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According to an American linguist, RobinLakoff, women express : Uncertainty Lack of confidence
Close the door. That’s an adorable dog Oh dear, the TV set’s broken I’ll be damned there’s a friend of mine! I was very tired I was so mad My goodness,there’s Bu Diah Sunggingwati!
Lexical hedges or filler ▪ you know, sort of, well, you see. Tag question, ▪ she’s very nice, isn’t she? Rising intonation on declaratives, ▪ it’s really good? Intensifiers such as just and so ▪ I love him so much ‘Superpolite’ forms ▪ indirect request
There are two language features used bywomen: Hedging devices ▪ signal lack of confidence Boosting devices ▪ Signal persuade their addressee to take them seriously
USING TAG QUESTIONS EXPRESS Uncertainty Doubt FUCTION Facilitative or positive politeness devices Soften directive or criticism
Function of Tag Questions Women MenExpressing uncertainty 35% 61%Facilitative 59% 26%Softening 6% 13% TOTAL 100% 100%
Meaning based on pronunciation Position in the utterance Kinds of speech act To whom who is using the utterance Speech behavior status
Women use more politeness devices then the men ▪ Men to men fewer politeness ▪ Men to women more politeness Social Role or Status Different Pattern of Language ▪ Statusful women ▪ Title man
Interrupting Behavior Based on research, women got interrupted more than men. Conversational Feedback According to American studies, women do the more positive feedback to the conversational partner better than men do.
Women Gossiping:• Usually consist of experiences, problems, feeling• Avoid criticizing people in order not to make the atmosphere becomes discomfort.Men Gossiping:• Tend to argue about certain topics, criticized each other and sometimes make the conversational partner feels down.
Approaching the constructive of gender as a process rather than regarding gender as a given category• The ways in which people construct particular kinds of social identity – Narratives of personal experience • Interactive pragmatic particles • Appealing to shared experience – Contestive and conformist gender identity • Using an assertive discourse
Sexiest language is one example of the way a culture or society conveys its values from one group to another and from one generation to the next Language conveys attitudes. Sexiest attitudes stereotype a person according to gender rather than judging on individual merits Sexiest language encodes stereotyped attitudes to women and men
It’s concerned with the way languageexpresses both negative and positivestereotypes of both women and men
ENGLISH METAPHORSANIMAL IMAGERY FOOD IMAGERYWOMEN MEN WOMEN MEN Bitch Stud Crumpet ParsnipOld Biddy wolf tart Cow Chick Bird Sugar Veg Kitten sweetie Cabbage honey
GENERIC STRUCTURE ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY MEN WOMEN BASE FORMS BASE FORMS + SUFFIX LION LIONESS COUNT COUNTESS ACTOR ACTRESS USHER USHERETTE HERO HEROINE AVIATOR AVIATRIX