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Actions speak louder than words

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Actions speak louder than words Actions speak louder than words Document Transcript

  • NON VERBAL COMMUNICATIONActions Speak Louder Than WordsSUBMITTED BY : Group – 7 Amit Papneja (10PGHR06) Ria Ghosh (10PGHR42) Sandeep Rath (10PGHR44) Sudhakar Mishra (10PGHR48) Urvashi Aggrawal (10PGHR55) Vidhi Verma (10PGHR59)
  • Actions Speak Louder than WordsNonverbal communication is the process by which nonverbal behaviours are used, either singlyor in combination with verbal behaviours, in the exchange and interpretation of messages within a given situation or context.Philip Lewis, famous writer on Communication techniques says, “Most of us speak at least oneoral language, but everyone speaks a nonverbal language. Communication analysts tend to agreethat perhaps most of the expression of emotional and motivational states occur on nonverballevels and are communicable by facial and paralinguistic cues.” Probably more feelings andintentions are communicated nonverbally than through all the verbal methods combined.Although we use 2 different mediums to convey messages when we communicate, it is difficultto distinguish our words from our nonverbal cues. Both are intimately woven into our messagesand at as complements to one another. However, nonverbal communication is so inextricablybound up with verbal aspects of the communication process that we can only separate themartificially. “To leave the impression that you someone’s voice, appearance, facial expression, orthe distance he stands from you, independently of one another, is to leave you with a distortedimpression of the process.”Mehrabian has identified 3 dimensions of human feelings and attitudes often communicatedmore effectively through nonverbal cues : like-dislike; potency or status (power); andresponsiveness. Only by observing posture, facial expressions, and use of the space around them,an observer can develop a fairly accurate interpretation of how comfortable 2 people are witheach other and which person has power over the other.Characteristics of non verbal communication- 1
  • Less prone to manipulation as it exists at a sub conscious level. Individuals are more often than not, unaware of how they communicate non-verbally. It is more factual or true as compared to verbal communication. Since it is less prone to manipulation, it represents a truer picture of the individual. Non verbal communication also tends to be less consistent with respect to interpretation. Many non verbal cues need to be considered perhaps together at times to arrive at an appropriate interpretation. Non verbal communication may complement or contradict verbal communication4 TYPES OF NONVERBAL MESSAGES : 1. Personal (to the individual) Personal Nonverbal communication involves kinds of nonverbal behavior that are unique to one person. The meaning is also unique to the person sending the message. For example, someone may work while talking, another person may work in silence. One person may laugh due to nervousness or fear, while another may cry. 2. Common to a group of people or culture Cultural nonverbal communication, by contrast, is characteristics of, or common to, a group of people. It is learned unconsciously by observing others in the society group. In Aboriginal culture, for example, eye contact is less acceptable than it is European culture. 3. Universal (to mankind) Universal nonverbal communication is behavior that is common to humankind. It shows happiness, sadness or deep-seated feelings – for example, a smile or tears. 4. Unrelated to the message (random) 2
  • Unrelated nonverbal communication, such as a sneeze, is unrelated to the verbal message. It can distract from the verbal message, but has little effect on the meaning of the verbal part of the message.Nonverbal communication cues can play five roles: Repetition: they can repeat the message the person is making verbally Contradiction: they can contradict a message the individual is trying to convey. Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message. For example, a persons eyes can often convey a far more vivid message than words and often do. Complementing: they may add to or complement a verbal message. A boss who pats a person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the impact of the message. Accenting: they may accent or underline a verbal message. Pounding the table, for example, can underline a message.Analyzing Nonverbal Communication 1. KINESICS : (Body Movement)Kinesics refers to body motion and includes gestures, movements of the body, and posture.Drooped shoulders, a furrowed brow, talking with the hands, and the tilt of head are all includedin the study of Kinesics.There are many ways in which the human body expresses itself. A skillful communicator canexpress herself/himself in many ways and various parts of the body may intentionally orotherwise carry a message. Similarly, a keen listener and observer tries to observe and makesense from the body expressions as well. Facial expressions, eye movements and the state of theeyes and variety and intensity of human voice can and do convey different meanings. Innocence,anger, wonder, shock, grief, terror, indifference, seriousness, friendliness, approval, disapproval,exasperation, and many other feelings can be expressed through the body language. In someprofessions where the facial and other body expressions are important, they are consciously 3
  • cultivated. The success of performance of drama artists, movie stars, actors and actresses oftendepends on their ability to cultivate and display a wide range of expressions, which the situationdemands.There are 5 types of body expressions : 1. Emblems : refer to common gestures that may substitute for the use of words. They are, in effect, sign language. The conventional wave of the hand indicating good-bye is an example. 2. Illustrators : serve to accompany and to complement spoken language. They are used for emphasis of for directions. For eg, a parking lot attendant may give verbal directions while pointing with his hand where a car should be parked. When the supervisor holds up 3 fingers while explaining that there are 3 jobs that must get priority in the next week, she is making use of an illustrator. 3. Regulators : control verbal interaction. When you nod your hand this is a sign that the person should continue talking. Eg, hand motions in a television station tell the performers to hurry up, slow down, or wait 1 minute. 4. Affect displays : reveal the emotional state of the communicator. A manager may refrain from chewing out a new employee for bungling a job, but his contorted face, the frown on his forehead, and his clenched fist may indicate his anger more clearly than any words ever could. 5. Adaptors : which are nonverbal habits unique to the individual. Scratching the nose or wiping the brow are examples of adaptors. Movement Analysis : Don’t listen to What a person is saying, but to what he Does while he is saying it. Following Movements during an interview : 4
  • Side to side movements : a person who takes up a lot of space while he talks by moving his armsin large circular motions will do much informing and listening and will be best suited tocompanies that are seeking a sense of directionsForward & backward movements : a person who extends her hand straight forward and tends tolean forward during the interview is identified as an “Operator”. This is the kind of managerwhose need for action best suits him to companies that need an infusion of energy of a dramaticchange of courseVertical movements : this individual “draws himself up to his tallest during the handshake. He ischaracterized as the presenter, a master at selling himself and the company”Flow : Refers to the degree of flexibility with which person uses his or her body. For instance,some persons begin a movement with considerable force but conclude it with deceleration ofeffort. These people are what Lamb calls the gentle-touch type. Their managerial style willcontrast with that of the pressurizer whose movements push firmly from beginning to end. It is significant that corporation executives are so sensitive to the importance of nonverbal messages that they hire consultants to analyze those messages in their own ranks.Physical CharacteristicsPhysical characteristics such as body shape, general attractiveness, body and breathe odours,weight, hair and skin color are important parts of nonverbal communication. Because peoplereact and respond to these factors, they all determine their responses in interpersonal encounters.First impressions and images of others can be associated unconsciously with past experiences ofpeople with similar physical characteristics.PosturePosture can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention or involvement, thedifference in status between communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the othercommunicator. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest 5
  • that mirror-image congruent postures, where one person’s left side is parallel to the otherperson’s right side, leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech; a personwho displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentimentduring communication. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean, bodyorientation, arm position, and body openness. 2. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS & EYESIt is said that the face is the index of the mind. The thoughts of the mind, and the feelings of theheart often find expression on the face. There are people who are good at interpreting facialexpressions. One makes an attempt to read the facial expression when a person uses thefollowing expressions: makes a face smiles has a wooden expressionEyes : The eyes are indeed the most expressive part of the human face. The eyes of a person areoften said to tell a tale. In fact the eyes are the most commonly described part of the body. Thefeelings of the heart quite often find expression through the eyes. In the expression of love,affection, sincerity, etc. the eye contact becomes crucial. A person who blinks a lot is consideredto be lying. Some of the words and expressions used while reading the eyes are as follows: Worried looks Sad eyes Furtive glance Eyes emitting fire Unsettling stare 6
  •  Hurried glance Cold stare 3. PROXEMICS Proxemics refers to the spatial distance between individuals in different cultures.Personal space or the space between persons during their interactions with each other is anothersegment of non-verbal communication. Physical distance between persons can indicatefamiliarity, closeness, etc. or otherwise. People who are very close to each other tend to keepminimum distance whereas strangers and people who are not on very friendly terms with eachother maintain physical distance. In a hierarchical relationship, physical space varies dependingupon hierarchical differences. While peers move close to each other, subordinates maintain acertain distance from their superiors. Similarly, the poor person refrains from going close to arich person. In ancient societies, besides economic factors, class, community, colour, profession,education and such other factors constituted the basis for physical space. All these factors arealso relevant in proper understanding of the special non-verbal language. The Englishparticularly respect such special considerations. Not only the length of space, but even thephysical position has often its own significance. Relatively senior and more important persons,as we all know, occupy front seats and special seats. When peers are in conversation, or speakingon the telephone, the subordinates normally wait at a distance awaiting the signal to approach.On the contrary, when the subordinates are in conversation, or speaking on the telephone, thesuperior moves close and often shows his/her impatience. Whether it is in an organization, or in asocial context, personal space has its own significance, which one has to understand to makecommunication effective.Keeping Proper DistanceIt is well understood that the distance people maintain while communicating with each otherindicates how close they are to each other in terms of social or business relationship. While closefriends and people at the same hierarchical level keep the physical gap to the minimum, strangersas well as people who have a superior-subordinate relationship do not get too close. The prox- 7
  • imity or otherwise between two persons would also vary from culture to culture and country tocountry.According to a recent newspaper report, here is how close you stand when standing next tosomeone in office: 10 feet if you are an Asian 3-5 feet if you are an American One foot if you are a Latin AmericanEvery society, and even every organization, would have its own well understood norms. 4. TIMINGTiming is another means through which non-verbal communication takes place. Who comesfirst, who sits first, who speaks first, who gets up first, who leaves first are actions of the timedimension of non-verbal communication. Generally speaking, it is expected that subordinates,the invitees, the students, the participants arrive early and occupy their seats in advance, whereas,the teachers, the speakers, the superiors and the special invitees and chief guests, generally,arrive a little later. Similarly, in any meeting the senior most person or the chief sits first, speaksfirst, gets up first and leaves before the others. When it comes to public and other functionsinvolving the heads of state and other dignitaries, speakers are seated as per protocol. For ex-ample, the Governor of a State is the last to speak and all the other speakers get their chancebefore him/her. Looking at the watch is another aspect of time related communication. Thesuperior looks at the watch to suggest his/her displeasure when the subordinate arrives late. Thelistener looks at the watch frequently to give the message to the speaker that his/her time is over. 5. PARALINGUISTICSHuman voices, through their variations, convey different meanings. The speech or oral deliveryreaches the audience better through voice regulation or what is specifically called voice 8
  • modulation. Voice modulation refers to the adjustment or variation of tone or pitch whilespeaking. It is generally understood that voice has five distinct features, viz., Tone: harsh, soft, whisper Pitch: high, low Quality: controlled, uncontrolled Pace: rapid, slow Force/intensity: high, lowVoice related features are particularly relevant in spoken communication, either face to face orthrough telephone. 6. ATTIREAttire or dress is another important aspect of non-verbal communication. The way a persondresses is often subjected to much interpretation. In business organizations the world over, theattire of a person has come to assume significance. Formal, informal or casual dressing conveysseparate meanings. Important occasions and ceremonial functions normally call for a formaldress. Organizations in fact very often have their own unwritten dress code that is wellunderstood and scrupulously followed. A person addressing an important meeting, making animportant announcement, receiving dignitaries or making an appearance in a high-levelconference, court of justice etc. has to wear a formal dress or a dress that is not interpreted as acasual wear. Any breach of this unwritten code is likely to dilute the effectiveness of thecommunicator. 7. APPEARANCEPhysical presence and appearance of persons play a role in the process of communication. Theway the man or woman looks indicates the importance he or she attaches to his or her presenceand participation. A disheveled look as evidenced by disordered hair, untidy, unruffled orunkempt appearance, suggests indifference or casualness. Any person who is serious about whathe wants to convey especially in a formal setting makes it a point to appear so. In modem 9
  • society, people have the habit of judging others by their appearance. While there may beexceptions, generally speaking, a person keen on conveying a serious, business related messagehas to make a positive impression in terms of appearance. People tend to prejudge a speakerfrom his/her attire and appearance even before he starts speaking. When people speak andinteract in business and organizational settings they speak not merely with the words but withtheir total Personality.Appearance apart, many times even the very presence or absence of a person, especially when heor she is a highly placed or highly regarded person, conveys message. People tend to associatethe presence or absence of certain persons with the level of importance of the event or meeting orcommunication. The junior level functionaries in the organization often tend to decide abouttheir own participation in an event or meeting or forum depending on the participation of thechief executive or senior executives or people considered important in the hierarchy. 8. HAPTICSHaptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. Touches that can be defined ascommunication include handshakes, holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slapping,high fives, a pat on the shoulder, and brushing an arm. These behaviors are referred to as"adapter" or "tells" and may send messages that reveal the intentions or feelings of acommunicator. The meaning conveyed from touch is highly dependent upon the context of thesituation, the relationship between communicators, and the manner of touch.Touching is treated differently from one country to another. Socially acceptable levels oftouching vary from one culture to another. In the Thai culture, touching someones head may bethought rude. However, the same gesture in India is regarded as giving blessing. Remland andJones (1995) studied groups of people communicating and found that in England (8%), France(5%) and the Netherlands (4%) touching was rare compared to their Italian (14%) and Greek(12.5%) sample. 10