The Impact of the Open Source Movement on
the Direction of Geospatial Technology
Geoff Zeiss
Director of Technology
Autode...
Overview
What is geospatial ?

Geospatial inflection point

Open geospatial standards,
commoditization, and open source

W...
What is
    geospatial ?




3              © 2005 Autodesk
What is geospatial ?




      4           © 2005 Autodesk
What is geospatial?




      5           © 2005 Autodesk
What is geospatial ?




      6           © 2005 Autodesk
What is geospatial ?




      7           © 2005 Autodesk
What is geospatial ?

                                                                                 UNDER
           IN...
Examples of Geospatial
                              Applications

•   Desktop GIS
•   Geospatially-enabled CAD
•   Web Ma...
Geospatial
     Inflection Point:
       Everything is
         Changing




10               © 2005 Autodesk
Trend:
             Geospatially-enabled IT

              GIS
                                General IT


General IT
   ...
Trend: Web 2.0


     Google Earth
     200 000 000 downloads
     10 000 mashups




     12                      © 2005 ...
Trend:
                Open Geospatial Standards

Open Geospatial Consortium
  Simple Feature Specification (SFS)

 Geog...
Trend:
             Open Source Geospatial
Open source geospatial has matured




MapServer, PostGIS, GeoServer, MapGuide,...
Trend:
Open Source Geospatial




        15           © 2005 Autodesk
BIM/CAD/GIS
                                               Convergence




                                               ...
Open Spatial
     Standards,
     Commoditization,
     and Open Source




17             © 2005 Autodesk
Standards create fertile
         ground for open source

C, C++         ->    Gnu C, C++ compiler

POSIX          ->    G...
Commoditization Example:
                   Apache Foundation

NCSA HTTP Server and the Apache
Group
    Mid 90’s: Apache ...
IT standards and
                       geospatial
    Geospatial was a latecomer to IT and many of

    the standards as...
Open Geospatial Standards


Open Geospatial Consortium
  Simple Feature Specification (SFS)

 Geographic Markup Language...
Commoditization
              of Web Mapping
Open spatial standards create
fertile ground for open source
geospatial
 SFS...
Commoditization
                               of Web Mapping

    Web mapping should be open source

        Less comple...
Formation of the OSGEO

Autodesk joined forces with the leading
members of the open source web mapping
community
    DM So...
Open Source
Geospatial
Foundation
                             Desktop Applications
Web Mapping
                          ...
OSGEO Statistics

                   Web Mapping
                Lines of    Person Contributors Contributors
            ...
OSGEO Statistics


           Geospatial Libraries

            Lines of    Person Contributors Contributors
             ...
OSGEO Statistics


                    Desktop
                   Applications
              Lines of   Person Contributor...
OSGEO Statistics


         OSGEO Total

         Lines of    Person    Contributors   Contributors
          Code       Y...
GDAL/OGR

• GDAL is a translator library for raster
  geospatial data formats.

• OGR library (which lives within the GDAL...
GDAL/OGR Statistics
• 1500 source downloads of GDAL per month.

• Selected Software Using GDAL
    Google Earth: A 3D worl...
Geotools
• Java GIS
  Geotools is an open source, Java GIS toolkit


• Extensible
  Modular architecture allows extra fu...
Geotools Statistics
•   4,599 downloads per month - June 2007
      3-5 times that if you include projects that include i...
MapGuide OS and FDO
                    Statistics
          March 2006 to June 2007

MapGuide     OS
  Community includ...
Web 2.0,
     Open Source
     Geospatial
     and the Utility
     Industry

35              © 2005 Autodesk
CAD is a primary data
                               source
     Architects,
Engineers, Planners,            CAD,
    Desi...
Utility Information Flow

Engineering
                 Construction
  Design                        Construction
         ...
Challenge:
               Aging Workforce

US Utility industry Survey 2004

• 50% of the utility workforce is
  aged 45 or...
Infrastructure Management
                 Challenges

XInformation   silos
 XRedundant   data and processes
 XField force...
What is Web 2.0 ?
    Web 1.0                                 Web 2.0
DoubleClick               -->        Google AdSense
...
What does Web 2.0 mean
                   for a utility ?

• Web 1.0 is about publishing

• Web 2.0 is about participation...
Web 2.0 Streamlines
                            Information Flow
                                   Paper
Engineering
  De...
Web 2.0 Enables Field
                Force Participation
               Users            Appln          Relative
        ...
Web 2.0 Democratizes,
    Reduces TCO




                               44
 Geospatial Inflection Point
                 ...
Web 2.0 Enables Knowledge
                       Sharing


Experienced                        Inexperienced
  Workers     ...
Web 2.0 Web Mapping
                        Solutions

• Web 2.0 enables support for web-based
  spatial edit

      Suppo...
Web 2.0 Open Source Web
               Mapping Platform
                                  Web
       Desktop
             ...
Web 2.0 Open Source Web
                    Mapping Platform
• Fusion
   Open  source Web 2.0 application development
   ...
MapGuide Open Source

                            Develop with…
Deploy on…




 Microsoft    Linux
 Windows


Serve with… ...
FDO Data Access Technology
 Autodesk, Third-Party and Open Source FDO Providers
Databases
                                ...
FUSION
                    Flexibility for design and control
• Customizable library of web mapping tools and controls
• C...
Web2.0
                           Open Source Web Mapping
No. of sites




                              ArcIMS           ...
Open Source
     Creates
     Opportunities
     for Software
     Developers



53             © 2005 Autodesk
OSS Creates
            Business Opportunities
Opportunities for entrepreneurs
 Gain  recognition
 Participate in a comm...
Dave McIlhagga,
                          DMSolutions Group, Canada

Formed in 1998 as sole contractor
In 2007 18 employee...
Haris Kurtagic,
                              SL-KIng, Slovenia

Unique offering
    Experienced Oracle developer

    De...
Frank Warmerdam,
                                Sole Contractor, Canada
Started in 1998
    Sole contractor

    Started...
OpenGeo
                                         Cooperative, Brazil
Started in Jun 2004
    Initial capital R$ 12.000,00 ...
Mori Toru,
                                Orkney, Japan
Launched in Feb 2002 as sole contractor
    Initial capital 3,000...
Summary

Open source is good at commodity software
    Open standards create a fertile ground for commoditization

     ...
Harness The Collective
     Intelligence




      61           © 2005 Autodesk
www.osgeo.org

geoff.zeiss@autodesk.com

www.geospatial.blogs.com
           62              © 2005 Autodesk
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Os Zeiss

  1. 1. The Impact of the Open Source Movement on the Direction of Geospatial Technology Geoff Zeiss Director of Technology Autodesk 1 © 2005 Autodesk
  2. 2. Overview What is geospatial ? Geospatial inflection point Open geospatial standards, commoditization, and open source Web 2.0, open source geospatial and the utility industry Open source geospatial is creating business opportunities 2 © 2005 Autodesk
  3. 3. What is geospatial ? 3 © 2005 Autodesk
  4. 4. What is geospatial ? 4 © 2005 Autodesk
  5. 5. What is geospatial? 5 © 2005 Autodesk
  6. 6. What is geospatial ? 6 © 2005 Autodesk
  7. 7. What is geospatial ? 7 © 2005 Autodesk
  8. 8. What is geospatial ? UNDER INSIDE OUTSIDE Full interior, 3D visualization 3D exterior urban visualization 3D subterranean visualization Including: Including: Including: - Utility / HVAC systems - Utility structures - Sewer systems - Furniture - Full city blocks of 3D detail - Utility / Phone systems - Mechanized lifts / elevators - Precise spatial orientation - Electrical systems - Walls, doors, windows - Line of Sight calculations - Access routes / portals - Precision architectural detail - Space – to – Sidewalk view - Precision CAD detail 8 © 2005 Autodesk
  9. 9. Examples of Geospatial Applications • Desktop GIS • Geospatially-enabled CAD • Web Mapping • Geospatial relational database management systems • Spatial analysis (suitability, market areas, …) • Topological analysis • Digital terrain modeling • Network infrastructure management for utilities, telcos, and local governnment • Routing • Georeferencing • Pavement management • Road/highway/railroad information systems • 3D visualization of cityscapes • Etc. 9 © 2005 Autodesk
  10. 10. Geospatial Inflection Point: Everything is Changing 10 © 2005 Autodesk
  11. 11. Trend: Geospatially-enabled IT GIS General IT General IT Geospatial enabled 2005/2006 11 © 2005 Autodesk
  12. 12. Trend: Web 2.0 Google Earth 200 000 000 downloads 10 000 mashups 12 © 2005 Autodesk
  13. 13. Trend: Open Geospatial Standards Open Geospatial Consortium Simple Feature Specification (SFS)   Geographic Markup Language (GML)  OGC Web Services  Web Mapping Service (WMS)  Web Feature Service (WFS) ISO SQL/MM SQL with geospatial extensions  13 © 2005 Autodesk
  14. 14. Trend: Open Source Geospatial Open source geospatial has matured MapServer, PostGIS, GeoServer, MapGuide, … Estimate that half of world’s web mapping servers use MapServer. 14 © 2005 Autodesk
  15. 15. Trend: Open Source Geospatial 15 © 2005 Autodesk
  16. 16. BIM/CAD/GIS Convergence 16 © 2005 Autodesk Infrastructure Solutions Division Source: Tim Case, Parsons Brinkerhoff
  17. 17. Open Spatial Standards, Commoditization, and Open Source 17 © 2005 Autodesk
  18. 18. Standards create fertile ground for open source C, C++ -> Gnu C, C++ compiler POSIX -> GNU/Linux HTTP -> Apache Web Server SQL, ODBC -> MySQL, PostGreSQL SMTP, POP -> Sendmail, etc. .Net -> Mono 18 © 2005 Autodesk
  19. 19. Commoditization Example: Apache Foundation NCSA HTTP Server and the Apache Group Mid 90’s: Apache Group formed by eight NCSA HTTP Server  programmers  Objective to coordinate quot;patchesquot; Challenge: commercializing the web IBM and others  Trying to decide how to monetize web  Creation of the Apache Foundation 1999 IBM decided to support the Apache Web Server  Members of the Apache Group formed the Apache Foundation,  Legal entity, to provide organizational, legal, and financial support for  the Apache web server. Result: Apache Web Server Running on over 70% of the world’s web servers.  19 © 2005 Autodesk
  20. 20. IT standards and geospatial Geospatial was a latecomer to IT and many of  the standards associated with modern IT  GIS used to be highly proprietary.  Geospatial has joined the mainstream. Generic IT standards are being applied to  geospatial  SQL -> SQL/MM  XML -> GML  Web services -> OGC OWS (WMS, WFS, …) 20 © 2005 Autodesk
  21. 21. Open Geospatial Standards Open Geospatial Consortium Simple Feature Specification (SFS)   Geographic Markup Language (GML)  OGC Web Services  Web Mapping Service (WMS)  Web Feature Service (WFS) ISO SQL/MM SQL with geospatial extensions  21 © 2005 Autodesk
  22. 22. Commoditization of Web Mapping Open spatial standards create fertile ground for open source geospatial SFS -> PostGIS, MySQL OWS -> MapServer, GeoServer 22 © 2005 Autodesk
  23. 23. Commoditization of Web Mapping Web mapping should be open source  Less complex than desktop applications  Becoming commoditized  Successful open source community around MapServer  Analogy with Apache Web Server  User benefits  More frequent software releases  Faster innovation, support for standards  Lower cost of ownership  Creates commercial opportunities  Market creation, broadens use of web mapping  Increase demand for supporting products  Low barrier to entry for developers (ISV’s)  23 © 2005 Autodesk
  24. 24. Formation of the OSGEO Autodesk joined forces with the leading members of the open source web mapping community DM Solutions Group, U-Minnesota MapServer, GDAL,  GRASS, GeoTools, MapBender, OSSIM, … Supported establishment of a foundation To support the ongoing development of open web  mapping technologies Contributed MapGuide Open Source and FDO Next generation Web 2.0 web mapping  Many person years of development effort  24 © 2005 Autodesk
  25. 25. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Desktop Applications Web Mapping GRASS MapServer OSSIM MapGuide Open Source Quantum GIS OpenLayers MapBender Metadata Catalog MapBuilder GeoNetwork opensource Geospatial Libraries GDAL/OGR GeoTools Feature Data Object (FDO) 25 © 2005 Autodesk
  26. 26. OSGEO Statistics Web Mapping Lines of Person Contributors Contributors Code Years Last Year Project Life Start Date Mapbender 208,193 53 9 18 2001 Community MapBuilder 253,552 65 14 23 2001 MapGuide Open Source 301,788 79 21 28 2005 MapServer 107,624 27 14 31 2000* OpenLayers 30,165 7 5 6 2006 26 © 2005 Autodesk
  27. 27. OSGEO Statistics Geospatial Libraries Lines of Person Contributors Contributors Code Years Last Year Project Life Start Date FDO 648,510 177 14 14 12 mos* GDAL/OGR 558,020 152 17 17 1998 GeoTools 1,237,689 341 31 64 2002* 27 © 2005 Autodesk
  28. 28. OSGEO Statistics Desktop Applications Lines of Person Contributors Contributors Code Years Last Year Project Life Start Date GRASS 536,307 145 24 33 2000* OSSIM 557,149 151 7 20 1997 Quantum GIS 104,583 26 12 20 2002 28 © 2005 Autodesk
  29. 29. OSGEO Statistics OSGEO Total Lines of Person Contributors Contributors Code Years Last Year Project Life Total 4,728,068 1,269 174 280 29 © 2005 Autodesk
  30. 30. GDAL/OGR • GDAL is a translator library for raster geospatial data formats. • OGR library (which lives within the GDAL source tree) provides a similar capability for simple features vector data. • GDAL and OGR were developed and supported by Frank Warmerdam. 30 © 2005 Autodesk
  31. 31. GDAL/OGR Statistics • 1500 source downloads of GDAL per month. • Selected Software Using GDAL Google Earth: A 3D world viewer.  ESRI ArcGIS 9.2+: A popular GIS platform.  Feature Data Objects (FDO): Open source access libraries.  FME: A GIS translator package includes a GDAL plugin.  GeoFusion: 3D visualization.  GRASS: A raster/vector open source GIS.  MapGuide: Open source web mapping server.  MapServer: A popular web mapping application.  OSSIM: A geospatial viewing and analysis environment.  Quantum GIS (QGIS): A cross platform desktop GIS.  Etc.  31 © 2005 Autodesk
  32. 32. Geotools • Java GIS  Geotools is an open source, Java GIS toolkit • Extensible  Modular architecture allows extra functionality to be easily incorporated. • Standards  Geotools supports OpenGIS and other relevant standards. 32 © 2005 Autodesk
  33. 33. Geotools Statistics • 4,599 downloads per month - June 2007  3-5 times that if you include projects that include it • Project lifetime - 10 years • Active contributors (in last year) – 31 64 contributors over lifetime of project  • Projects incorporating GeoTools GeoServer   uDig.  OrbisGIS (new project)  gvSig • Corporate contributors - IBM, Nokia, Google (Summer of Code), NOAA... 33 © 2005 Autodesk
  34. 34. MapGuide OS and FDO Statistics March 2006 to June 2007 MapGuide OS  Community includes over 600 members 34,000 source code downloads  FDO  9,000 source code downloads Data providers developed by open source  contributors 34 © 2005 Autodesk
  35. 35. Web 2.0, Open Source Geospatial and the Utility Industry 35 © 2005 Autodesk
  36. 36. CAD is a primary data source Architects, Engineers, Planners, CAD, Designers, BIM Drafters EO Satellites, Photogrammetry Aerial overflights Radar Terrestrial scanning ` Laser Scanning LIDAR Data Paper, Scanning, Data conversion, CAD Digitization ` Field data capture, Theodolite Surveyors, GPS GPS 36 © 2005 Autodesk
  37. 37. Utility Information Flow Engineering Construction Design Construction Drawings (CAD) Paper As-builts Paper Paper Markups Field Force (Linesmen, Records Troublemen, (GIS) Records Install and Repair) 37 © 2005 Autodesk
  38. 38. Challenge: Aging Workforce US Utility industry Survey 2004 • 50% of the utility workforce is aged 45 or more. • The potential loss of knowledge base is a critical issue.  Security  Safety  Productivity 38 © 2005 Autodesk
  39. 39. Infrastructure Management Challenges XInformation silos XRedundant data and processes XField force disenfranchisement XPoor data quality XExpensive XExacerbates challenge of aging workforce 39 © 2005 Autodesk
  40. 40. What is Web 2.0 ? Web 1.0 Web 2.0 DoubleClick --> Google AdSense Ofoto --> Flickr Akamai --> BitTorrent mp3.com --> Napster Britannica Online --> Wikipedia personal websites --> blogging Evite --> upcoming.org and EVDB Domain name speculation --> search engine optimization Page views --> cost per click Screen scraping --> web services Publishing --> Participation Content management systems --> wikis Directories (taxonomy) --> tagging (quot;folksonomyquot;) Stickiness --> syndication Source: Tim O’Reilly “What is Web 2.0?” 40 © 2005 Autodesk
  41. 41. What does Web 2.0 mean for a utility ? • Web 1.0 is about publishing • Web 2.0 is about participation. • For a utility or telco, Web 2.0 enables harnessing the collective intelligence Data is accessible to everyone who can use a browser  • Web 2.0 enfranchises the field force Enables field force to participate in data maintenance  41 © 2005 Autodesk
  42. 42. Web 2.0 Streamlines Information Flow Paper Engineering Design Construction Construction Drawings (CAD) W or k pri n t Spatial Paper As-builts RDBMS Up s rd da o ec t e R Field Force Field Force (Linesmen, Records Participation Troublemen, (GIS) Install and Repair) 42 © 2005 Autodesk
  43. 43. Web 2.0 Enables Field Force Participation Users Appln Relative number of users Create Drafters CAD 100’s Edit Web 2.0 Mapping View Field staff Paper or viewer 1000’s 43 © 2005 Autodesk
  44. 44. Web 2.0 Democratizes, Reduces TCO 44 Geospatial Inflection Point 44 © 2005 Autodesk
  45. 45. Web 2.0 Enables Knowledge Sharing Experienced Inexperienced Workers Workers Web Web Browser Infrastructure Browser Database 45 © 2005 Autodesk
  46. 46. Web 2.0 Web Mapping Solutions • Web 2.0 enables support for web-based spatial edit Supports editing and manipulating both  attributes and geometry on the Web Open Source enables bringing this innovation  to market rapidly 46 © 2005 Autodesk
  47. 47. Web 2.0 Open Source Web Mapping Platform Web Desktop Applications Applications Spatially- Fusion enabled CAD MapGuide Desktop Open Source Feature Data Object API Oracle SDF Shape ArcSDE MySQL Spatial 47 © 2005 Autodesk
  48. 48. Web 2.0 Open Source Web Mapping Platform • Fusion  Open source Web 2.0 application development environment  Technology preview http://mapguide.osgeo.org/ • Feature Data Object (FDO) API  Open source library supporting full spatial edit • MapGuide Open Source (MGOS)  Open Source web mapping server 48 © 2005 Autodesk
  49. 49. MapGuide Open Source Develop with… Deploy on… Microsoft Linux Windows Serve with… Browse with… Apache Mozilla Internet Microsoft Web Firefox Explorer IIS Server 49 © 2005 Autodesk
  50. 50. FDO Data Access Technology Autodesk, Third-Party and Open Source FDO Providers Databases – ESRI Personal GeoDatabase – Oracle® – MySQL® – GRASS – Oracle Spatial – Microsoft® SQL Server™ – PostGIS/PostgreSQL – ArcSDE® – ODBC Compliant DB Vector Data Formats – MapInfo .TAB – GML – SDTS SDF  – U.K. .NTF ESRI SHP – U.S. Census  – KML TIGER/Line WFS  – INTERLIS – Arc/Info DXF  – S-57 (ENC) Coverage Raster Data Formats – JPG2K – HDF4/HDF5 – DTED – NITF – MrSID® – HFA – WMS – TIFF/GeoTIFF – PCRaster – NLAPS Data – ECW – RMF Format – DEM – SGI – GRASS – GMT – ESRI Grid – WCS 50 © 2005 Autodesk
  51. 51. FUSION Flexibility for design and control • Customizable library of web mapping tools and controls • Created through open source MapGuide Open Source layout… … and with Fusion 51 © 2005 Autodesk
  52. 52. Web2.0 Open Source Web Mapping No. of sites ArcIMS MapServer Web1.0 MapGuide GeoMedia Web MapExtreme Utility and Telecom Government 52 © 2005 Autodesk
  53. 53. Open Source Creates Opportunities for Software Developers 53 © 2005 Autodesk
  54. 54. OSS Creates Business Opportunities Opportunities for entrepreneurs Gain recognition Participate in a community Create a market Low cost of entry Alternative business models Services Support Accelerators Highspeed internet acces Low cost geospatial data 54 © 2005 Autodesk
  55. 55. Dave McIlhagga, DMSolutions Group, Canada Formed in 1998 as sole contractor In 2007 18 employees Skills Skillset very unique  Web development, software design, GIS and core C++ programming  All revenue from services Took on core programming for Mapserver.  90% of core development of Mapserver was funded by MapServer users who  needed additional functionality.  Currently provides support and services for Mapserver and MapGuide Key Success Challenge Avoid the technology trap, identify areas for repeatable solutions where you can  pick up recurring revenue streams. 55 © 2005 Autodesk
  56. 56. Haris Kurtagic, SL-KIng, Slovenia Unique offering Experienced Oracle developer  Developed Open Source FDO Oracle Spatial Data Provider  Received 100 emails of interest the day he announced the availability  of his provider on the OSGEO web site. Developed Open Source FDO SQL Server Data Provider  Developed FDO2FDO  Currently on the steering committee of the MapGuide/FDO project. International reputation as “Mr. Oracle Spatial” 56 © 2005 Autodesk
  57. 57. Frank Warmerdam, Sole Contractor, Canada Started in 1998 Sole contractor  Started with enough money in the bank to live for a few months but no real capital.  Unique offering At first offered own expertise  Wrote file format translators for various clients  The quot;growthquot; proposition was always to define an architecture GDAL and to buildup a large  pool of geospatial data translation code in GDAL GDAL gained international reputation. GDAL is what attracts customers.  Biggest challenge Finding a balance between unpaid work (software maintenance, community building), and paid  work for clients. Advice Expect to contribute pro-bono initially  Serve your customers  Enjoy what you are doing  57 © 2005 Autodesk
  58. 58. OpenGeo Cooperative, Brazil Started in Jun 2004 Initial capital R$ 12.000,00 (~ US$ 6.000,00)  OSS Opportunity in Brazil OpenGeo is unique in Brazil in offering a low cost solution for managing spatial information.  Local government (more than 5 000 cities) require a low cost way of managing spatial  information. Challenge Educating about GIS and the advantages of open standards and open source.  Educating teachers in universities about the philosophy of free and open software.  Creating open source solutions with little support from government and research institutions.  Advice Creativity is the key to creating new opportunities  Open source does not limit your creativity.  58 © 2005 Autodesk
  59. 59. Mori Toru, Orkney, Japan Launched in Feb 2002 as sole contractor Initial capital 3,000,000JPY (25,000USD)  OSS Opportunity No competitors. No businesses providing OSS support and services in  Japanese  Extremely competitive in cost  Opportunity to offer unique technical skills as services. Unique Challenge Open source tools did not support not double byte character set.  Invested in double byte enabling GRASS and Mapserver.  Supported by government grant and Osaka City University.  Advice Do not follow others  Love your customers  Never give up  59 © 2005 Autodesk
  60. 60. Summary Open source is good at commodity software Open standards create a fertile ground for commoditization   http, html -> Apache Web Server Web mapping is being commoditized Open source web mapping widely used  Successful businesses based on open source web mapping  Web 2.0 solves critical business problems Open source web mapping creates business opportunities 60 © 2005 Autodesk
  61. 61. Harness The Collective Intelligence 61 © 2005 Autodesk
  62. 62. www.osgeo.org geoff.zeiss@autodesk.com www.geospatial.blogs.com 62 © 2005 Autodesk

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