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Social Stratification in China
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Social stratification in China

Social stratification in China

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Social Stratification in China Social Stratification in China Presentation Transcript

  • 当代中国的社会分层 Social Stratification in Contemporary China (from past status-society to contemporary social stratification)
  • 一、中国改革开放前的身份社会 Status-Society in pre-Reform China 二、中国的改革与身份社会的瓦解 Reform and Collapse of status-society in China 三、当前中国的社会分层和社会问题 Social stratification and social issues in contemporary China
  • 一 中国改革开放前的身份社会 Status-Society in pre-Reform China
    • 城乡身份 residency of urban or village
    • 单位身份 membership of danwei
    • 享受各种社会待遇的身份 social status for different social welfare
    • 政治身份 / 成份 family background
  • 身份社会的制度 supporting systems
  • 身份社会的制度 supporting systems
    • 户口制度 Hukou or Household Registration
    • 统购统销制度 State monopoly of agricultural products ( + 粮油票证制度 ration-coupon system for food supply )
    • 人民公社制度 People’s Commune
    A 城乡身份的制度 Systems for residency
  • 户口制度 Household Registration
    • 1958 年正式实行 adopted in 1958
    • A :常住地 permanent residency
    • B :农业或非农业 agr. or non-agr.
    • 天生获得 obtained from your mother
    • 基本不能改变 changes strictly limited
    • 城乡二元社会形成 dual-society formed
  • 统购统销制度 State monopoly of agricultural products
    • 1953 年开始实行 ( Started from 1953 in some fields just to against grain speculation)
    • 伴随 1955 年实行的城镇计划供应制度 (concomitant with government responsibility for daily food supply in cities from 1955) 。
    • 1960 年大规模开始使用票证 (strengthened when ration-coupon system extended to everything from 1960) 。
  • 城乡二元社会的历史作用 Historical functions of Dual-society system 稳定当时的局势 stabilization of situation 保证中国的工业化 guarantee heavy industry oriented development strategy 形成中国最基本的社会不平等 essential inequality in China
  • B 单位制度 danwei system
    • 城市中的基本组织(经济、政治、福利) Basic organizational units in cities and towns (economical, political and for welfare)
    • 每个人都有单位,有单位就有一切。不同的单位有不同的一切 (everyone belonged to an unit and his/her unit guaranteed everything)
    • 每个人的一切都由单位控制 (everything controlled by the unit)
    身份社会的制度 supporting systems
  • 单位制度中的个人身份 personal status in danwei system
    • 单位身份 A :全民所有制或集体所有制 (state-owned or collective-owned)
    • 单位身份 B :事业单位或企业单位(国营企业和集体企业) (institutions or enterprises)
    • 单位身份 C :干部或工人 (cadres or workers)
  • C 城市就业和福利制度 State supplied benefits of employment and warfare in cities 从出生到上学,生活到工作,就业到退休,包括生老病死、衣食住行,都由政府负责 Everything guaranteed by government from birth to school, from living to job, from employment to retirement 身份社会的制度 supporting systems
  • 中国身份社会的特点 Social status defined by government Social mobility difficult Social Stratification immobile Integrated in the Socialist planned-economy (scarcity economy, no efficiency, no incentive) Class struggles influenced everyone
  • 二 中国的改革与身份社会的瓦解 Reform and Collapse of Status-Society in China
  • 中国农村的改革 Reform in Agriculture
    • 农村家庭联产承包责任制 ⇨ ⇨ 生产大发展 ⇨ ⇨统购统销放弃
    • 人民公社解散 ⇨ ⇨乡、村
    • 剩余劳动力大量出现⇨ ⇨允许进城务工(小城镇、自理口粮⇨ ⇨大城市、民工潮)
  • 农村家庭联产承包责任制
    • The household contracted responsibility system with remuneration linked to output
    • Great development in agriculture
    • State-monopoly of agricultural products slackened and finally renounced (Piao stopped using in late 1980s and WHJ in 1995)
  • 人民公社解散
    • The system of People’s communes disintegrated within two or three years (1983-)
    • The peasants freed from the planed-economy and worked according market
    • The villagers freed from the strict local organizational control
  • 农村 剩余劳动力出现
    • A lot of surplus labors emerged
    • Peasants went to towns or cities to work
    • Permitted by government gradually
    • (first in small towns and self supplied with food 小城镇、自理口粮 ⇨ ⇨ later to cities and metropolis and flood of migrant workers emerged 民工潮)
  • 户口控制放松
    • State control of Hukou and migration slackened
    • System of citizen ID adopted in 1984
    • Free travel around country
  • 城市经济体制改革
    • 城市经济体制改革 economic reform began in cities in mid 1980s
    • 城市多种经济成份出现 non-state controlled economy appeared and flourished
    • 多种用人制度实行 non-permanent employment system adopted
    • 传统单位制度的瓦解 danwei system collapsed
  • 身份社会瓦解 Collapsed of Status-Society
    • 身份社会失去基础而瓦解 bases collapsed
    • 社会流动加剧 social mobility increased
    • 社会竞争加剧 social competition intensified
    • 贫富差距加大 rich-poor gap expended
    • 传统的社会身份发生变化 traditional social status changed totally
  • 三 当前中国的社会分层和社会问题 Social Stratification and Social Issues in contemporary China
  • 当前中国的社会分层 current social stratification
    • 五大等级十大阶层 5 hierarchical social strata and 10 categories of jobs
    • 特殊获益、一般获益、利益受损、社会底层 specially benefited, ordinarily benefited, interest-injured, socially bottomed
    • 贫富差距悬殊 great disparity between rich and poor
    • 基尼系数达到危险程度 Gini coefficient 0.45