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Comp. hardware technologies

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  • 1. I Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-1 Information Systems Technology Ross Malaga 2 "Part I Understanding Information Systems Technology" COMPUTER HARDWARE TECHNOLOGIES
  • 2. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-2 LEARNING GOALS • Identify the major components of modern PCs. • Explain how the components of a computer work together; – Explain the role of the CPU and how it operates. – Explain input devices and how they operate. – Describe output devices and how they operate. – Describe multimedia and alternative I/O devices. – Explain the role of primary storage. – Describe secondary storage devices and how they operate. • Describe various types of computers.
  • 3. 2-3Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Bead Bar Wants Computers • Hardware choices should be driven by the specific software the company needs to run • Some of the requirements – Meredith – Computers for managers – Suzanne – Computer in each studio – Mitch – Notebook (laptop) needed for cruise ships – Julia – Keep the total hardware cost under $20,000 – Miriam – Marketing can save money by using computers to develop their own materials – Rachel – Mobile computing needed for traveling purchasing rep – Jim – Must be ergonomically designed
  • 4. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-4 The Core Computer Components • Input device(s) • Output device(s) • Primary storage • Secondary storage • Central processing unit (CPU) • Busses
  • 5. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-5
  • 6. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-6 The Historical Development of Computers • Babbage’s Analytical Engine – 1820s – 1870s – Punched card program – Lady Ada Byron, the first programmer • Herman Hollerith – Hollerith code – Punched card tabulating machines – 1890 census • ENIAC during WWII used vacuum tubes • 1960s introduced transistor to replace tubes • 1970s – introduction of the microprocessor
  • 7. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-7 The Rise of the PC • 1974 – Altair 8800 – the first PC • 1976 – Wosniak and Jobs – Apple I • 1977 – Apple II – Plastic case – Keyboard – Capable of color graphics • 1981 – IBM PC (introduction of MS-DOS) • 1984 – Apple Macintosh – Graphical User interface (GUI) pioneered a Xerox PARC
  • 8. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-8 Input Devices • Human input devices – Allow person to send data to the computer – Keyboard – Mouse (and other pointing devices) • Machine-readable input devices – Send data directly to computer without human involvement – No human involvement means no human error – Usually faster than human input
  • 9. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-9 Keyboard as Input Device • Easy way to enter text, numbers, and simple commands • Follows the layout of the typewriter • QWERTY keyboard leads to RSIs – Repetitive Stress Injuries – Requires increased attention to ergonomics of the work environment • Posture • Lighting • Working
  • 10. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-10 Machine-readable Input Devices • Bar code scanners – Uses light to read series of coded stripes – Universal Product Code (UPC) – Adams.com – Package tracking at UPS • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – Software that works with scanner – Translates scanned digital image to character that user can recognize and manipulate • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – Character recognition technology used by banks to allow rapid routing of checks between banks
  • 11. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-11
  • 12. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-12 Output Devices • Monitors – Cathode ray tube (CRTs) – Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) – Quality of display • Resolution • Dot pitch • Touch screens – Input and output via display device
  • 13. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-13 Printers • Speed and resolution – Pages per minute – Dots per inch • Number of ink dots to fill a square inch • Higher DPI the greater the page clarity • Impact – Create image by striking paper and ribbon – Dot-matrix • Non-impact – Create image by spraying or rolling ink on the page
  • 14. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-14 Non-impact Printers • Ink-jet technology printers – Spray ink on the paper – Small – Quiet – Color is readily and cheaply available • Laser printers – Laser heats drum which rolls ink (toner) on paper – Can be faster than ink-jet – Color more expensive than ink-jet
  • 15. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-15
  • 16. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-16 Multimedia I/O Devices • Music, images, and video – Convert content to digital form – How MP3s work at HowStuffWorks.com – Digital cameras ; digital camera phones – Digital Video DVD recorders – Sony Handicam • Game controllers • Virtual reality (VR) • Voice recognition • Text-to-speech • Brain wave input
  • 17. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-17 Primary Storage • Digital data stored in bits – BInary digiTs • Combination of 8 bits is called a byte • Different combinations of bits represent different symbols – ACSII – EBCDIC • All data and programs are represented in bits – Video – Pictures – Text
  • 18. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-18 Primary Storage (Continued) • The main memory of the computer • Stored on semiconductor chips – RAM – random access memory • Volatile • Cache memory – Internal – ultra high speed and VERY expensive – External – very high speed and less expensive than internal cache – ROM – read only memory • Non-volatile • Primary storage holds all programs that are running and the data those programs use
  • 19. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-19
  • 20. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-20 Secondary Storage • Nonvolatile storage of digital data • Magnetic or optical • Magnetic media – Sequential access (tape) or direct access (HDD) – Hard disk drives • Metal disk with metallic coating • Disk spins at speeds of up to 7000 rpm • RAID – redundant array of inexpensive disks – Floppy disks – Magnetic tape – Zip disks and other magnetic storage alternatives
  • 21. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-21 Hard Disk Drives and Direct Access
  • 22. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-22 Optical Secondary Storage • Compact disks (CDs) – 600 MB capacity – CD-ROM – CD-R – CD-RW • Digital versatile disks (DVDs) – 2 – 17 GD capacity – DVD – DVD+/-R – DVD+/-RW
  • 23. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-23 The Central Processing Unit • Two main components – Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) – Control unit (CU) – Registers are used as scrap paper – intermediate results • Speed measured in hertz – Megahertz – millions of instructions per second – Gigahertz – billions of instructions per second
  • 24. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-24 Moore’s Law on Processor Speed
  • 25. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-25 Computer Program Instruction Execution • Connect all the pieces together – Bus – electrical pathway – All digital data moves from component to component on the bus • Executing an instruction – Control unit fetches next instruction from primary storage and stores it onboard the CPU – The control unit decodes the instruction – The ALU executes the instruction possibly accessing other data in primary storage • Cycle is repeated millions of times per second
  • 26. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-26
  • 27. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-27 Types of Computers • Supercomputers • Mainframes • Minicomputers • Workstations • Desktop computers • Notebook computers (laptops) • Handheld computers (PDAs)
  • 28. 2-28Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Bead Bar Consultant • How Computer Hardware Issues Affect the Bead Bar – Meredith – Needs to understand the technology and terms – Suzanne – Computers in studios to improve studio operations – Leda – Use computers to improve franchise record keeping and marketing – Mitch –Portable computer to allow working while traveling – Julia – Concerned about costs, including ROI – Miriam – Use multimedia to develop marketing materials – Rachel – Use bar codes and handhelds to reduce errors and streamline operations – Jim – Upgrading skills of employees and finding new employees to hire with the proper computer skills
  • 29. Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc.2-29 Learning Goals Summary In this chapter you have learned:  The major components of modern PCs  How the components of a computer work together  The role of the CPU and its operation  Input devices and how they operate  Output devices and how they operate  Multimedia and alternative I/O devices  The role of primary storage  Secondary storage devices and operation  The various types of computers

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