Practical Design for
Developers


                       David Verba
                       david@adaptivepath.com
2
“We learn to describe the
things we see, but we also
see the things we can
describe.”
“Word Games” by David Womack, Print ...
This Session Includes:

A survey of design principles.
A framework for understanding design practice.
Language for communi...
5
is design
the new black?
                 5
6
visual
 interaction
information
   service
               6
A Successful Product
 Depends On:

The experience your users have and
how well your product serves their needs.



       ...
A Self-Assessment Tool for
         Teachers
                             8
The original desktop app:




                            9
option 1: literal translation




                                10
option 2
old style: use “best
practices” and your
own experience
                       11
A Teacher’s Day
With children from 7:30am to 3:30pm.
Often takes lunch with the children.
Rarely has more than 5-10 minute...
option 3
design interface to
support context of
use and actual tasks
                       13
option 3a
use AJAX to
improve interface
responsiveness




                    14
needs
superintendent   To know how well schools are performing



     /|
  principals     To know how well teachers are p...
Know Who Your Users Are



You must know and design
   for all of your users.

                            16
Understand Your Users

know their...
context
motivations
challenges
                        17
The
Elements of
User
Experience
by Jesse James
Garrett




                 18
Concrete



surface


skeleton


structure


 scope


strategy    Abstract




                       19
surface
            Concrete
                       What will the finished product
                       look like?
surfa...
surface
            Concrete
                       What will the finished product
                       look like?
surfa...
surface
            Concrete
                       What will the finished product
                       look like?
surfa...
surface
            Concrete
                       What will the finished product
                       look like?
surfa...
surface
            Concrete
                       What will the finished product
                       look like?
surfa...
strategy                      Concrete



                  surface

What do we
                  skeleton
want to get out...
Your
   Your
                         User’s
   Goals
                         Needs



Strategic Sweet Spot:
Where user n...
Your
   Your
                         User’s
   Goals
                         Needs



Strategic Sweet Spot:
Where user n...
Know Your Stakeholders




                         27
Know Your Stakeholders

A stakeholder is anyone who has an
interest in the outcome of a project.

                        ...
Site Objectives:
what do you want to achieve?


                               28
Revenue
   Objectives



Site Objectives:
revenue objectives   29
Site Objectives:
operational improvements   30
Your Users:
identify all of them   31
Jesse
white male
age 25-40
city-dweller
computer professional
married, no children
income >100K


                        32
Talk to your users
                     33
34
Observing
the User
Experience
by Mike
Kuniavsky




             35
scope                            Concrete



                     surface

What features
                     skeleton
wil...
Functional Specifications
    What the site must include.   37
HIGH                                                                  Snapfish


                                         ...
HIGH                                                                  Snapfish


                                         ...
Don’t try to be
 everything to
  everybody.
                  39
select          core features

    fulfill        enrich feature set

 expand            move into new areas

    Implemen...
select          core features

    fulfill        enrich feature set

 expand            move into new areas

    Implemen...
select          core features

    fulfill        enrich feature set

 expand            move into new areas

    Implemen...
select          core features

    fulfill        enrich feature set

 expand            move into new areas

    Implemen...
Your App



Ecosystem of Applications
(you don’t have to be everything to everybody)
                                     ...
structure                        Concrete



                     surface

How will the
                     skeleton
piec...
Interaction
Design
How the user
moves from one
step in a process
to the next.

                    43
Interaction Frameworks
                         44
Interaction Frameworks
                         44
Interaction Frameworks
                         45
pages




Interaction Frameworks
                         45
Select
  label

                   go!




pop-ups

                         pages




Interaction Frameworks
            ...
Select
  label

                   go!


                                         Select
                                 ...
58%




58%            58%




              58%
                    GO!




Think Modularly
                           46
About Face
2.0: The
Essentials of
Interaction
Design
by Alan Cooper &
Robert Reimann



                   47
Information
Architecture
How the user
moves from one
content element
to the next.

                  48
Granularity
              49
apple
pear
banana
fruit




         Granularity
                       49
apple      apple
pear       pear
banana     banana
fruit
           fruit




         Granularity
                       49
apple      apple       fruit
pear       pear        apple
banana     banana      pear
                       banana
fruit
...
Labeling
           50
human resources




  Labeling
                  50
human resources

employment opportunities




      Labeling
                           50
human resources

employment opportunities

         jobs

      Labeling
                           50
Consistency
              51
about us      this company
about         who we are
our company   who are we?



       Consistency
                      ...
Information
Architecture
for Large-
Scale Web
Sites
by Louis
Rosenfeld and
Peter Morville


                 52
skeleton                       Concrete



                   surface

What
                   skeleton
components will
en...
Make finding things easy
discoverability
                  Actions should be
recoverability    without cost
              ...
Discoverability
Make finding things easy   55
from icq.com   56
from blogger.com   57
from yahoo.com   58
from oldnavy.com   59
from farecast.com   60
Recoverability
Actions should be without cost   61
62
from blogger.com
from travelocity.com   63
from farecast.com   64
from farecast.com   64
from farecast.com   64
from travelocity.com   65
from farecast.com   66
from google.com   67
from amazon.com   68
from Measure Map   69
Context
A sense of time, place, and meaning   70
from amazon.com   71
from gap.com   72
from gap.com   73
from gap.com   74
from blogger.com
         75
Feedback
How the system responds   76
Provide Clear Error Messages for Users
                                         77
Provide Clear Error Messages for Users
                                         77
from basecamphq.com   78
from napyfab.com   79
The job requires extra pluck
         graphic
                                                                            ...
The job requires extra pluck
         graphic
                                                                            ...
The job requires extra pluck
         graphic
                                                                            ...
The job requires extra pluck
         graphic
                                                                            ...
The job requires extra pluck
         graphic
                                                                            ...
Make finding things easy
discoverability
                  Actions should be
recoverability    without cost
              ...
surface                        Concrete



                   surface

What will the
                   skeleton
finished ...
Design is not just cosmetic.



                               83
also
Design is not just cosmetic.



                               83
The Attractiveness Bias*
  ruthlessly stolen from “Universal Principles of Design” by Lidwell, Holden, and Butler
        ...
85
86
“Even if a website is highly
usable and provides very
useful information presented
in a logical arrangement, it
may fail t...
who do you trust?   88
Personality
              89
what do each of these say to you?   90
Visual Design
                91
The Non-
Designer’s
Design Book
by Robin
Williams




              92
              23
CRAP

c    contrast
r    repetition
a    alignment
p    proximity
                  93
CRAP

c    contrast
r    repetition
a    alignment
p    proximity
                  93
CRAP

c    contrast
r    repetition
a    alignment
p    proximity
                  93
CRAP

c    contrast
r    repetition
a    alignment
p    proximity
                  93
CRAP

c    contrast
r    repetition
a    alignment
p    proximity
                  93
contrast
             RailsConf 2007

repetition     Portland, OR

alignment    May 17-20, 2007


proximity
              ...
contrast
repetition
             RailsConf 2007
             May 17 - 20, 2007 | Portland, OR

alignment
proximity
       ...
Visual Design


Even simple improvements
 make a huge difference.

                           96
Resources
 The Non-Designer’s Design Book
 by Robin Williams
 About Face 2.0: The Essentials of Interaction Design
 by Ala...
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Railsconf2007

  1. 1. Practical Design for Developers David Verba david@adaptivepath.com
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. “We learn to describe the things we see, but we also see the things we can describe.” “Word Games” by David Womack, Print Magazine, October 2006. 3
  4. 4. This Session Includes: A survey of design principles. A framework for understanding design practice. Language for communicating clearly about design. Resources for further learning. 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. is design the new black? 5
  7. 7. 6
  8. 8. visual interaction information service 6
  9. 9. A Successful Product Depends On: The experience your users have and how well your product serves their needs. 7
  10. 10. A Self-Assessment Tool for Teachers 8
  11. 11. The original desktop app: 9
  12. 12. option 1: literal translation 10
  13. 13. option 2 old style: use “best practices” and your own experience 11
  14. 14. A Teacher’s Day With children from 7:30am to 3:30pm. Often takes lunch with the children. Rarely has more than 5-10 minutes during the work day to do admin work. Might have a classroom computer. Do a lot of work on their home computers. 32 12
  15. 15. option 3 design interface to support context of use and actual tasks 13
  16. 16. option 3a use AJAX to improve interface responsiveness 14
  17. 17. needs superintendent To know how well schools are performing /| principals To know how well teachers are performing To manage many teachers /| teachers To know their privacy is protected 15
  18. 18. Know Who Your Users Are You must know and design for all of your users. 16
  19. 19. Understand Your Users know their... context motivations challenges 17
  20. 20. The Elements of User Experience by Jesse James Garrett 18
  21. 21. Concrete surface skeleton structure scope strategy Abstract 19
  22. 22. surface Concrete What will the finished product look like? surface skeleton What components will enable people to use the site? skeleton structure How will the pieces of the site fit structure together? scope scope What features will the site need to include? strategy strategy Abstract What do we want to get out of the site? What do our users want? 20
  23. 23. surface Concrete What will the finished product look like? surface skeleton What components will enable people to use the site? skeleton structure How will the pieces of the site fit structure together? scope scope What features will the site need to include? strategy strategy Abstract What do we want to get out of the site? What do our users want? 21
  24. 24. surface Concrete What will the finished product look like? surface skeleton What components will enable people to use the site? skeleton structure How will the pieces of the site fit structure together? scope scope What features will the site need to include? strategy strategy Abstract What do we want to get out of the site? What do our users want? 22
  25. 25. surface Concrete What will the finished product look like? surface skeleton What components will enable people to use the site? skeleton structure How will the pieces of the site fit structure together? scope scope What features will the site need to include? strategy strategy Abstract What do we want to get out of the site? What do our users want? 23
  26. 26. surface Concrete What will the finished product look like? surface skeleton What components will enable people to use the site? skeleton structure How will the pieces of the site fit structure together? scope scope What features will the site need to include? strategy strategy Abstract What do we want to get out of the site? What do our users want? 24
  27. 27. strategy Concrete surface What do we skeleton want to get out of the site? structure What do our scope users want? strategy Abstract 25
  28. 28. Your Your User’s Goals Needs Strategic Sweet Spot: Where user needs and your goals meet. 26
  29. 29. Your Your User’s Goals Needs Strategic Sweet Spot: Where user needs and your goals meet. 26
  30. 30. Know Your Stakeholders 27
  31. 31. Know Your Stakeholders A stakeholder is anyone who has an interest in the outcome of a project. 27
  32. 32. Site Objectives: what do you want to achieve? 28
  33. 33. Revenue Objectives Site Objectives: revenue objectives 29
  34. 34. Site Objectives: operational improvements 30
  35. 35. Your Users: identify all of them 31
  36. 36. Jesse white male age 25-40 city-dweller computer professional married, no children income >100K 32
  37. 37. Talk to your users 33
  38. 38. 34
  39. 39. Observing the User Experience by Mike Kuniavsky 35
  40. 40. scope Concrete surface What features skeleton will the site need to include? structure scope strategy Abstract 36
  41. 41. Functional Specifications What the site must include. 37
  42. 42. HIGH Snapfish Kodak Easyshare CVS LOW Uploading Storage Viewing Editing Sharing Printing 38
  43. 43. HIGH Snapfish Kodak Easyshare CVS Flickr LOW Uploading Storage Viewing Editing Sharing Printing 38
  44. 44. Don’t try to be everything to everybody. 39
  45. 45. select core features fulfill enrich feature set expand move into new areas Implementation Plan Make a promise to your users and deliver on it. 40
  46. 46. select core features fulfill enrich feature set expand move into new areas Implementation Plan Make a promise to your users and deliver on it. 40
  47. 47. select core features fulfill enrich feature set expand move into new areas Implementation Plan Make a promise to your users and deliver on it. 40
  48. 48. select core features fulfill enrich feature set expand move into new areas Implementation Plan Make a promise to your users and deliver on it. 40
  49. 49. Your App Ecosystem of Applications (you don’t have to be everything to everybody) 41
  50. 50. structure Concrete surface How will the skeleton pieces of the site fit together? structure scope strategy Abstract 42
  51. 51. Interaction Design How the user moves from one step in a process to the next. 43
  52. 52. Interaction Frameworks 44
  53. 53. Interaction Frameworks 44
  54. 54. Interaction Frameworks 45
  55. 55. pages Interaction Frameworks 45
  56. 56. Select label go! pop-ups pages Interaction Frameworks 45
  57. 57. Select label go! Select label go! layers pop-ups pages Interaction Frameworks 45
  58. 58. 58% 58% 58% 58% GO! Think Modularly 46
  59. 59. About Face 2.0: The Essentials of Interaction Design by Alan Cooper & Robert Reimann 47
  60. 60. Information Architecture How the user moves from one content element to the next. 48
  61. 61. Granularity 49
  62. 62. apple pear banana fruit Granularity 49
  63. 63. apple apple pear pear banana banana fruit fruit Granularity 49
  64. 64. apple apple fruit pear pear apple banana banana pear banana fruit fruit Granularity 49
  65. 65. Labeling 50
  66. 66. human resources Labeling 50
  67. 67. human resources employment opportunities Labeling 50
  68. 68. human resources employment opportunities jobs Labeling 50
  69. 69. Consistency 51
  70. 70. about us this company about who we are our company who are we? Consistency 51
  71. 71. Information Architecture for Large- Scale Web Sites by Louis Rosenfeld and Peter Morville 52
  72. 72. skeleton Concrete surface What skeleton components will enable people to use the site? structure scope strategy Abstract 53
  73. 73. Make finding things easy discoverability Actions should be recoverability without cost A sense of time, place, context and meaning How the system feedback responds Four Principles of Interaction Design 54
  74. 74. Discoverability Make finding things easy 55
  75. 75. from icq.com 56
  76. 76. from blogger.com 57
  77. 77. from yahoo.com 58
  78. 78. from oldnavy.com 59
  79. 79. from farecast.com 60
  80. 80. Recoverability Actions should be without cost 61
  81. 81. 62 from blogger.com
  82. 82. from travelocity.com 63
  83. 83. from farecast.com 64
  84. 84. from farecast.com 64
  85. 85. from farecast.com 64
  86. 86. from travelocity.com 65
  87. 87. from farecast.com 66
  88. 88. from google.com 67
  89. 89. from amazon.com 68
  90. 90. from Measure Map 69
  91. 91. Context A sense of time, place, and meaning 70
  92. 92. from amazon.com 71
  93. 93. from gap.com 72
  94. 94. from gap.com 73
  95. 95. from gap.com 74
  96. 96. from blogger.com 75
  97. 97. Feedback How the system responds 76
  98. 98. Provide Clear Error Messages for Users 77
  99. 99. Provide Clear Error Messages for Users 77
  100. 100. from basecamphq.com 78
  101. 101. from napyfab.com 79
  102. 102. The job requires extra pluck graphic The five boxing wizards jump front tab back tab back tab heading dropdown text field text field Pack my box $12.73 text field Back in June $56.47 The job requires extra pluck and zeal from every young graphic The job $128.75 wage earner. The five boxing wizards jump quickly. Six big Five boxing $19.21 heading juicy steaks sizzled in a pan as five workmen left the Six big steaks $44.19 quarry. Five wine experts jokingly quizzed sample chablis. • Pack my box with five label Total $991.31 dozen liquor jugs. • Back in June we button delivered oxygen heading button • The job requires extra pluck and zeal • The five boxing wizards dropdown document output cycle effective jump quickly. • Six big juicy steaks document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 address graphic sizzled in a pan document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 city Six big juicy steaks Pack my box with five document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 sizzled in a pan as five state zip dozen liquor jugs. workmen left the quarry. document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 Back in June we Five wine experts selected checkbox delivered oxygen jokingly quizzed sample document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 equipment chablis. label selected list box item document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 label highlighted item unselected front tab back tab unselected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item selected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item dropdown list box item unselected radio highlighted item dropdown list box item list box item label label dropdown dropdown collapsed button selected radio button selected radio button button selected checkbox unselected radio button button unselected radio button button Action at a Distance 80
  103. 103. The job requires extra pluck graphic The five boxing wizards jump front tab back tab back tab heading dropdown text field text field Pack my box $12.73 text field Back in June $56.47 The job requires extra pluck and zeal from every young graphic The job $128.75 wage earner. The five boxing wizards jump quickly. Six big Five boxing $19.21 heading juicy steaks sizzled in a pan as five workmen left the Six big steaks $44.19 quarry. Five wine experts jokingly quizzed sample chablis. • Pack my box with five label Total $991.31 dozen liquor jugs. • Back in June we button delivered oxygen heading button • The job requires extra pluck and zeal • The five boxing wizards dropdown document output cycle effective jump quickly. • Six big juicy steaks document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 address graphic sizzled in a pan document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 city Six big juicy steaks Pack my box with five document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 sizzled in a pan as five state zip dozen liquor jugs. workmen left the quarry. document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 Back in June we Five wine experts selected checkbox delivered oxygen jokingly quizzed sample document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 equipment chablis. label selected list box item document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 label highlighted item unselected front tab back tab unselected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item selected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item dropdown list box item unselected radio highlighted item dropdown list box item list box item label label dropdown dropdown collapsed button selected radio button selected radio button button selected checkbox unselected radio button button unselected radio button button Action at a Distance 80
  104. 104. The job requires extra pluck graphic The five boxing wizards jump front tab back tab back tab heading dropdown text field text field Pack my box $12.73 text field Back in June $56.47 The job requires extra pluck and zeal from every young graphic The job $128.75 wage earner. The five boxing wizards jump quickly. Six big Five boxing $19.21 heading juicy steaks sizzled in a pan as five workmen left the Six big steaks $44.19 quarry. Five wine experts jokingly quizzed sample chablis. • Pack my box with five label Total $991.31 dozen liquor jugs. • Back in June we button delivered oxygen heading button • The job requires extra pluck and zeal • The five boxing wizards dropdown document output cycle effective jump quickly. • Six big juicy steaks document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 address graphic sizzled in a pan document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 city Six big juicy steaks Pack my box with five document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 sizzled in a pan as five state zip dozen liquor jugs. workmen left the quarry. document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 Back in June we Five wine experts selected checkbox delivered oxygen jokingly quizzed sample document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 equipment chablis. label selected list box item document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 label highlighted item unselected front tab back tab unselected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item selected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item dropdown list box item unselected radio highlighted item dropdown list box item list box item label label dropdown dropdown collapsed button selected radio button selected radio button button selected checkbox unselected radio button button unselected radio button button Action at a Distance 80
  105. 105. The job requires extra pluck graphic The five boxing wizards jump front tab back tab back tab heading dropdown text field text field Pack my box $12.73 text field Back in June $56.47 The job requires extra pluck and zeal from every young graphic The job $128.75 wage earner. The five boxing wizards jump quickly. Six big Five boxing $19.21 heading juicy steaks sizzled in a pan as five workmen left the Six big steaks $44.19 quarry. Five wine experts jokingly quizzed sample chablis. • Pack my box with five label Total $991.31 dozen liquor jugs. • Back in June we button delivered oxygen heading button • The job requires extra pluck and zeal • The five boxing wizards dropdown document output cycle effective jump quickly. • Six big juicy steaks document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 address graphic sizzled in a pan document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 city Six big juicy steaks Pack my box with five document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 sizzled in a pan as five state zip dozen liquor jugs. workmen left the quarry. document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 Back in June we Five wine experts selected checkbox delivered oxygen jokingly quizzed sample document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 equipment chablis. label selected list box item document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 label highlighted item unselected front tab back tab unselected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item selected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item dropdown list box item unselected radio highlighted item dropdown list box item list box item label label dropdown dropdown collapsed button selected radio button selected radio button button selected checkbox unselected radio button button unselected radio button button Action at a Distance 80
  106. 106. The job requires extra pluck graphic The five boxing wizards jump front tab back tab back tab heading dropdown text field text field Pack my box $12.73 text field Back in June $56.47 The job requires extra pluck and zeal from every young graphic The job $128.75 wage earner. The five boxing wizards jump quickly. Six big Five boxing $19.21 heading juicy steaks sizzled in a pan as five workmen left the Six big steaks $44.19 quarry. Five wine experts jokingly quizzed sample chablis. • Pack my box with five label Total $991.31 dozen liquor jugs. • Back in June we button delivered oxygen heading button • The job requires extra pluck and zeal • The five boxing wizards dropdown document output cycle effective jump quickly. • Six big juicy steaks document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 address graphic sizzled in a pan document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 city Six big juicy steaks Pack my box with five document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 sizzled in a pan as five state zip dozen liquor jugs. workmen left the quarry. document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 Back in June we Five wine experts selected checkbox delivered oxygen jokingly quizzed sample document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 equipment chablis. label selected list box item document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 label highlighted item unselected front tab back tab unselected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item selected radio document 04/15/05 04/15/05 04/15/05 list box item dropdown list box item unselected radio highlighted item dropdown list box item list box item label label dropdown dropdown collapsed button selected radio button selected radio button button selected checkbox unselected radio button button unselected radio button button Action at a Distance 80
  107. 107. Make finding things easy discoverability Actions should be recoverability without cost A sense of time, place, context and meaning How the system feedback responds Four Principles of Interaction Design 81
  108. 108. surface Concrete surface What will the skeleton finished product look like? structure scope strategy Abstract 82
  109. 109. Design is not just cosmetic. 83
  110. 110. also Design is not just cosmetic. 83
  111. 111. The Attractiveness Bias* ruthlessly stolen from “Universal Principles of Design” by Lidwell, Holden, and Butler 84
  112. 112. 85
  113. 113. 86
  114. 114. “Even if a website is highly usable and provides very useful information presented in a logical arrangement, it may fail to impress a user whose first impression of the site was negative.” Dr. Gitte Lindgaard, Carleton University 108 87
  115. 115. who do you trust? 88
  116. 116. Personality 89
  117. 117. what do each of these say to you? 90
  118. 118. Visual Design 91
  119. 119. The Non- Designer’s Design Book by Robin Williams 92 23
  120. 120. CRAP c contrast r repetition a alignment p proximity 93
  121. 121. CRAP c contrast r repetition a alignment p proximity 93
  122. 122. CRAP c contrast r repetition a alignment p proximity 93
  123. 123. CRAP c contrast r repetition a alignment p proximity 93
  124. 124. CRAP c contrast r repetition a alignment p proximity 93
  125. 125. contrast RailsConf 2007 repetition Portland, OR alignment May 17-20, 2007 proximity 94
  126. 126. contrast repetition RailsConf 2007 May 17 - 20, 2007 | Portland, OR alignment proximity 95
  127. 127. Visual Design Even simple improvements make a huge difference. 96
  128. 128. Resources The Non-Designer’s Design Book by Robin Williams About Face 2.0: The Essentials of Interaction Design by Alan Cooper Information Architecture for the World Wide Web by Louis Rosenfeld and Peter Morville Observing the User Experience by Mike Kuniavsky The Elements of User Experience by Jesse James Garrett David Verba | Dir. of Technology http://www.adaptivepath.com/slides/railsconf2007.pdf Adaptive Path david@adaptivepath.com 97

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