1. Vertebrates are a group of animals with an internal skeleton
articulated, which as support body and permits its movement.
Have the following characteristics:
Spinal column are formed by a series of articulated parts or
vertebrate, which allow some movement and give some flexibility.
The body is divided into head, trunk and extremities.
There are different sex, there are the female and the male.
The vertebrates are classified into five groups:
2. The feel is more developed in mammals than in other
vertebrates, reaching significance in some species sum.
Vibrissa hair and amplify the tactile ability endings scattered
by the surface of the organism of mammals.
This sense acquires considerable importance for many
species that live underground, they find a partner because of
the perception of seismic waves produced by blows to the
head on the ceiling of the gallery for other congeners. So it is
with the moles, able to feel vibrations of surrounding land that
allows them to locate movements in all directions and
3. The anatomical complexity of the mammalian ear hearing suggests these
The ear of modern mammals is formed by a fold of skin and cartilage called the
pinna or outer pinna (which is usually under some muscle control) , a relatively
small tympanic membrane , sunk in a pit , a air-filled cavity called middle ear
contains three tiny bones of the middle ear and the inner ear , including a fluidfilled cochlea called spiral.
Sound impinging on the tympanic membrane vibrates . The vibrations are
picked up by the outermost of the middle ear bones , the malleus or hammer ,
which has a process ( manubrium or handle ) that contacts the eardrum. The
movement of the eardrum vibration transmitted to the handlebar and the rest of
the hammer, from where they ( sound energy ) to the anvil or incus , and thence
to the stapes or stirrup . Bone latter vibrates against a window that opens into the
inner ear by triggering the movement of the fluid in the cochlea , which is
detected by the ciliated structures and sent to the brain as a nerve impulse .
4. Smell is one of the most important senses in most mammalian
species because it not only provides information about what is
happening , as does what has happened and what is to come . In
humans, is in continuous regression , you basing our relationship
with the outside on the other , especially in the view. Nor cetaceans
and other marine mammals develop this sense to the level that they
do most of the land , especially carnivores and some insectivores ,
in which the anatomy of the head makes sense the importance .
The smell is nothing but chemical stimulation to certain substances ,
produced in the olfactory epithelium.
Part of the nasal mucosa of most mammalian species possess
specialized nerve cells capable of transforming chemical signals
into electrical currents that are transported through the olfactory
nerves to the brain , where they are translated in odors .
5. Their bodies is covered with
scales, hair, feathers or smooth skin.
6. Vertebrate breathe in different ways. For example:
some have got lungs(for example: snake) to breath
air and some have got gills(for example: frog). But
some breathe air with their skin.
7. No mammals except for monotremes reproduce like this. Instead,
theyOviparous animals are animals that reproduce by laying eggs. This
is how most fish, amphibians, reptiles, insects, and arachnids reproduce.
All birds and monotremes also reproduce like this.
Most animals that live on land lay eggs that are protected by hard
shells. They fertilize their eggs internally. Water-dwelling animals like fish
and amphibians lay eggs that have not been fertilized yet. Then the
males lay sperm on top of the eggs, which is called external fertilization.
are viviparous. Fish, amphibians and reptiles that are not oviparous are
oviviparous. This means that the eggs hatch while still inside the mother's
8. Viviparous has two different meanings. In animals, it
means development of the embryo inside the body of
the mother, eventually leading to live birth, as
opposed to laying eggs. In plants, it means
reproduction via embryos, such as buds, that develop
from the outset without interruption, as opposed to
germinating externally from a seed.