English Grammar


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English grammar C.E SERRA part I

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English Grammar

  2. 2. PRESENT SIMPLE: Use <ul><li>We use present simple to talk about habits and routines. </li></ul><ul><li>When appear these adverbs: Always, every day, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, barely, hardly ever, never. </li></ul><ul><li>With timetables: Bus, planes, underground,… </li></ul>
  3. 3. PRESENT SIMPLE: Form <ul><li>The present simple uses the same form as the infinitive for all persons, except the third person singular. </li></ul><ul><li>To form the negative, we add the auxiliary verb do + not (don’t) before the verb, except the third person singular, when we use does + not (doesn’t) </li></ul>
  4. 4. PRESENT SIMPLE: Form <ul><li>AFFIRMATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>I play </li></ul><ul><li>You play </li></ul><ul><li>He/She/It plays </li></ul><ul><li>We play </li></ul><ul><li>You play </li></ul><ul><li>They play </li></ul>NEGATIVE I do not (don’t) play You do not play He does not (doesn’t)play We do not play You do not play They do not play INTERROGATIVE Do I play? Do you play? Does he/she/it play? Do we play? Do you play? Do they play?
  5. 5. PRESENT CONTINUOUS: Use <ul><li>To talk about actions happening now, at the moment of speaking. ( I'm writing a letter) </li></ul><ul><li>When you talk about something happening now but not necessarily when you are speaking. (I’m looking for a job at the moment) </li></ul><ul><li>When you talk about something has decided and it’ll do in the future. ( I'm meeting a friend this evening) </li></ul>
  6. 6. PRESENT CONTINUOUS: Form <ul><li>We form the present continuous with verb TO BE + adding –ing directly to the infinitive of the verb. DO - DOING </li></ul><ul><li>With verbs that end in –e, we omit the vowel and add –ing. HAVE - HAVING </li></ul><ul><li>With verbs of one syllabe that end in a vowel + a consonant, we double the final consonant and add –ing. CUT - CUTTING </li></ul><ul><li>With verbs that end in –l, we always double the –l. TRAVEL - TRAVELLING </li></ul>
  7. 7. PRESENT CONTINUOUS: Form <ul><li>AFFIRMATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>I’m playing </li></ul><ul><li>You’re playing </li></ul><ul><li>He/She/It is playing </li></ul><ul><li>We’re playing </li></ul><ul><li>You’re playing </li></ul><ul><li>They’re playing </li></ul>NEGATIVE I am not playing You are not play He is not playing We are not playing You are not playing They are not playing INTERROGATIVE Am I playing? Are you playing? Is he/she/it playing? Are we playing? Are you playing? Are they playing?
  8. 8. PAST SIMPLE: Use <ul><li>a.) Use past simple when you talk about finished actions in the past. Usually goes wiht frequency adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>I bought this car last year </li></ul><ul><li>b.) To express indeterminate action in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>They used pencils and paper </li></ul><ul><li>c.) To express habits and routines in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>They never drank alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>d.) To express improbable condition. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>If I saw her, I should speak to her </li></ul>
  9. 9. PAST SIMPLE: Form <ul><li>Add –ed at the end of the verb. SAVE -SAVED </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs that end in –e: add –d only. TRY-TRIED </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs that end in a consonant + -y: change the –y to –i and add –ed. ROB-ROBBED </li></ul><ul><li>One-syllable verbs ending in one vowel and one consonant: double the final consonant and add –ed. STOP-STOPPED </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs of two or more syllabes ending in one vowel and one consonant: double the final consonant if the final syllabe is stressed. TRANSMIT-TRANSMITTED </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs that end in –l: double the –l TRAVEL-TRAVELLED </li></ul>
  10. 10. PAST SIMPLE: Form <ul><li>AFFIRMATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>I played </li></ul><ul><li>You played </li></ul><ul><li>He/She/It played </li></ul><ul><li>We played </li></ul><ul><li>You played </li></ul><ul><li>They played </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>I did not play </li></ul><ul><li>You did not play </li></ul><ul><li>He did not play </li></ul><ul><li>We did not play </li></ul><ul><li>You did not play </li></ul><ul><li>They did not play  </li></ul>
  11. 11. SIMPLE PAST: Form <ul><li>INTERROGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Did I play? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you play? </li></ul><ul><li>Did he play? </li></ul><ul><li>Did we play? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you play? </li></ul><ul><li>Did they play? </li></ul><ul><li>INT.-NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Didn't I play? </li></ul><ul><li>Didn't you play? </li></ul><ul><li>Didn't he play? </li></ul><ul><li>Didn't we play? </li></ul><ul><li>Didn't you play? </li></ul><ul><li>Didn't  they play? </li></ul>
  12. 12. PAST CONTINUOUS: Use <ul><li>a.) To express an action in progress in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>It was raining </li></ul><ul><li>b.) To express two actions which were happening at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>I was reading the newspaper while I was walking home </li></ul><ul><li>c.) To express two actions which were happening in the past but one of them started before the other. </li></ul><ul><li>When I arrived John was talking on the phone </li></ul>
  13. 13. PAST CONTINUOUS. Form: <ul><li>past of to be + verb in gerund (ing) </li></ul>I was playing I was not playing Was I playing?
  14. 14. PRESENT PERFECT: Use <ul><li>To talk about past experiences when you don’t say when something happened. </li></ul><ul><li>With already, just, and yet. </li></ul><ul><li>With superlatives and the first, second, last time,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>For finished actions (no time is specified) which are connected in some way with the present. </li></ul><ul><li>With How long? And for/since with non-action verbs (=verbs not usually used in the continuous form, e.g. be, have, know, like, etc.) to say that something started in the past and is still true now. </li></ul><ul><li>TIME EXPRESSIONS Ever and never </li></ul>
  15. 15. PRESENT PERFECT: Use <ul><li>I’ve passed my driving test! / He aprobado el exámen de conducir Have you seen the gorgeous new secretary? / ¿Has visto a la atractiva nueva secretaria? </li></ul><ul><li>A terrorist has bombed a bus (acción en el pasado que tiene un significado ahora) Adolf Hitler bombed London (no tiene relevancia ahora) </li></ul><ul><li>Since and for 'For' - (how long something has lasted) We’ve had this computer for about six months. / Tenemos esta computadora desde hace unos seis meses. 'Since' - (when something started) We’ve had this car since January / Tenemos este coche desde enero. I’ve known Eric since 1989. I’ve known Eric for 15 years ( si estamos en 2004) </li></ul>
  16. 16. PRESENT PERFECT: Use <ul><li>Just  I’ve just made tea, would you like a cup? / Acabo de hacer té. ¿Quieres una taza? </li></ul><ul><li>Yet and already 'yet' - normalmente se utiliza en frases interrogativas y va al final de la oración . Se usa cuando esperamos que algo va a pasar en el futuro, no en el pasado ni en el presente.  Have you done your homework yet? / ¿Has terminado ya los deberes? 'already' - se usa en frases afirmativas e interrogativas y normalmente va detrás de los verbos auxiliares o modales y delante de los demás verbos. Con 'already' decimos que algo está en el presente o el pasado, no en el futuro.  Yes, I’ve already finished my homework / Sí, ya he terminado mis deberes </li></ul>
  17. 17. PRESENT PERFECT: Form <ul><li>We form the present perfect with to have (auxiliary) and </li></ul><ul><li>past participle of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>to have + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve lost my book. I don’t have it now </li></ul><ul><li>Have you seen the new Leonardo Di Caprio film? </li></ul><ul><li>Your sister has left the door open. The door is open now  </li></ul><ul><li>Hasn’t Danny got married yet? Is he still single? </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve finally found a job . I have a job now </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve known her since I was a child. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s had the job for six months. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever eaten paella? I’ve never eaten paella. </li></ul>
  18. 18. PRESENT PERFECT: Form <ul><li>AFFIRMATIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>I have played </li></ul><ul><li>You have played </li></ul><ul><li>He has played </li></ul><ul><li>We have played </li></ul><ul><li>You have played </li></ul><ul><li>They have played   </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>He has not played </li></ul><ul><li>INTERROGATIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>Have you played? </li></ul>
  19. 19. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: Use <ul><li>With How long? And for/since with action verbs to say that action started in the past and is still happening now. </li></ul><ul><li>For repeated actions, especially with a time expression, e.g. all day, recently. </li></ul><ul><li>For continuous actions which have just finished (but which have present results) </li></ul>
  20. 20. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: Use <ul><li>The present perfect simple emphasizes the completion of an action. We’ve painted the kitchen. (=the painting is finished). </li></ul><ul><li>The present perfect continuous emphasizes the continuation of an action. We’ve been painting the kitchen. (=the painting is probably not finished). </li></ul>
  21. 21. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: Form <ul><li>SUBJECT + to have + been + gerund </li></ul><ul><li>I have been playing </li></ul><ul><li>He has been playing </li></ul><ul><li>I have not been playing </li></ul><ul><li>Have I been playing? </li></ul><ul><li>Haven't I been playing? </li></ul>
  22. 22. THE FUTURE (Will): Use <ul><li>We use will/won’t to talk about the future. </li></ul><ul><li>To make predictions. </li></ul><ul><li>To make promises and rapid decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>To make an offer. </li></ul>
  23. 23. THE FUTURE (Will): Use <ul><li>PREDICTION: the weather will be worse tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>PROMISE: I promise I’ll come back early. </li></ul><ul><li>RAPID DECISION: I’ll do it immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>OFFER: I’ll cook tonight. </li></ul>
  24. 24. THE FUTURE (Will): Form <ul><li>Affirmative clause </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + will + main verb--> I will eat (Yo comeré) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative clause </li></ul><ul><li>Subject +will + not + main verb --> I will not eat (Yo no comeré) </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative clause </li></ul><ul><li>Will + sujeto + verbo principal? -->Will I eat? (¿Comeré yo?) </li></ul><ul><li>Short forms </li></ul><ul><li>I'll, you'll, he'll, she'll... (affirmative) </li></ul><ul><li>I won't, you won't, she won't... (negative) </li></ul>
  25. 25. THE FUTURE (to be+going to): Use <ul><li>We use going to to talk about plans and intentions for the future. </li></ul><ul><li>They’re going to get married in May. </li></ul><ul><li>We use going to to make predictions based on present evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>She is very sad, I think she is going to cry. </li></ul><ul><li>We can give our opinion using be going to and the expression I think… </li></ul><ul><li>It’s very cloudy. I think it’s going to rain. </li></ul>
  26. 26. THE FUTURE (to be+going to): Form <ul><li>The structure be going to uses the present continuous of the verb go + the infinitive with to. </li></ul><ul><li>I am going to see a film tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>In short answers we use the verb to be . </li></ul><ul><li>Are they going to study? Yes, they are. </li></ul>
  27. 27. THE FUTURE (to be+going to): Form <ul><li>AFFIRMATIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>You are going to study. </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>You aren’t going to study. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERROGATIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>Are you going to study? </li></ul>