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Ger inf
 

Ger inf

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    Ger inf Ger inf Presentation Transcript

    • GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
    • Look at the following sentences
      • Many inventors were trying to build gas-powered vehicles in the late 1800’s.
      • A French inventor succeeded in creating a steam powered tricycle in 1769.
      • A German engineer, Kiklaus Ottos, is known for inventing the four-stroke gasoline engine in 1876.
      • Building vehicles that did not need horses was the biggest challenge.
    • Forming the gerund
      • A gerund is a verb + -ing
        • Trying
        • Making
        • Swimming
        • Loving
        • Challenging
    • Forming the infinitive
      • An infintive is to + the verb
        • To smoke
        • To study
        • To go
        • To earn
    • Definition: gerunds as verb objects
      • Gerunds and Infinitives are forms of verbs that have the same functions as nouns.
      • Pepe quit smoking five times last year.
      • Pepe quit school .
        • So the word smoking is like school ; both are things, both are objects of the verb
    • Infinitives as verb objects
      • He just decided to quit last Tuesday.
      • He decided cigarettes were harmful.
      • To quit is like cigarettes . Both are objects of the verb.
    • Gerunds and Infinitives can also be the subject of the verb
      • Smoking is a hard habit to give up
      • To quit takes a lot of will power
    • So when do I use gerunds?
      • As the subject of a sentence
        • Smoking may be harmful
        • Writing was hard for Frank McCourt
        • Reading the text several times is a great idea.
    • When do I use gerunds?
      • After a preposition
        • Frank McCourt thought about writing his book after retiring .
        • Before writing , plan how you will write.
    • When do I use gerunds?
      • After certain verbs (which you have to memorize)
      • Frank enjoyed teaching
      • Everyone acknowledges working hard
      • We all recall learning how to ride a bike
    • And when do I use infinitives?
      • After certain verbs (which you also need to memorize)
        • I learned to swim very young
        • I decided to quit smoking
        • I agreed to study English five hours a day
    • Using infinitives
      • To express Spanish subjunctive ideas
      • He persuaded me to start writing.
      • They will ask you to help them after class.
    • Using infinitives
      • With some adjectives
        • You are free to go when class is over
        • We were always able to find our own mistakes
        • It is hard to concentrate in a noisy room
    • Using infinitives
      • After certain nouns
        • You have the right to remain silent
        • She has the ability to understand general concepts
        • No one has the freedom to avoid paying taxes.
    • Go, Go, Go
      • A common expression in English is go + activity
        • We go swimming
        • We go shopping
        • We go camping
        • We go clubbing
    • Like,love, hate, begin, continued
      • These verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive
      • I love dancing. I love to dance
      • I began singing. I began to sing.
    • Remember, forget, stop
      • These verbs change meaning if a gerund or an infinitive is used.
      • I remembered to buy milk
      • I remembered buying milk
      • (What do you think is going on here?)
    • Sequence of events
      • Infintives:
      • First Second
      • First I remembered, then I bought milk
    • Sequence of events
      • Gerunds:
      • Second first
      • I bought the milk first
      • I remembered afterwards
    • Complete these sentences with either a gerund or an infinitive…
      • 1. UDLAP students enjoy _________________________________________
      • 2. UDLAP teachers need _________________________________________
      • 3. UDLAP students can practice _________________________________________
      • 4. UDLAP teachers encourage their students _________________________________________
      • 5. UDLAP students never finish _________________________________________
      • 6. UDLAP teachers are good at _________________________________________
      • For a useful summary of how to use gerunds and infinitives, see page 163 of your student textbook, World Pass