cream and low calorie sweets have also been developed at NDRI. Many of these products have been already transferred to industry.¾ By-product Utilization: Whey has been utilized in beverages such as flavoured dairy drink, lassi, fruit-based drinks and soups. Membrane technology has been harnessed successfully for the efficient utilization of whey. Prime among these are preparation of whey protein concentrates, whey powder and lactose. Technologies of certain whey based dairy drinks & soups have already transferred to dairy processing units for commercial production.¾ Natural preservatives: Food-grade bacteriocin-based preservative formulations have been developed. These have been successfully used for extending the shelf life of a wide range of processed dairy products.¾ Mechanization: The institute also has done pioneering work in mechanization of processes for the manufacture of traditional dairy products.¾ Quality and safety: Continuous and parallel efforts have also been made to enhance and maintain the quality of the processed foods through development of rapid detection kits for adulterants and antibiotic residues. Work has also been successfully carried out for establishing the genotoxicity of sucralose and estimation of levels of artificial sweeteners and their degradation products in processed dairy products¾ Biotechnological interventions: PCR based kits for detection of food pathogens and a plasmid-based food grade cloning and expression vector host system for lactobacilli have been developed. High-level expression of buffalo chymosin Pichia Pastoris was achieved which may find application in cheese industry as rennet substitute 11
  15. 15. 6. list of scientific human Resources Available for the Proposal with Name, Designation and Area of specialization NDRI, Karnal lead centre No. Name Designation Area of Specialization 1 Dr A. A. Patel Head and Principal scientist Dairy Technology 2 Dr R. R. B. Singh Senior scientist Dairy Technology 3 Dr Suman Kapila Senior scientist Animal Biochemistry 4 Dr Lata Sabikhi Senior scientist Probiotic & functional foods 5 Dr Sumit Arora Senior scientist Dairy Chemistry 6 Dr Vivek Sharma Senior scientist Dairy Chemistry 9 Dr S. K. Tomer Senior scientist Dairy Microbiology 10 Dr Gopal Sankhala Senior scientist Dairy Extension 11 Dr. S.K. Kanawjia Principal scientist Dairy & fermented Foods 12 Dr. A.K. Chauhan Principal scientist Dairy Economics and Statistics 13 Dr. Ravinder Malhotra Senior Scientist Dairy Economics and Statistics 14 Dr. Rajeev Kapila Senior Scientist Animal Biochemistry Division 15 Dr. D. K. Gosain Head, KVK, NDRI Village level Extension cIPhet, ludhiana No. Name Designation Area of Specialization Post Harvest process & Food Engineering 1 Dr. S. Balasubramaniam Senior Scientist (Millet processing) Post Harvest Process & Food Engineering 2 Dr. K. K. Singh Head & Principal Scientist (Cereal Processing) 3 Dr. D. N. Yadav Senior Scientist Food Science & Technology ARPANA Research & charities, Madhuban, Karnal No. Name Designation Area of Specialization Director Rural 1 Mrs. Aruna Dayal Community development Development 2 Mr. Ish Bhatnagar Project Officer Community development & 3 Mrs. Mamta Rehan Project Officer Rural community development12
  16. 16. M/New Millennium health Foods Pvt. ltd., Noida No. Name Designation Area of Specialization 1 Dr. Nepal Singh Managing Director Food Technology7. list of research projects presently handled by consortium leader, period, costsand source of funds thereofAs the consortium leader and also as the head of the NDRI Deemed University he is involved inthe following major research programmes in implementation, monitoring at advisory level. S. Title of the project Project cost Source of funding (role of CL) in lakh No Production of competent donor cells from skin 1 fibroblasts of elite Sahiwal cattle for gene expression/ 41.00 DBT nuclear transfer studies 2 Buffalo production and reproduction genomics 202.37 ICAR Niche Area Elucidating the physiological and genomic regulation 3 process of follicular development, oocyte maturation and 602.91 NAIP embryogenesis in buffalo Impact, Adaptation and vulnerability of Indian Agriculture 4 61.95 Network Project to climate change Increasing the anti-carcinogenic potency of buffalo 5 milk by enhancing its CLA Content through dietary 26.03 DBT modification Cloning expression & production of haemeproteins 6 by yeast in fermenters for combating nutritional iron 79.00 DBT deficiency Exploring Propioni bacteria as a potential source of 7 vitamin B-12 and functional probiotic ingredient in a dairy 62.69 DBT based nutraceutical formulation Development of molecular techniques for identification 8 80.09 DBT and typing of indigenous probiotic cultures Development of probiotic dahi for immune system 9 modulation cholesterol lowering and anti-carcinogenic 38.30 DBT attributes Agroweb-Digital Dissemination system for Indian 10 39.00 NAIP Agricultural Research- Development of microbial based “on farm” rapid kits for Ministry of Food 11 the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk during 41.00 Processing production and processing Industries (MOFPI) Ministry of Food Development of block and real time PCR kits for multi- 12 58.00 Processing pathogen detection for application in dairy industry Industries (MOFPI 13
  17. 17. 8. collaborative programmes of the consortium leader with other research centers – title, Institutions involved, Project cost, and source of funding for 5 years S.No Title of the project Project cost Source of funding (role of CL) in lakh Network project on “R&D support for process 1 up-gradation of indigenous milk products for 200.00 Network ICAR industrial application” Development of biosensors and micro-techniques 2 for analysis of pesticide residues aflatoxin, heavy 218.13 NAIP, BITS, Goa metals and bacterial contamination in milk Uncertainty reduction in methane and nitrous 3 25.43 NATCOM-UNFCC oxide emission from Indian Livestock Rumen microbial manipulations for mitigation of National fund, NANIAP, 4 methane emission and productivity enhancement 112.64 IVRI in dairy animals Development of estrus synchronization 5 protocols in Mithun (Bos Frontalis) for fixed time 15.63 NRC, Mithun insemination 9. Major Achievements/ technologies emanating from the work of consortium leader The consortium leader has been working in the area Pharmacology & Toxicology, including of food safety aspects, since last 27 years at various capacities. During this period he has handled various research projects in various capacities and diverse nature. As Director & Vice Chancellor of NDRI Deemed University he has made a significant impact in initiating new research projects in dairying. During this period he has been instrumental in collaborating with National and International Institutions and funding agencies. He has organized many conferences, symposiums, seminars and workshop, field days, exhibitions to educate and popularize issues related to milk and milk products such as processing, nutritional, therapeutic role, and quality & safety aspects. These functions were attended by a large number of people including scientists, industry personnel, students, farmers, entrepreneurs and officials. He has guided several masters and doctoral students. His major research areas are pesticides and drug residues in milk & milk products, rationalization of antibiotic doses regimen, modes of drug administration, diagnostic, toxicology and development of new techniques and new line of treatments. Some of his significant contributions are as follows: Establishment of residue limits of antibiotics, pesticides, minerals, and heavy metals in body fluids, tissues, milk & milk products 1. Development of a new line of treatment for organophosphate insecticides toxicity. The new treatment included DAM and Atropine. DAM is easily available at low cost in India as compare to other AchE reactivators14
  18. 18. 2. Computation of exact dosages regimen of about 35 antimicrobial drugs for treatment of cattle and buffaloes leading to reduction in the cost of treatment3. Recommendation for parenteral antibiotic administration for treatment of mastitis and endometritis in place of intramammary and intrauterine infusion, respectively. The recommendation has been adopted by field veterinarians.4. Diagnosis of impending toxicosis of selenium. Fluorine and lead in buffaloes5. Establishment of physiological values of esteroses in different species of animals6. As a Consortium leader he has been instrumental for submission of concept note and further development of project proposal actively. Further he will be involved in guiding, reviewing, monitoring and providing administrative, institutional and technical support to the NAIP project. He will lead from the front in developing further linkages with other institutions. Further, he would identify appropriate personnel and institutions for training under HRD.10. Management structure of the lead consortium (R&D only) 15
  19. 19. 12. Justify how the lead consortium is equipped to implement the research programme under NAIP National Dairy Research Institute is the premier research organizational of the nation dedicated for providing R & D and Human Research Development (HRD) support towards dairy development programme in the country. The Institute has 3 major areas of R & D activities viz. I) Dairy Production II) Dairy Processing III) Dairy Extension/Management, All the R&D activities are managed through 11 research divisions/Sections, namely Dairy Technology, Dairy microbiology, Dairy Chemistry etc. The Institute has a Agriculture Technology Information Centre ( ATIC) & Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK). The Institute has infrastructure consisting of central facilities such as Livestock Farm, Fodder Farm, Model Dairy Plant, Experimental Dairy Plant, Consultancy Unit, Agriculture Technology Information Centre (ATIC) etc. Scientists of the Institute have direct interaction/interface with the farmers through frequent field visits to understand their problems and initiate their research programmes accordingly. Grameen Dairy Melas, Kisan Sangostitis and off-campus training programmes are being organized in the adopted villages to bring awareness among dairy farmers. R & D efforts of the scientists at NDRI has added value to research by the way of development of new functional dairy products e.g. long life milk cake, Instant basundi mix, Instant rasmalai mix, Milk-cereal based fermented foods, Extended shelf life mango lassi, probiotic dahi. Animal trials of these fabricated foods for non-communicable disease such as Diabetes, cancer etc. have proved its efficacy. The Research Labs at NDRI are equipped with latest sensitive analytical instruments for carrying out research in most advanced areas of Dairying. A Technology Business Incubator (TBI) has also been made fully functional, in order to promote innovation and Entrepreneurship in Dairying. 13. Registration No. etc.: same as that of IcAR16
  20. 20. VI. DetAIleD ReseARch PRoPosAl1. IntroductionIndia is among the top producers of food grains, milk, inland & marine fisheries, fruits,vegetables, spices, egg & poultry products, herbs, sugarcane, tea and oilseeds. This feat hasbeen achieved through judicious application of technological developments in the field ofagriculture and animal sciences. Technology has a crucial role in addressing the issues pertainingto food production, processing and marketing. Continued growth of the agricultural sectoris important as it plays a pivotal role in improving the livelihood of farming communitiesalong with ensuring the food security of the nation. National Academy of Agricultural Science(NAAS), in its deliberations a few years ago emphasized on ensuring nutritional security ratherthan food security alone.Farming is both a way of life and the principal means of livelihood to 65% of rural Indians. Oneof the major problems that the Indian farmers are facing is the poor returns on their producelargely owing to highly inefficient supply chain, presence of intermediaries and low level ofprocessing (2 - 15%) coupled with huge post harvest losses (20 – 30% in perishables. Level ofprocessing and export scenario is quite dismal in all food categories thus becoming a majorburden on growing economy. Indian food processing industry, which is in its nascent stageand worth 26 billion US $ contributes about 8% to GDP. The richness of agricultural diversityand rise in per capita income offer are great prospects for Indian food industry, including dairysector. India’s middle class- 583 million -is the backbone of Indian food sector as they spendapproximately Rs. 380 billion US $ on food items which is expected to reach Rs. 1.5 trillion $by 2025.Although, the extent of progress in agricultural, industrial and on economic fronts havebeen enormous, a survey indicates that approximately 50% of Indian children under age ofthree years are underweight, 39% are stunted, 20% are severely malnourished, and 80% areanemic. According to another report 6000 children die due to malnutrition or lack of essentialmicronutrients in diet. Surprisingly more than 70% of the Indian population consumes lessthan 50% of the RDA of micronutrients. Child malnutrition is not only responsible for 22% ofIndia’s disease burden and about 50% of 2.3 billion child mortality, but is also a serious economichazard. The loss due to micronutrient deficiency cost India 1% of its GDP that amounts to Rs.27,770 million. On the other front processing operations involving in conversion of raw material into widerange of value added foods often generate various by-products. According to an estimate,agricultural by-products from all crops, livestock and fisheries sector amounts to be about700 million tones annually. At present by-product utilization is approximately 25% and byapplying appropriate strategic interventions these can be converted into nutritional foodproducts. Conversion of milk into various value added dairy products results in generationof three important by-products namely whey, skim milk and butter milk. Whey is the largestby-product of the dairy industry both in terms of volume and milk solids, as it contains50% of milk solids including whey proteins, lactose, minerals, water soluble vitamins andresidual lipids. Whey is obtained during the manufacture of coagulated and fermented dairy 17
  21. 21. products like cheeses, casein, paneer, chhanna, and shrikhand. In recent years the demand for cheeses, coagulated indigenous dairy products and casein has increased tremendously. Recent statistics suggests that around one million tone of whey is produced in India annually and it corresponds to approximately 70,000 tones of whey nutrients (Parekh, 2007). Whey contains approximately 50% of milk nutrients and rich source of lactose, whey proteins, minerals and water soluble vitamins. Whey proteins are rich source of all essential amino-acids. Their higher biological value (104) and protein digested corrected amino - acid score (PDCAS) of 1.00 making them superior than other dietary proteins. The sulphur containing amino-acids i.e. cysteine and methionine are also reported to be on the higher side than meat, soy and casein. Tryptophan, which acts as building block for niacin, is present in higher amount in whey proteins. Dietary whey proteins have a number of putative and biological effects when ingested. The ability of whey proteins to increase the level of natural anti-oxidants (glutathione) within the body and possibly in stabilizing DNA during cell division is emerging as premier contribution towards its therapeutic potential in diet. Use of cheese whey as a beverage in human nutrition, especially for therapeutic purpose can be traced back to 460 BC. Hippocrates, the legendary Greek physician, is reported to have prescribed whey for an assortment of human ailments. Liquid whey can be utilized as such or in concentrated form as whey powder or for the production of higher value added products like lactose, whey protein concentrates (WPC) or whey protein isolates (WPI). Liquid whey has also been utilized for the manufacture of a wide range of beverages and soups over the years and now a number of such products are available to consumers. However, in India despite the demand for natural nutritious drinks or beverages the commercial production of whey based drinks is still in infancy, most probably due to low profit margins. In organized sectors a few companies have initiated production of whey based beverages and soups which are becoming popular day by day. At present most of the whey produced in India is drained off creating environmental pollution because of its high BOD value (45000 ppm), at the same time losing quality nutrients means for human consumption. India is among the leading producers of minor cereals and millets. However, production and consumption are restricted to only certain geographical locations and mostly used for local consumption and as animal feed. The introduction of improved cultivars that have been developed with specific traits and suitable for processing will provide an alternative to farmers for crop diversification and also offer them better price in market. Minor cereals and millets are invariably grown in highly undulated lands of semi-arid and mountainous regions of tropics and sub-tropics, where monsoon failure and drought are frequent and soil fertility is poor. Traditional agriculture in these regions has found more dependability on these minor crops because of their extreme hardiness. The threat to genetic diversity of minor crops arises not from introduction of improved varieties but from their neglect and replacement of commercial or non-food crops. Coarse grains have been important in diets of poor. They are relatively rich in proteins, minerals and vitamins in comparison to conventional cereal crops. The nutritional significance of these crops lies in their richness in micronutrients like calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins and sulphur containing amino acids. The functionality of starch is comparable to other cereals and the higher proportion of non-starchy polysaccharides, dietary fiber and low18
  22. 22. glycemic index make them an ideal ingredient in many food formulations meant for communitynutrition along with milk solids and certain other foods. In recent years consumer awarenesshas led to revitalized interests for health promoting components that can be eaten as a part ofdaily diet. It has led to the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals. These products havea special significance in a country like India where malnutrition and infectious diseases remaina silent emergency. In our country a significant proportion of the population is vulnerable tohidden hunger and very high rates of mortality occur due to coronary heart-diseases (CHDs),cancer and diabetes; all related to diet.Functional foods constitute the fastest growing segment in world food market. “FunctionalFoods” and “nutraceuticals” currently lack a uniform definition. It includes products thatprovide essential nutrients often beyond quantities necessary for normal maintenance, growthand development, and/or other biologically active components that impart health benefits ordesirable physiological effects (Mac Aulay et al, 2005). These products are similar to conventionalfoods in organoletpic attributes except that they have been enriched or formulated withingredients possessing proven health benefits. Examples of functional foods include calcium-enriched milk, probiotic dairy foods, phytosterol containing margarine and fiber enrichedbakery foods among others. With its strong tradition for healthy eating, India ranks among thetop ten buyers of functional foods and this segment is generating US $ 6.8 billion in annualrevenue, the amount expected to double by the end of 2010 (Ismail, 2005).“Diversification” is the key word for sustainability of anything may it be agriculture or industry.However, diversification will not succeed until it is of commercial significance. There is greatscope for developing processing technologies for utilization of minor agricultural crops forthe manufacture of novel foods with unique nutritional and therapeutic profile. Consideringthe popularity of cereal-based milk foods for their health benefits and excellent organoletpicqualities, the major task that lies ahead is to design these basic ingredients into products thathelp in alleviating the malnutrition and also appeal to the sophisticated palates of educatedand health conscious consumers. Milk-minor cereal combination based foods in differentforms as extruded, flaked, roasted, popped dietary formulations and as fermented foods withprobiotic organisms for combating the infectious diseases like diarrhea, is the very attractiveoptions in this regard. Therefore, it is proposed to develop novel milk foods incorporating dairyby-products and minor millets with enhanced and specific health attribute. The generation oftechnological reservoir and dissemination to end user could go a long way in solving problemsof value addition of such “underutilized Plant Species” and milk by-products. This may alsoprovide low cost nutritious dairy foods that can combat problem of malnutrition and infectiousdiseases and generate newer employment avenues.Food safety is another major concern across the world. The increase in world food trade andthe advent of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreements under the ambit of WorldTrade Organization (WTO) have led to requirement of recognition and adoption of foodsafety measures. The capacity of India to penetrate world markets depends on its ability tomeet various merging challenges both at production and processing level. It could only bepossible through research initiatives for storage and processing of food raw materials, novelfood product development, development of indigenous processing equipments, appropriatepackaging materials and techniques and rapid and reliable quality control methods. 19
  23. 23. 2. Rationale the scope and nature of the problem that we wish to research Use of whey in food system has been under active consideration by the dairy processors in the recent years because of the growing global food shortage and increasing whey processing cost for disposal and antipollution regulations. The whey utilization in food products is limited by the higher cost of processing required for its conversion into ingredients like whey powder, WPC, WPI, lactose and milk minerals. Liquid whey can only be used in formulation of products like drinks, soups and other beverages. Hence, there is a need to convert whey into intermediates like concentrates and retentates that can be used as nutrient-rich fractions for composite dairy foods. Moreover, suitability of different whey systems has to be evaluated for determining the kind of treatment required for its optimum uses. Our research showed that skim milk-whey blends can be used as base material for development of flavoured drinks, lassi-like beverage of excellent quality. The application of whey and skim milk for manufacture of special food items seems to be the most logistic way for minimizing the loss of milk solids. Minor agricultural crops including minor cereals and millets are a group of plants with short slender culms and small grains possessing remarkable ability to survive under severe drought. Presence of thick pericarp, pigments, certain phenolics, anti-nutrients, and absence of primary processing equipments are the major hurdles in consumption of these crops for widespread consumption. It is largely confined to home scales that render many of these valuable nutrients unavailable to human beings. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is another minor cereal crop endowed with certain unique functionality that can be exploited in formulation of several products. However, in our country barley cultivation is usually restricted to its use as fodder crop and very small amount is consumed as malted flour (sattu) in certain ethnic groups. Some industries have started industrial malt production that is mainly used for brewing purpose. Malting process resulted in generation of number of intermediateries like malted flour, malt extract that may be included in formulation of wide range of processed health foods. The collaborative work between NDRI and Directorate of Wheat Research (DWR) indicated the suitability of certain newer cultivars for production of malted-milk products. Among the millet crops, India is the largest producer of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) with an estimated production of 11.79 MT. It is fourth most important food crop in India and in recent years the pearl millet production area has declined considerably. The most of the produce is consumed locally in the form of traditional foods and majority of the nutrients remain unavailable to consumers because of the presence of anti-nutrients. The processing mediated inactivation of anti-nutrients could be applied for enhanced nutrient availability and product development. Majority of health foods attract little effective demand in Indian market and have to face competitions from established brands. The recent growth and upward trend of Indian food market offer new opportunities for the development of such health foods by judicious blend of whey-skim milk-barley-pearl millet, into convenient, long-life form with proven health benefits to consumers. At our institute we have recently developed cereal-milk based20
  24. 24. composite dairy foods such as instant kheer mix, instant Dalia mix, malted milk beverage,malted milk ice cream, doda barfi, malted-milk caramel, low fat gulabjamun mix and bajralassi. Successful commercialization of these newer ranges of dairy foods depends on wideracceptability, profitable marketing and sustainability. Through this project we are aimed tocreate opportunities for value addition for neglected commodities like whey, skim milk, pearlmillet and barley by applying the advanced scientific, technical, marketing and entrepreneurshipskills in the interest of farming community.Delineate the importance of the problem in the context of national /addressregional priorities and solving the constraints¾ Effective utilization of whey for health foods manufacture will create a “win-win” situation for dairy industry. As off now a substantial amount of milk nutrients are lost along with whey that can be harness effectively for revenue generation and thus offer better return to dairy farmers as well as industry.¾ The environmental issues associated with whey disposal that require setting of treatment plants will also be taken care once the whey generated will be used for product manufacture¾ Surplus skim milk available in dairy processing units will be utilized for product manufacture and hence establishment of a spray drying unit in each plant will not be essential. Its application for value addition will minimizes milk solid wastages and problem of skim milk powder (SMP) marketing in competitive market will be eliminated.¾ Production of pearl millet and barley crops suitable for processing, using an integrated approach through intervention of technological inputs like high yielding varieties, quality seeds, improved practices, and through establishment of assured market, will increase the farm profits and income of rural farmers and improve their livelihoods.¾ Collaborative public private partnership enhances continuous cooperation in the foeld of mutual interests and benefit stake holders like small farmers, small scale primary processors, food industry and marketers.¾ Development of technological packages for composite dairy foods with unique health characteristics offers product diversification of product profile in dairy & food industry. Moreover it will also provide new products to consumers to meet their satiety, nutrition and health requirements at affordable cost.¾ Development of low cost complementary food is expected to improve the health status by offering all essential nutrients to children from economically disadvantaged segments.¾ Probitoic application in food product development will enhance the consumption and market of functional dairy foods and offer consumers different food products to fulfill their nutritional and therapeutic needs¾ The proposed value chain has an inbuilt plan to assure market to the farmers and continuous supply of raw material to processors/ traders and health benefits to consumers. 21
  25. 25. ¾ The cultivation of these crops which are usually grown with less inputs will have benefits in long term on sustainability in terms of soil, water and other natural resources ¾ Entrepreneurship development in the areas of cultivation, primary processing and manufacture of composite dairy foods as well marketing, will offer newer opportunities for self-employment and empower specially to youth and women. ¾ Pilot plants for dairy and food processing (Experimental Dairy & Technology Business Incubator) is available at the campus with complete processing line for the benefit for small scale entrepreneurs and also for demonstration to industry. What social, economic, environmental or participatory studies/ exercises underpin the assertion that the problem is important? The project focuses on by-product utilization of dairy by-products for with emphasis on health foods development for different segments of society. At the same time it is targeting certain minor agricultural commodities like pearl millet and barley for enhanced production through improved packages of practices and value addition for ensuring better returns to farmers. Moreover, nutritional and therapeutic components present in milk by-products and minor agricultural crops will also be consumed in the form of acceptable products. A strategy to link by-product utilization, nutrition, health and sustainability of agriculture is discussed hereunder. The project assumes that small scale farmers are the saviour our indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) and use them effectively for sustainability of environments and rich bio-diversity we have. Linking of such underutilized commodities with nutrition and health for community feeding to tackle malnutrition and for urban high class consumers, where the prevalence of certain infectious and life threatening diseases are on rise. ¾ Economically viable: At present most of the whey produced in dairy processing units or even at small scale dairy processor remain unutilized and technological development for its effective application in health food development will enhance the profit margin of dairy processors. As per Environmental regulation norms every industry has to establish treatment plants before their discharge and by using whey for product manufacture, the operational cost of treatment plants can be substantially reduced .Moreover, availability of market for raw produce in the vicinity of production area will reduce the cost of transportation and long term storage. It will encourage farmers to diversify their crop profile form conventional high input requiring rice-wheat system to minor cereals that need little or less inputs. Industry also likes to process raw material that is available in desired quantity, of quality and at relatively lower price and thus they also prefer to invest for such products. . ¾ Ecologically sound: The project is addressing one of the most serious environmental problems dairy industry is facings i.e. of whey disposal because of its high treatment requirements. The enhancement in area and production of pearl millet and barley the local farmers may handle the problem of depleting water table, faster reduction in soil nutrients in soil and higher residual build up of pesticides and weedicides in water22
  26. 26. and soil of project area. The continuous .production cycle involving rice and wheat has resulted in severe ecological degradation in the states like Haryana and Punjab, where project is located. Thus the project is ecologically sound.¾ Adaptable: The technologies that is anticipated during and at the end of the project are simple, viable and sustainable, hence the indigenous nature of raw material, knowledge, processing methods and product to the local people, further enhance their faster adaptation. Value addition in whey & skim milk will provide an opportunity to industry for diversifying their production profile with little investments. The equipments and ingredients required are simpler, cheaper and at large available in existing units.¾ Socially just: The milk is a scared item in daily diet of people of the region and wastage of milk & milk nutrients is considered as unholy. Many processing interventions that will be used in product development improve the bioavailability of pearl millet & barley, which are otherwise not metabolized in the body and contributing towards malnutrition. The composite diary foods that will be developed have resemblance to many locally available foods like dalia, rabadi, sattu. Moreover, the improved nutritional and health promoting characteristics of developed foods will meet their requirements of ‘Wholesome” food which is available at affordable cost. Further, no chemicals, drugs, colours and any harmful ingredients are added.¾ Thus project being locally adoptable, economically viable, ecologically sound; socially just the project shall be more sustainable.¾ Relate how the proposed research relates to NAIP objectives and criteria:¾ The major aim of the project is to utilize milk by-products for the development of composite dairy foods with enhanced health characteristics and effective utilization of agricultural raw materials for value addition and better return to farmers for their socioeconomic improvement.¾ The formation of a value chain right from production of improved cultivars of pearl millet and barley, opportunity development for novel foods based on selected crops & milk by-products, entrepreneurship as well as commercial manufacture through effective marketing till the consumers plate, help in meeting the needs of today’s agriculture.¾ Food security along with nutritional security will only be ensured by proving nutritional and health foods that can be consumed as a part of daily diet not as supplement. The products developed in project are meant the meet the specific nutritional needs of different segments of society and can be an effective tool in facing the problem of deficiency and infectious diseases.¾ Collaborative public private partnership enhances the interests in many other ecologically, and nutritionally rich plant commodities for a large scale production and value addition. It will benefit specially small or marginal farmers as they can grow such crops with lesser inputs in compare to conventional & cash crops. This also indirectly helps these neglected crops to sustain in competitive agriculture.¾ Further the project involves farmer, multidisciplinary researchers like dairy, food technologists, engineers, chemists, nutrition biochemists, microbiologists, economist, 23
  27. 27. extension worker, small scale processors, dairy & food processors, marketer, NGOs, for the cause of farming community as well as consumer to lead better quality life. It also attempted to solve the problems of nutritional deficiencies through enriched, fortified and therapeutic products developed. Firs time such project has been conceptualize at national level where target commodities are by-product of dairy industry and two minor agriculture crops. ¾ The project has a unique balance between research components and community development interventions for the continue growth of Indian agriculture. Thus the project is holistic in its approach by utilizing the Production-to-Consumption Supply chain, which is the main essence of National Agriculture Innovation Projects component II. The PCS chain will be continued in the society even after the closure of NAIP project and many such models can be developed further for the benefit of society. What underlying causality do you expect during implementation as precaution for PIu? ¾ Harmonization with the goals, schedules and sense of priority among all partners participating in a particular activity: ¾ The risky and non-co-operative stakeholders considered initially were omitted. ¾ A harmonies team of different institutions in multi-disciplinary mode have been considered who have same zeal and to take up the challenges likely to arise during the course of research. ¾ Competence, availability and keen interests along with high level of emotional quotients for meeting the objectives of the project have been the main points for selection of stakeholder. ¾ Availability of Co-PIs has been considered & human alternate is being thought off. ¾ The collaborating institution PIs are regularly informed during the development of the proposal. ¾ The PIU are requested to help in their assessment directly for implementation and they always supported us. The experts guided us in each and every activity related to project during the Interactive workshop held at Mumbai and Hyderabad. The timely intervention of experts helped us in omitting ambiguous activities and little or no effect on project objectives. ¾ Timely release of grants and execution of tasks especially those related to administrative part of the project has to be streamlined. ¾ The task of convincing farmers and industry persons for adoption of new technological package is tough ¾ ICT for making people aware in utilization of pearl millet, barley and milk by-products is altogether new approach with different segments of society. ¾ Complementary foods developed for community nutrition programmes require high profile policy makers support for its adoption ¾ Guidance by PIU in above matters is appreciated.24
  28. 28. Indicate if the programme is specific to different sites, if not, then role ofcooperating centers for validation purpose may be restricted.Programme is not location specific and can be duplicated anywhere in the country. The CoPIs are mostly from the nearby places from Consortium lead Centre to enhance the betterinteraction and easier approach. The validation of developed health foods through NIN willbe carried out through Outsourcing.3. objectives¾ To harness the nutritional and therapeutic potential of milk by-products (whey and skim milk) and underutilized plant species (pearl millet & barley) for development of functional foods¾ To develop technological package for composite dairy foods (complementary foods, fortified convenience foods and probiotic milk-cereal foods) with enhanced health attributes¾ To validate the consumer acceptability and targeted health benefits composite dairy foods¾ To assess the techno-economic feasibility of the newly developed technologies through linkages with industry, marketing personnel and Self-help group4. Review of literatureConsumer interest in the relationship between diet and health has increased the demandfor information on functional foods. Rapid advances in science and technology, increasinghealthcare costs, changes in food laws affecting label and product claims, an aging population,and rising interest in attaining wellness through diet are among the factors fueling interestin functional foods. Credible scientific research indicates many potential health benefits fromfood components. Milk nutrients are considered essential components of diets among all agegroups. Likewise, many minor agricultural commodities including cereals, millets, legumes,are important constituents of the diets of poor across the globe. The various nutritional,technological and therapeutic aspects of whey, pearl millet, barley and probiotic foods hasbeen discussed in succeeding sections.Whey is a yellow-green liquid that results from the transformation of milk into cheese or caseinor other coagulated dairy products. With advancement in membrane processing, it becomespossible to fractionate whey nutrients into more usable form. The whey proteins can be retainedduring ultrafiltration processing while other water soluble constituents are passed in permeatestream. The retentate is dried to form whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey proteinisolate (WPI) that have high nutritional and functional properties and are capable of fulfillingthe diverse attributes to satisfy different forms of utilization (de Wit, 1998). Whey protein-fedanimals showed the lowest incidence of colon cancer (McIntosh et al., 1995). Experiments inrodents indicate that the antitumor activity of the dairy products lies with protein fraction andmore specifically in the whey protein component of milk. Possible modes of action may be 25
  29. 29. their positive role in enhancing the biosynthesis of sulphur containing peptide-glutathione, a natural anti-oxidant (Regester et al., 1995). The serum total cholesterol level in the rats fed with whey protein concentrate containing probiotic milk, fermented with Lactobacillus casei TMC 1543, was significantly lower than that of control group (Kawase et al., 2000). The α-La contains 2-3 times more tryptophan than an average protein. In body, tryptophan is converted into 5-hydroxytryptophan and then to 3-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Inadequate 1evel of serotonin in the brain has been linked to depression, obesity, insomnia and chronic headache (Welzem, 2001). Whey protein isolates (WPI) has been used to treat HIV patients because immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumins present in it, may stave off this disease (Horton, 1995; Welzem, 2001). Some recent investigations showed promising role of whey nutrients in increasing the bioavailability of fortified minerals. Singh et al. (2000) found that the whey-mango concentrate obtained by mixing 15% mango pulp (25o Brix), 77% paneer why concentrate (37% TS), 8% sugar and a pH of 4.2 was most acceptable for developing whey-mango concentrate. The product could keep well for 45 days at 250C. Whey proteins complexed with acidic polysaccharides can be used to fortify acidic fruit juices and this approach was used to develop whey protein-enriched Bael (Aegle marmeols) beverage. The CMC-WPC complex addition increased the protein level to 1.75% and this complex was observed better in comparison to pectin-WPC complex (Singh and Nath, 2004). An attempt has been made at our Institute to develop sports beverage using hydrolyzed whey. The best formulation for pineapple sport beverage were 20% pineapple juice, 7.49% sugar, 0.15% stabilizer mix and 0.12% salt mix and the drink was acceptable up to 6 months. The large scale commercial production of whey based rinks, beverages and soups depends on their market potential and certain quality issues associated with it (Singh, 2008). Hence, some alternatives may be attempted for augmentation of whey nutrients for development of foods that suits to larger segment of society. Whey ingredients like liquid whey concentrates, whey powder, lactose, whey protein concentrate and isolated whey proteins have been attempted in wide range of bakery products. A number of formulated foods based on WPC such as egg-less cake, malted-milk caramel, protein-rich biscuits and breads have been developed at this institute. With the better understanding regarding the functionality of milk molecules in bakery and confectionery products, it has become possible to produce tailor-made ingredients utilizing dairy by-products for specific application (Singh, 2008). The application of whey proteins in processed foods is hindered by the wide variations in composition of WPCs’ and due to less cost effectiveness. In developing countries, the low bioavailability of minerals (especially iron and zinc) in cereal based foods is a crucial problem for infants and young children. Depending on their localization in cereal grain, the proportions of these anti-nutrients in diet can be reduced by decortication (Akingbala, 1991; Sharma and Kapoor, 1996), a process that may also modify mineral content and bioavailability. Thus the minor millets necessitate preliminary decortication of grains for either organoleptic or technological reasons (astringency, texture, etc.). Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), is among the nine major millets, with excellent resistance power towards low rainfall, and capable of withstanding continuous or intermittent drought conditions. The grain consists of 11.6% protein and 2.3% minerals and these values are much higher than corresponding values in rice, maize and sorghum (Jain and Bal, 1997). Due to high lipid contents26
  30. 30. (4-9%) storability of processed products is of concern especially if the grains are crushed orconverted to grits or flour (Kaced et al, 1984). The grain is nutritionally superior than mostother cereals in having high levels of calcium, iron, zinc, lipids and high quality proteins, butat the same time, presences of anti-nutritional factors in it lowers its digestibility with regardto protein, carbohydrates and minerals. The process of decortication is found to reduce theanti-nutritional factors such as phytates (Akingbala, 1991; Sharma and Kapoor, 1996). Lestienneet al (2007), suggested that at 12% DM after 15% tempering leads to efficient separation takesplace and decortications process does not reduces the lipid and protein content but decreasesthe anti-nutritional factors. In order to increase the functionality and to be physiologically morebenefited, fermentation of pearl millet was carried out by Haq et al (2002), and as a consequenceof fermentation, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased with accompanying reduction intotal polyphenols and phytic acid. Similar results have been reported by Abdalla et al (1997) andAli et al, (2003). Extrusion cooking of cereal grains has become a very much used technique toobtain a wide range of products such as snacks, breakfast cereals, instant soup mixes, porridgeand composite flours. The process pre-gelatinizes starch, denatures proteins and inactivatesvarious anti-nutrients thus improving the digestibility and bio-availability. The extrudedproducts can be made into different shape, forms and fortified with micronutrients efficiently.However, very little work has been done on extrusion processing of milk-cereal blends.Barley (Hardeum vulgare L.), a major cereal crop ranks among the top ten food crops and isfourth among cereals in the world. It contributes significantly to the world’s food supplyas human food, malt products, and livestock feed. Carbohydrates constitute about 80% byweight of barley grain. Starch is the most abundant single component, accounting for upto65%, but polysaccharides of cell wall origin are also qualitatively important and may representmore than 10% of grain weight. Malted barley has long been used in the food industry as asource of flavour, colour, sweetness, enzymes and other nutritional components. The six rowbarley has higher enzyme content, more protein, less starch, and a thicker husk than two-rowbarley. The higher level of diastatic enzymes makes six-row barley desirable for conversion ofadjunct starches (those that lack enzymes) during mashing. Malted milk foods provide betteroperating margins in comparison with conventional dairy products. These foods are valuedfor their nutritious status, easy digestibility, high palatability and convenience of consumption.Currently India is the world’s biggest market for malt based food products. Apart from maltedmilk foods opportunities exists for processing of barley into nutritionally enriched breakfastcereals, convenience mixes and certain other novel foods in combination of milk. The wheyor its nutrients has never been attempted as base material for the development of malted milkfoods or in formulation of barley-whey nutrient based functional food products. Thus, we cansafely conclude that malted milk food as a cereal based milk product is an important valueadded product in the Indian market.Incorporation of beneficial bacteria into foods to counteract harmful organisms in the intestinaltract has been the most visible component of this new area. The theoretical basis for selection ofprobiotic micro-organisms include safety, functional aspects (survival, adherence, colonization,antimicrobial production, immune stimulation, antigenotoxic activity and prevention ofpathogens) and technological details such as growth in milk and other food base, sensoryproperties, stability, phage resistance and viability. Newer avenues as carriers of probiotic 27
  31. 31. organisms are being sought. Thus, probiotic foods are defined as those that contain single or mixed culture of microorganisms and beneficial for the consumer’s health and improves intestinal microbial balance (Fuller, 1989). Milk though considered a complete food, is deficient in some components namely fiber and certain micronutrients thus would be a novel item if deficient components are fortified in requisite amounts. The addition of cereal or cereal components to milk or by-product obtained from dairy industries is another opportunistic entrance in the area of functional foods. Cereal acts as substrate for probiotics and in the case if underutilized cereals are utilized, the value becomes incomparable. Cereal component not only acts as a substrate but also improves flavour, textural and overall acceptability of the product. Probiotic organisms when used solely gives a product with least desirable attributes in the sense that they lack desirable aroma, and sensory appeal and are rather acidic and sour. The required suggestive concentration of probiotic bacteria is 106 cfu/g of a product to provide health benefits (Robinson, 1987). For milk based products, the probiotic strains are often mixed with Streptococcus thermophilus and L. delbrueckii (Saarela et al, 2000). Lactic fermentation of different cereals such as maize, sorghum, finger millet, has been found effective to reduce the amount of anti-nutrients such as phytic acid, tannins and thus improve protein and minerals availability (Chavan et al, 1988; Lorri and Svanberg, 1993). Fermentation using pure strains of yeasts and lactobacilli on pearl millet has been associated with improved availability of minerals (Khetarpaul and Chauhan, 1990). Fermentation using selected probiotic strains results in better acidification, cell count, and such fermented milks could be used as an application for the production of lactic beverage containing probiotic organisms (Oliveira et al, 2001). Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus have been reported to reduce the serum cholesterol level (Gilliland et al, 1985). Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria have been reported to synthesize folic acid, niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and vitamin K (Rasic and Kurmann, 1983; Tamine et al, 1995). The probiotic dahi developed at NDRI, was found to significantly delay the onset of glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in high fructose induced diabetic rats, indicated a preventive role in diabetes (Yadav et al, 2007). Vitamin and mineral fortification of foods is a common technique for delivery of nutrients to the consumer. The addition of vitamins and minerals to milk and food products is used in many countries as a public health measure, whilst food industries recognize that supplementing their products with these ingredients can increase market appeal by improving their health attributes. However, many technological problems may occur upon addition of minerals to food products, mainly due to the numerous reactions of minerals with other food components. These problems may be reflected in changes in texture, colour, sedimentation, flavour and/ or the functional properties of the product. Milk and other dairy products are a part of the daily diet in almost all countries. Dairy products are also easily targeted for specific consumer audiences, such as females and infants, allowing for the delivery of category specific functional ingredients. Many consumers also consider dairy products such as yoghurts, low fat milks, or fruit beverages containing whey protein to be naturally healthy. It helps to make the mineral and vitamin fortification of dairy-based systems especially desirable.28
  32. 32. ReferencesAbdalla, A. A., Tinay, Abdullahi, H. El., Mohamed, B.E., Abdalla, A. H. (1997). Effect of traditional processes on phytate and mineral content of pearl millet. Food Chemistry. 63: 79-84.Akingbala, J.O. (1991). Effect of processing on flavonoids in millet (Pennisetum americanum). Cereal chemistry. 68: 180-183.Ali, Maha. A.M., Tinay, Abdullahi, H. El., Abdalla, A. H. (2003). Effect of fermentation on the in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chemistry. 80: 51-54.Chavan, U.D., Chavan, J.K., Kadam, S.S. (1988). Effect of fermentation on soluble proteins and in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum, green gram, and sorghum green gram blends. J. Food. Sci. 53: Wit, J. N. (1998). Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products. J. Dairy Sci. Vol.81: 597 – 608.Devadas, R.P., Chandrasekhar, U., Bhooma, N., Menon, M. (1977). Biological evaluation of ragi based low cost indigenous diet mixture on Albino rats. The Ind. J. Nutr. Dietet. 14: 253-259.Fuller, R. (1989). Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol.66: 365-378.Gilliland, S.E., Nelson, C.R., Maxwell, C. (1985). Assimilation of cholesterol by lactobacillus acidophilus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 49(2): 377-381.Haq, M. E., Tinay, Abdullahi, H. El., Yousif, N.E. (2002). Effect of fermentation and dehulling on starch, total polyphenols, phytic acid content and in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chemistry. 77: 193-196.Horton, B. S. (1995). Commercial utilization of minor milk components in the health and food industries. J.Dairy Sci. Vol.78: 2584 – 2589.Howarth, G. S., Francis, G. F., Coll, J. C., Xu, X., Byard, R. W. and Red, L. C. (1996). Milk growth factors enriched from cheese whey ameliorate intestinal damage by methotrexate when administered orally to rats. J. Nutrition. Vol.126: 2519 – 2530.Jain, R.K. and Bal, S. (1997). Properties of pearl millet. J. agric. Engng Res. 66: 85-91.Kaced, I., Hoseney, R.C., Varriano-Marston, E. (1984). Factors affecting rancidity in ground pearl millet. Cereal chemistry. 61:187-192.Kawase, M., Hastimoto, H., Hasoda, M., Morita, H. and Hosono, A. (2000). Effect of administration of fermented milk containing whey protein concentration to rats and healthy men on serum lipids and blood pressure. J. Dairy Sci. Vol.83 (2): 255 – 263.Khetarpaul, N. and Chauhan, B.M. (1990). Effect of fermentation by pure cultures of yeasts and lactobacilli on the available carbohydrate content of pearl millet. Trop. Sci. 31: 131- 139.Lestienne, I., Buisson, Marie., Lullien-Pellerin, V., Picq, C., Treche, Serge (2007). Losses of nutrients and anti-nutritional factors during abrasive decortication of two pearl millet cultivars (Pennisetum glaucum). Food Chemistry. 100: 1316-1323. 29
  33. 33. Lorri, W. and Svanberg, U. (1993). Lactic-fermented cereal gruels with improved in vitro digestibility. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 44: 29-36. McIntosh, G. H., Regester, G. O., Leu, R. K. Le, Royale, P. J. and Smithers, G. W. (1995). Dairy proteins protect against dimethylhydrazine-induced intestinal cancers in rats. J. Nutrition. Vol.125 (4): 809 – 816. Oliveira, M.N., Sodini, I., Remeuf, F., Corrieu, G. (2001). Effect of milk supplementation and culture composition on acidification, textural properties and microbiological stability of fermented milks containing probiotc bacteria. International Dairy Journal. 11: 935-942. Rasic, J.L. and Kurmann, J.A. (1983). Bifidobacteria and their role. Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland. Regester, G. O., McIntosh, G. H., Lee, V. W. K. and Smithers, G. W. (1996). Whey proteins as nutritional and functional food ingredients. Food Australia. Vol.48 (3): 123 – 127. Robinson, R.K. (1987). Survival of lactobacillus acidophilus in fermented products. Suid Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Suiwelkunde. 19:25-27. Saarela, M., Mogensen, G., Fonden, R., Matto, J., Mattila-Sandholm, T. (2000). Probiotic bacteria; safety, functional and technological properties. J. Biotechnol. 84: 197-215. Sharma, A., and Kapoor, A.C. (1996). Levels of antinutritional factors in pearl millet as affected by processing treatments and various types of fermentation. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 49: 241-252. Singh, Ashish Kumar and Nath, Nirankar. 2004. Development and evaluation of whey protein- enriched ‘BAEL’ beverage. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41 (4), 432-436 Singh, Ashish Kumar. 2008. Application of dairy by-products in bakery and confectionary products. In CAS Compendium “Technological Advances in the Utilization of Dairy By-products”. Centre of Advanced Studies in Dairy Technology, DT Division, NDRI, Karnal. 184-191pp Singh, S.; Singh, Ashish Kumar and Gandhi, D. N. 2000. Formulation of whey-mango concentrate. Paper presented in Conference on “Biotechnological Strategies in Agro Processing” on 9-11th Feb. 2000. Organized by Punjab State Council for Science and Technology, Chandigarh Tamine, A.Y., Marshall, V.M., Robinson, R.K. (1995). Micro-biological and technological aspects of milks fermented by bifidobacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 62: 151-187. Walzem, R. L. (2001). Health enhancing properties of whey proteins and whey fractions. Applications monograph. US Dairy Exports Council, USA.. Pp: 1 – 8. Yadav, H., Jain, S., Sinha, P.R. (2007). Antidiabetic effect of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in high fructose fed rats. Nutrition. 23: 62-68.30
  34. 34. MAJoR AchIeVeMeNts/ techNologIes/ success stoRIes eMANAtINg FRoM the ceNteR¾ Developed technologies for the manufacture of variety of indigenous dairy products viz. Khoa and khoa based sweets, chhana & chhana based sweets, srikhand, Rabri, Paneer etc.¾ Developed several innovative ready-to-reconstitute formulations for the manufacture of khoa gulabjamun, Raosgolla, Kulfi,Rasmalai, Basundi, Kheer, Dalia and Paneer curry for adaptation at industrial scale.¾ Body slimming effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) established by intervention of CLA alone and along with SMP on body fat metabolism and blood lipid profile.¾ Modulatory effect of fermented milk products on immune function. The fermented milk products were characterized for their ex vivo immune, challenge and allergenic responses.¾ Probiotic dahi was proved to be an alternative bio-therapeutic agent for diabetes. Thus, probiotic dahi could be included in daily meal as a complementary therapeutic regimen.¾ Development of Raabadi-like cereal-Based traditional fermented milk foods with extended shelf-life.¾ Development of fiber-fortified yoghurt and its formulation consisted of dietary fibers, both soluble and insoluble. Fiber fortified product exhibited better body and texture characteristics as compared to control with a similar milk solids level.¾ Formulation of table spread with added functional ingredients. The table spread consisted of special designed lipid phase consisting of milk fat and vegetable oils with added functional ingredients.¾ Evaluation of barley cultivars for malted milk foods and process development for malt- milk beverage, malted milk ice-cream¾ Survival and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum in fermented milk. Lactobacillus plantarum could serve as a potential probiotic adjunct culture in the functional and nutraceutical food for prophylactic as well as therapeutic uses.¾ Cloning expression and production of haeme-proteins by yeast in fermenters for combating nutritional iron deficiency: Cloning and expression of human lactoferrin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Pichia pastoris.¾ Exploring propionibacteria as a potential source of vitamin B12 and functional probiotic ingredient in a dairy based nutraceutical formulation. Vitamin B12 estimation in milk was standardized using an immunosorbent method.¾ Successful commercialization of whey based drinks & soups, arjuna herbal ghee, long- life functional paneer, mozzarella cheese, emulsifier-stabilizer premixes for frozen desserts in recent past¾ Researchable Issues 31
  35. 35. ¾ Process development for effective and sustainable or utilization of milk by-products i.e. whey and skim milk for composite dairy food development ¾ Evaluation of suitable varieties for appropriate value addition through product development ¾ Development of primary processing equipments and elucidation of effect of primary and secondary processing on anti-nutritional and nutritional make up of pearl millet and barley ¾ Formulation and optimization of technological parameters for low cost complementary foods based on milk by-products and pearl millet & barley for community nutrition. ¾ Technological packages for composite dairy foods like extruded, flaked, convenience mixes with enhanced health attributes, based on milk by-products (whey & skim milk) in combination with pearl millet and barley grains. ¾ Probiotic intervention for process development for fermented milk-cereal drinks and powdered product based on milk by-products and pearl millet and barley for improvement of gastrointestinal health ¾ Nutritional profiling and validation of targeted health effects of composite dairy foods through in-vitro analysis, animal studies and human trials ¾ Development of HACCP guidelines /system for composite functional dairy foods ¾ Innovative marketing and popularization strategies for promotion and adoption of newer health foods for among masses ¾ Appropriate technology transfer and entrepreneurship development interventions for successful commercialization of developed food products 5. technical programme objective 1 1.0 characterization and Preliminary Processing of Milk by-products and underutilized agricultural crops (pearl millet, barley) 2.0 hypothesis: The judicious application of technologies for effective utilization of milk by-products specially whey for value addition will assist dairy industries to create new avenues for increasing the profit margins and provide higher returns on income to dairy farmers. Value addition in minor agricultural crops like pearl millet and barley, which are usually grown in harsh climatic conditions with less inputs and rich in bioactive components, create market for such commodities. It will not only ensure farm profits and income to marginal farmers but also contribute towards sustainability of environment.32
  36. 36. 3.0 objective 1To harness the nutritional and therapeutic potential of milk by-products (whey and skim milk)and underutilized plant species (pearl millet and barley) for development of composite dairyfoods with enhanced health attributesActivityActivity 1Processing of milk by-products i.e. whey and skim milk for development of composite dairyfoods with enhanced health characteristics(A. K. Singh, A. A. Patel, R.R.B. Singh)¾ Methodologies¾ Modification and standardization of processes like pasteurization, concentration requirements for conversion of skim milk & whey blends for product development¾ Optimization of membrane processing systems such as Ultrafiltration (UF) and Nanofiltraiton (NF) and processing parameters such as temperature, flux rate, fold of concentration etc. for development of nutrient-rich fractions from different whey systems (paneer and cheese whey)¾ Standardization for process for Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) from skim milk employing UF process, in terms of temperature, flux rate, fold of concentration and difiltraitonActivity 2Screening of available varieties of Pearl millet and Barley for their suitability for valueaddition(Sumit Arora, Vivek Shrama, A.K. Singh, Suman Kapila)Methodologies¾ Characterization of improved cultivars of pearl millet and barley for physical, compositional and nutritional (micronutrients), anti-nutrients and phytochemical (antioxidants, soluble fiber) profiles using standard protocols¾ Determination of functional properties of pearl millet and barley grains like gelatinization temperature, amylolytic activityActivity 3Identification and standardization of primary processing technologies for pearl millet andbarley(S. Balasubramaniam, D. N. Yadav CIPHET Ludhiana) 33
  37. 37. Methodologies ¾ Adoption & modifications if required, of existing equipments for primary processing i.e. dehulling/ pearling/dehusking/milling of grains ¾ Standardization of unit operations (conditioning, milling parameters) involved in primary processing of pearl millet and barley ¾ Investigation for suitability of packaging and storage conditions for long-term storage of primary processed grains (i.e. milled grains and flour) Activity 4 Determination of suitability of the pearl millet and barley for value addition through development of composite dairy foods (A. K. Singh, Vivek Sharma, Rajeev Kapila) Methodologies ¾ Optimization of processes like malting, roasting, popping and instantization of barley and pearl millet grains for product development ¾ Assessment of changes in physico-chemical and nutritional components of barley and pearl millet grains during malting, roasting, popping and instantization ¾ Preliminary investigation on utilization of secondary processed pearl millet and barley grains into identified produce prototypes34