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A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality: Scholar’s Terms

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This dictionary is specialised and unique in its construct. Unfolds an array of classifications that allows the development of multiple concepts just by following the …

This dictionary is specialised and unique in its construct. Unfolds an array of classifications that allows the development of multiple concepts just by following the
trails of bold words.

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  • 1. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Scholar’s Terms First Edition Octavian Sarbatoare
  • 2. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Scholar’s Terms
  • 3. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality First published in Australia in Dec. 2009 by Sarbatoare Publications, Sydney, NSW For other publications SEARCH ‘Octavian Sarbatoare’ at National Library of Australia: http://www.nla.gov.au/ sarbatoare@hotmail.com Copyright © Octavian Sarbatoare 2009 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Inquiries should be addressed to the author or legal representative. Australian National Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data: A Sanskrit dictionary of spirituality: scholar’s terms ISBN 978 0 9807337 0 9. 1. Sanskrit language - Dictionaries. 2. Spiritual direction. I. Title. 294.2 Typeset by Sarbatoare Publications 2
  • 4. Octavian Sarbatoare A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Scholar’s Terms Sarbatoare Publications Sydney
  • 5. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Preface to first edition and introduction This dictionary is specialised and unique in its construct. Unfolds an array of classifications that allows the development of multiple concepts just by following the trails of bold words. In order to avoid repeating explanations, under various entries, a certain spiritual word is described in one place only. This makes the dictionary very compact. The main text is arranged in roman alphabetical order. This method does not take into account having a certain order of letters with diacritical signs (i.e. bars above vowels or the dots under consonants), although it keeps correct the international transliteration of Devanāgari, the Sanskrit alphabet. Those readers having knowledge of Devanāgari, can easily write any word from its transliterated form. Many Sanskrit composed words are split in order to make it easy for the reader, but they can be written in composed or separated forms equally. For this reason the arrangement in roman alphabetical order does not take into account the space between two words. The dictionary does not provide lengthy description of words, but emphasises on the key spiritual meanings and connections with other entries. The explanation of various yogic or other techniques is beyond the purpose of this work; they have to be learned from specialized written material or a qualified teacher, etc. Sometimes there is more than one significance behind an entry. The alternatives are mentioned without going in much detail, but as guidance for further studies only. The few roots or literal information mentioned herein are to emphasize the significance of an entry. For more details about the origination of words should be consulted specialised Sanskrit dictionaries. This work contains many useful classifications in Hindu spirituality. A number of classical works names are mentioned, thus allowing the reader to pursue further studies on the subject. There is of course a larger Sanskrit spiritual terminology, however a limit has to be set up in regards to the details herein presented. The basic text was finalised during one of my trips to India at Deoghar in the year 2001. But, its publication waited until 2009, when the conditions were proper for an easy presentation to the public, considering the multiple possibilities that are now available on the Net. This dictionary is made for the serious spiritual seeker only, the one who is ready to undertake research into the deep field of Indian consciousness thought. For many years to come this free electronic book will be present on the Internet for the purpose of serving the keen seeker of spiritual liberation. Octavian Sarbatoare Sydney, 2009, Australia 4
  • 6. A A Abhaya Daiv2sampat-s Fearlessness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Abhaya Mudr1 Bhaya) Bhaya The gesture of dispelling fear (Bhaya Abhigamana vide Up1sana Abhim1na The ego awareness, a synonym for Asmit1 Abhimata A pleasant object for meditation vide also Dhy1na Abhinive0a Kle0a-s, Will to live, as one of the five Kle0a known also as !0i= vide V1san1 Abhi=eka A ceremonial purification either of a deity or an individual by bathing or sprinkling water Abhivyakti Manifestation Abhivyaktik1ra9a, vide also Abhivyaktik1ra9a Vyakta Abhivyaktik1ra9a Vyakta) Vyakta The cause of manifestation (Vyakta Abhy1sa Practical application of spiritual teachings as a way to obtain perfection and liberation Abhy1sin Abhy1sa; A practitioner of any form of Abhy1sa a S1dhaka or Yog2 !camana A ceremonial rite of sipping water from the palm of the hand and sprinkling it on the body on various parts for the purpose of purification It is used also for purification before meals or religious ceremonies. Ac1pala Daiv2sampat-s Absence of fickleness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat !c1ra Lit. 'manner of action, conduct, practice; rule' 5
  • 7. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Way of spiritual life Ved1c1ra, Vai=9av1c1ra, In Tantra are distinguished seven ways of spiritual life namely Ved1c1ra Vai=9av1c1ra )aiv1c1ra, Dak=i91c1ra, V1m1c1ra, )aiv1c1ra Dak=i91c1ra V1m1c1ra Siddh1nt1c1ra and Kul1c1ra. !c1ra Tantra The practice of Tantra !c1rya Teacher !cch1v1ka !cch1v1ka Lit. 'the one who invites' Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Hot4 priest !d1na The action of taking or receiving vide also Ana^gamadan1^ku01 !dar0a The sense of super-ordinary seeing vide also Pr1tibha Adbhuta Rasa-s Wonder as one of the Rasa Adha501kha Lit. 'lower branch' A representation of the world as having branches below and upper roots as #rdhvam3la of Brahman Adha50akti )akti-s The lower, one of the Ku98alin2 )akti !dh1ra Support; foundation !dh1ra Padma Centre in the body for Dh1ra9a practicing, known also as De0a Adharma Bh1va-s; Sin as one of the eight Bh1va unrighteousness vide also Dharma Adhideva vide Adhidevat1 Adhidevat1 Presiding (tutelary) deity, same as Adhideva Adhik1ra Lit. 'right, privilege' 6
  • 8. A One's competency for spiritual S1dhan1 as assessed by the Guru before initiation Adhik1rabheda Lit. 'right of separation' The coexistence of various doctrines and believes in the history of India, all as forms of one Reality Sat) Sat (Sat Adhik1rin Lit. 'fit for; entitled to' A name of a qualified aspirant for spiritual life, a competent S1dhaka Adhim1tra T2vrasa%vega T2vrasa%vega-s High intensity of eagerness as one of the three T2vrasa%vega Adhi=7h1na Lit. 'abode, residence, site; standing by' A locus or medium to experience with Adhvabheda At2ta, Dharma-s The process of time difference between At2ta Vartam1na and An1gata Dharma Adhvara Veda-s In the Veda a non-injuring sacrifice consisting of preliminary preparations and duties before the sacrifice itself vide also Adhvaryu Adhvaryu $rvija-s) One of the four Vedic priests ($rvija the one who chants the hymns of the Yajur Veda while $rvija performing Adhvara Pratiprasth1t4, Unnet4. An Adhvaryu is assisted by three helper priests viz. Pratiprasth1t4 Ne=74 and Unnet4 Adhy1tma Lit. 'origin of !tma' The Supreme Spirit; the science of the Supreme Spirit as )1stra Adhy1tma Vidy1 Knowledge of the Supreme Spirit !din1tha (also !d20vara) Guru, A name of )iva as the original Guru the Primal Lord Aditi Lit. 'boundless, infinity' One of the most ancient known Mother Goddess referred to in the $g Veda as being the daughter of Dak=a, mother of the !ditya and of the gods Dak=a !ditya-s !d20vara (see !din1tha) !ditya Lit. 'primal light' A Vedic class of deities; principle sustaining nature and the universe 7
  • 9. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality !ditya-s, correlating with the twelve solar months. The most Traditionally there are twelve !ditya S3rya) A%s1, Aryaman, important is Savit4 (S3rya hence the name !ditya for the Sun God. The are: A%s1 Aryaman S3rya Bhaga, Dak=a, Mitra, P3=an, )akra, Savit4, Tva=74, Varu9a, Bhaga Dak=a Mitra P3=an )akra Savit4 Tva=74 Varu9a Vi=9u and Vivasvat (ref. ra9yaka, Taittir2ya !ra9yaka I.13). vide also Antar1ditya Vidy1 !diyog1c1rya oga, The first teacher of Yoga i.e. )iva Adroha Daiv2sampat-s Absence of hatred as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Advaita Lit. 'without duality' The doctrine of non-duality in which the Supreme Soul Param1tman is identified with the human Soul J2v1tman All existence is being regarded as one reality. )a^kara is the best known writer on the subject. !dy1 Lit. 'eternal' )akti-s; )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti the original )akti who is the source of all other Nity1 )akti Tripurasundar2, A^gi !dy1 Nity1 )akti corresponds to the full-moon. It is known also as Tripurasundar2 A^gi Nity1 and symbolizes Dev2 Herself. The Mantra for !dy1 Nity1 is Sklhr2%. !dy1 Nity1 )akti The eternal original power vide also !dy10akti, Vimar0a )akti !dy10akti Primordial power as aspect of the goddess K1l2 !dy10akti, )akti, !dy10akti !dy1 Nity1 )akti Vimar0a )akti are all the same. !gama Lit. 'coming near, approaching; studying; acquisition of knowledge' Authoritative work; testimony Tantra-s P1rvat2) Sacred works of Tantra in which )iva is Guru (spiritual teacher) and Dev2 (as P1rvat2 is )i=ya (disciple); a testimony based on a previous Pram19a and if correct imparted is one of the Pram19a-s. three Pram19a vide also Nigama !g1mikarma Action yet to be performed and its results Agastya Name of a sage, also a name of )iva Aghora Lit. 'not terrific' )iva; Dev2. A name of )iva a worshipper of )iva and Dev2 Aghori is a female Aghora 8
  • 10. A vide also Aghora M1rga Aghora M1rga )aiva-s A particular sect of )aiva of non-conventional practices considered to be pure Tantra adepts T1ntrika-s) T1ntrika (T1ntrika Aghori vide Aghora !gney2 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91 ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on fire as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 Agni Lit. 'fire' Agnideva; The Vedic god of fire known also as Agnideva the sacrificial fire; the fire of the stomach; the N182; Devat1 of Su=umn1 N182 the power of transformation Indra-s As a Vedic god Agni was Indra brother and essential to the practice of ritual sacrifice. As Veda-s, Agni is of three kinds namely G1rhapatya Dak=i9a (or sacrificial fire in the Veda G1rhapatya, Anv1h1ryapacana) !havan2ya. Cit), Anv1h1ryapacana and !havan2ya Esoterically Agni is the consciousness (Cit the three kinds Cit Ma9ip3ra, of sacrificial fires are expressions of levels of awareness and therefore equated with Ma9ip3ra An1hata and Vi0uddhi CakraCakra-s. J1thar1gni, S3rya, Agnitraya, Cidvahni, Indra, vide also J1thar1gni S3rya Agnitraya Cidvahni Agni S3rya Indra Upakosala Vidy1 Agni B2ja The Mantra Ra% associated with Ma9ip3ra Cakra Agnicayana The act of preparing the Vedic sacrificial fireplace Agnideva vide Agni Agn2dhra In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Br1hma9a priest by kindling the sacrificial fire Veda Agnig4ha A place keeping the sacred fire known also as Agni01la Agni G4hapati Agni the lord of the house with the sacred fire; the fire of the body Devas3-s, Agni. It is also one of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Agni Agnihoma The oblation put into the sacrificial fire like milk, ghee, cooked cereal, etc., according to the ritual of Agnihotra Homa. It is also known as Homa Agnihotra The rite of sacrificing to Agni It is of two kinds namely Nitya (necessary) and K1mya (optional). Agnihotra rite is concluded by Agni). Agnyupasth1na (the worship of Agni Vide Hotr1 Arghya Havi for the object of oblation with 9
  • 11. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality fire. As a yogic practice Agnihotra is identified with Pr191y1ma. vide also !tm1rpa9a Agnihotr1h3ti Mantra-s) The rite of sacrificing (oblation) to Agni with invocation (recitation) of sacred formulas (Mantra Mantra Agnihotrin $tvija-s) $tvija The performer of an oblation to fire; one of the four Vedic priests ($tvija the one who chants the hymns of the Rg Veda Hot4. Same as Hotrin or Hot4 Agnikha98a Cakra-s Group containing M3l1dh1ra and Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra and Brahmagranthi Agni, The presiding deity of this Kha98a is Agni the Gu9a is Tamas and corresponds to the cosmic planes to Bh3rloka, Bhuvarloka and Svarloka. Bh3rloka Bhuvarloka Agniko9a The quarter ruled by Agni on southeast position known also as Agnidi0 Agniku98a vide Homaku98a Agnis1ra Dhauti vide Antardhauti Agni S3rya Indra Veda-s The trinity of Veda Tantra-s There is a fundamental parallel with the concept of J61t1 J61na J6eya in the Tantra in which J61t1), J61na) Agni becomes the one who knows (J61t1 S3rya the knowledge (J61na and Indra the object of J61t1 J61na J6eya). J6eya knowledge (J6eya vide also Indra Agni Soma S3rya, Sat Cit !nanda S3rya Agnis3tra Br1hma9a's The thread of fire as a rite for a young Br1hma9a investiture Agnitraya Agni) The three sacrificial (sacred) fires (vide Agni known also as Agnitret1 Agniv1din Worshipper of fire Agni Yoga The fire of Yoga generated by various techniques, Pr191y1ma being the most important It is considered that a Yoga practitioner starts the spiritual growth once touched by the fire of Yoga. Aha% Lit. 'I' Devan1gari) Devan1gari The union of A the first letter and Ha the last letter of the Sanskrit alphabet (Devan1gari M1t4k1, This union contains within all the letters of the M1t4k1 therefore as a Mantra is an expression of 10
  • 12. A )abda in all its forms. Aha%brahm1smi Brahman', Upani=ad-s 'I am Brahman a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad vide also Mah1v1kya Aha%k1ra Lit. 'I am the doer' The principle of Ego-formation as kind of separation from the divine It is fundamental that Aha%k1ra has to die before the higher consciousness will emerge. The explosion of Aha%k1ra happens in !j6a Cakra Cakra. Vajre0var2, Cakra, vide also Vajre0var2 Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra !k10a Aha%k1r1kar=i92 The attractive power of Aha%k1ra vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Aha%k1ratattva Aha%k1ratattva The Tattva of Aha%k1ra !h1ra Lit. 'food' The dietary rules as part of Yoga practices Gu9a-s. The food is divided according to the three Gu9a !havan2ya Agni One of the three sacrificial fires taken from the G1rhapatya Agni In this fire the oblation is offered. In the human body it is located in the neck area. Esoterically it Cakra. represents the level of consciousness of Vi0uddhi Cakra vide also Agni Ahi%s1 Lit. 'non-injuring' Daiv2sampat-s Yama-s Non-injury or non-violence as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat and one of the five Yama in Yoga Ahi%s1prati=7h1 A state in which Ahi%s1 is firmly established In the presence of a Yog2 possessing Ahi%s1prati=7h1 all enmities will cease. side also Vairaty1ga !h3ti Lit. 'invoking' Mantra-s) Mantra A sacred rite of offering oblation with fire accompanied by certain magic formulas (Mantra vide also Agnihotr1h3ti Ai0varya Bh1va-s Competence as one of the eight Bh1va 11
  • 13. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Anai0varya !j1naja Deva Lit. 'born in the world of gods' A god by birth A person of remarkable divine qualities supposed to be inherited from previous births. Another kind of god is a Karma Deva, who is created by own actions, i.e. he/ she has to work to qualify for the name. vide also !nandamaya Vidy1 Ajap1 G1yatr2 vide Soham Ajapa Japa Mantra The recitation of Ha%sa5 Mantra or Soham Mantra with awareness of the breath, also known as Ajapajapa !j61 Lit. 'to perceive, understand' Order, command !j61 Cakra The Cakra of command Cakra-s One of the major Cakra in the human body !j61 Cakra is located at the Medulla Oblongata, the Bhr3madhya. top of the vertebral column i.e. behind the Bhr3madhya The level of awareness in !j61 Cakra is Taparloka. Taparloka Yuktatrive92, Cak=u, Cak=u, Netra, Itarali^ga, vide also Yuktatrive92 J61na Cak=u Divya Cak=u J61na Netra Itarali^ga Aha%k1ra !j61na Avidy1; Bh1va-s A synonym for Avidy1 ignorance as one of the eight Bh1va vide also J61na !k1ra !k1ra With form; manifested as a name for Sagu9a Brahman vide also Nir1k1ra !kar=a9a Siddhi The power of attracting vide also Siddhi !k10a Ether; space A%0a-s Aha%k1ra, Citta, Buddhi, The A%0a (constituent parts) of !k10a in the Pi98198a are Aha%k1ra Citta Buddhi Manas Anta5kara9a. and Anta5kara9a vide also Bh3ta !k10atattva !k10a, The Tattva of !k10a known also as Vyomatattva !k10atattva, In the !k10atattva J2v1tman resides dormant and non-manifest in the human body. 12
  • 14. A !k10a Vidy1 The knowledge of !k10a Vidy1, Vidy1-s) A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 referring to !k10a as pervading everything. This endless Tattva has to be seen in connection with the Tanm1tra of )abda and the sound of Udg2tha. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 !k102 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on space as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 Akha98a Without division vide also Kha98a Kha98a Akha981gni Uninterrupted fire Akrodha Krodha) Daiv2sampat-s Absence of anger (Krodha as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Krodha Ak=a vide Rudr1k=a Ak=am1 Not letting go of a negative experience as opposed to K=am1 Ak=ara Lit. 'imperishable' O%; A syllable; a name for the syllable O% a name for Brahman Ak=ar1k=ara Vidy1 Brahman) Brahman The knowledge of the imperishable (Brahman Vidy1, Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 in which the knowledge of Brahman is the higher Vidy1 by which the imperishable is realized. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Ak=ayapatra Ak=ayapatra Lit. 'never ending leaf' A symbol of abundance, as the leaf could serve as plate for food Ak=i Vidy1 The knowledge of the eye Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 It is a Devay1na path in which Puru=a is meditated upon internally as Indra in the right eye and Indr192 in the left eye. The conjoint meditation leads to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman if this Vidy1 as correlated with Antar1ditya Vidy1. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Akula vide Kaula 13
  • 15. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Alabdhabh3mikatva Vik=epa-s The state of lack of concentration as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Alakhb1ra Lit. 'invisible boundary' Sanny1sin-s A place of seclusion where Paramaha%sa Sanny1sin live !lambana Object of an experience having !0raya as its basis vide also V1san1 Ala%bus1 N182 The N182 connected to the centre of the forehead Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvasa%k=obhi92 !lasya Vik=epa-s Varjana-s Laziness as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa and one of the seven Varjana Ali^ga Lit. 'without sign' Prak4ti; Gu9a-s A synonym for Avyakta Prak4ti a stage of non-differentiation when Gu9a are in equilibrium and Asmit1 Sam1dhi is experienced (vide Gu9aparva) Gu9aparva !loka Loka-s Light as experience beyond the Loka vide also Jyoti=mat2 Prav4tti Aloluptva Daiv2sampat-s Freedom from desire as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Amanaska The knowledge of Brahman beyond the mental plane vide also Manaska Am1nitva Humility as a virtue of wisdom Ambhas2 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on water as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 Ambik1 Great Mother as a name of Dev2 Amla Rasa-s) Rasa Sour, one of the essential tastes (Rasa Am4ta Nectar of immortality, ambrosia vide also Soma, Soma Rasa Am4t1kar=i92 14
  • 16. A The attractive power of Am4ta vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Am4ta P1n Am4ta) Am4ta Taking of the nectar (Am4ta Tantric ritual of divine nectar. There are external and internal techniques. Am4t1p3r9a Lit. 'filled with nectar' A state of purity of mind of a Yog2 vide also A=7asiddhi A%s1 !ditya-s The share of gods, one of the twelve !ditya A%0a Constituent part of a classification An1gata Dharma Dharma-s The inherent property of future time as a potential state, one of the three Dharma (as inherent properties of time) The knowledge of An1gata Dharma and Adhvabheda will enable one to have time experiences and change the world of time as An1gata becomes Vartam1na and Vartam1na becomes At2ta. An1h1ra Varjana-s Fasting (or not eating enough) as one of the seven Varjana vide also Mit1h1ra An1hata Cakra Lit. 'un-struck Cakra' The Cakra located on the vertebral column behind the centre of the chest Tvak, P19i, This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Tvak the Karmendriya of P19i the Tanm1tra Spar0a Ko0a, of Spar0a, is the centre for Pr19a V1yu and the seat of Manomaya Ko0a the level of awareness Maharloka. is Maharloka vide also K1kin2 An1hata Dhvani vide An1hata )abda An1hata )abda The un-struck, silent sound as subtle transcendental state known also as An1hata Dhvani Anai0varya Bh1va-s Incompetence as one of the eight Bh1va vide also Ai0varya !nanda Lit. 'happiness, bliss; enjoyment; sensual pleasure; delight; the act of enjoying' Pure happiness as one of the three attributes of !tman 15
  • 17. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Ana^gamadan1 !nandalahar2 Lit. 'wave of enjoyment' The Tantric hymn of )a^kar1c1rya addressed to his wife P1rvat2 !nandamaya Ko0a The body of bliss as sphere of consciousness It is the expression of the balanced aspect of the inner spirit and the experience of a blissful state )ar2ra, and has its seat in the Bindu Visarga. !nandamaya Ko0a forms K1ra9a )ar2ra the causal Prak4ti. body going beyond the manifestations of Prak4ti !nandamaya Vidy1 The knowledge of bliss Vidy1-s) Ko0a A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 refers to the knowledge of !nandamaya Ko0a and Manu=ya, Gandharva, Gandharva, various evolutionary stages namely Manu=ya Manu=ya Gandharva Deva Gandharva Pit4, Deva, Deva, Deva, Indra, B4haspati, !j1naja Deva Karma Deva Deva Indra B4haspati Praj1pati and Sagu9a Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 !nanda Sam1dhi !tmadra=7a A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a is able to experience the essential nature of thought This state is known also as !nanda Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi. Ana^ga Lit. 'bodiless' )iva's Cak=u) A name of K1madeva (after he was burned to ashes by )iva third eye Cak=u as love without a body The esoteric explanation of Ana^ga is that K1ma as desire exists even without an object of desire (vide commentary on K1ma). K1ma Ana^gakusum1 The mental faculty of being attracted It corresponds to the human expressing of Vacana (speaking) symbolized by Kusuma. Sarva0a%k=obha9a vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gamadan1 The mental faculty of loving It corresponds to the human expressing of !nanda (enjoying) symbolized by Madan1. Cakra, Madan1, vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Madan1 Ana^ga Ana^gamadan1^ku01 The mental faculty of being attached It corresponds to the human expressing of !d1na (taking) symbolized by A^ku0a. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gamadan1tur1 The mental faculty of being lovesick It corresponds to the human expressing of Gamana (going) symbolized by Madan1tur1. 16
  • 18. A Sarva0a%k=obha9a vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gam1lin2 The mental faculty of wanting to be accepted It corresponds to the human attitude of Up1d1na (accepting) symbolized by M1l1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gamekhal1 The mental faculty of being proud It corresponds to the human attitude of Upek=a (ignoring) symbolized by Mekhal1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^garekh1 The mental faculty of being detached It corresponds to the human attitude of H1na (rejecting) symbolized by Rekh1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gavegan2 Ana^gavegan2 The mental faculty of being excited It corresponds to the human attitude of Visarga (excreting) symbolized by Vega. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ananta Lit. 'infinite, endless' N1gan1yaka), The name of )e=a ()e=an1ga or N1gan1yaka the snake-god (or serpent-king) of a thousand )e=an1ga Vi=9u's heads who serves as Vi=9u couch. Anantav1da The doctrine of infinity Anavasthitatva Vik=epa-s The state of instability as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa A98api98a Brahm198a) Brahm198a Pi98198a) Pi98198a Macrocosm (Brahm198a and Microcosm (Pi98198a A^ga Lit. 'limb; part; step' Mantra, A subdivision of a science or of a Mantra etc.; the body; the mind; accessory vide also A=71^ga Yoga A^gamejayatva The activity of unsteadiness of the mind Vik=epasahabh3-s As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3 it is connected to Pr19amaya Ko0a A^ga Ny1sa A^ga) A^ga Tantric rite of touching certain parts of the body (A^ga A^ga P3j1 17
  • 19. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Worship with offering especially of flowers to the several parts of Lord's body A^ga Vidy1 The esoteric knowledge and interpretation of various marks on the body A^gay1ga A subordinate sacrificial rite vide also Y1ga A^gi Nity1 vide !dy1 A^giras Veda-s; Name of a $=i in the Veda seer; ray vide also Sapta4=i A^gu=7ham1tra Vidy1 J2va) J2va The knowledge of the Soul (J2va Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 The term A^gu=7ham1tra for the soul denotes something which is extremely fine, having residence in the heart. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Anib1dha Unobstructed, without obstacles; liberty A9im1 Lit. 'minuteness' One of the eight yogic powers of becoming as small as an atom Siddhi, vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi A9im1di A=7asiddhi vide A=7asiddhi A6jali Reverence, salutation A6jali Mudr1 The gesture of placing side by side the open hands in front of the body as kind of reverence A6jana Siddhi The power of making clear vide also Siddhi A6janat1 The quality of identifying with the form of an object as a result of Am4t1p3r9a A^ku0a Lit. 'goad' A representation of Dve=a vide also Ana^gamadan1^ku01, P101^ku0a 18
  • 20. A Anna Food Annamaya Ko0a The body of nourishment as sphere of consciousness )ar2ra, M3l1dh1ra It forms Sth3la )ar2ra the gross body having its seat in the M3l1dh1ra Cakra. This Ko0a is the expression and experience of the gross matter. Anna Yoga The Yoga of food based on !h1ra rules Anta5kara9a Lit. 'the internal organ' The thinking faculty of mind vide also !k10a Antar Inner Antar1ditya Vidy1 The knowledge of the inner sun Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 The right eye represents the sun, the left eye the moon, meditation on this Vidy1 has an external form leading to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman if correlated with Ak=i Vidy1. Dv1tri%0at vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Antar1k10a Inner space Antara^ga The internal stage, the inner expression as opposed to Bahira^ga Antar1ya vide Citta Vik=ep1 Antardhauti Yogic technique of inner purification Antardhauti-s V1tas1ra, V1ris1ra, Agnis1ra) There are four main Antardhauti viz. V1tas1ra V1ris1ra Vahnis1ra (or Agnis1ra and Bahi=k4ta. Antardhy1na Inner deep meditation Antarindriya An internal organ Antarindriya-s Manas, Citta, Buddhi, In Ved1nta there are four Antarindriya viz. Manas Citta Buddhi and Aha%k1ra. Antarj61na The knowledge coming from within Antary1ga 19
  • 21. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Inner worship Y1ga ga, vide also Y1ga Bahiry1ga Antasa^kalpa A terminal spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when there is no urge to fulfil anything. A9u Atom Tanm1tra, vide also Tanm1tra Param19u A9ubh3ti Lit. 'perception' The generic term which describes the spiritual experience as various degrees of experience of consciousness, another term to describe Sam1dhi in Yoga Anugraha Lit. 'kindness, favour; conferring benefits' Blessing, grace Anulomaviloma Kind of Pr191y1ma as technique of alternate breathe Anusa%dh1na Lit. 'investigation, searching into; plan' Discovery Anu=7h1na Lit. 'performance; undertaking; practice' The accomplishment of an act with absolute discipline according to a definite plan; the Sa^kalpa of an act Anu=7h1na-s Japa, J61na, T1pasya, Yoga, Tantra, There is a wide range of Anu=7h1na like Japa J61na T1pasya Yoga Tantra etc. Anusv1ra vide Bindu Anv1h1ryapacana Agni vide Agni Ap Water A%0a-s Tanm1tra-s. The A%0a of Ap in the Pi98198a are the five Tanm1tra vide also Bh3ta Apai0una Daiv2sampat-s Absence of crookedness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Ap1na The V1yu which expels the life-force from the body 20
  • 22. A Cakra, Sarvasampatprad1, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvasampatprad1 Devasu=i Ap1na Mudr1 Mudr1) The gesture (Mudr1 of acquiring (preserving) Ap1na energy Mudr1 Apara Lower or worldly knowledge Apar1jita Lit. 'invincible, unsurpassed' The palace in the Brahmaloka representing the R3pa of Brahm1 as a stage to be overcome in order to reach Parya^ka Mah10akti, vide also Mah10akti Parya^ka Vidy1 Apar1ntaj61na The knowledge of death Nirupakrama Karma-s. It is known by practicing Sa%yama on Sopakrama and Nirupakrama Karma Aparigraha Yama-s Non-receiving as one of the five Yama Aparigrahaprati=7h1 A state in which Aparigraha is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Aparigrahaprati=7h1 will get the memory of past life because the mind is purified. Aparok=1nubh3ti Lit. 'perception of the perceptible' The personal experience of the Divine with form as experience of Bhakti Apavarga Lit. 'turned off' A synonym for Mok=a Apsaras Nymph, angelic creature !ptaj61na Dharmamegha The spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when the veil of knowledge has been removed It allows a different kind of experience because there is nothing left to be known., thus real J61na) J61na knowledge (J61na is accomplished. !ptak1ma Dharmamegha The spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when there is nothing left to be desired Yog2’s Siddhi-s In this stage Yog2 desires are completely fulfilled, Siddhi do arise naturally, the complete Brahmacarya is obtained as the Yog2 does not respond to the sexual sensation of any form. Aptattva 21
  • 23. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The Tattva of Ap known also as Toyatattva Apunya Lack of merit !ra One of the lakes before entering into S1lajja city in the Brahmaloka Pa6c1gni-s. The crossing of !ra and (ya means overcoming the Pa6c1gni . vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 !r1dhana Worship, adoration; a ceremony to propitiate a deity !ra%bha Avasth1 A Yoga Avasth1 of a Yog2 after overcoming the Brahmagranthi !ra9i Piece of wood !ra9i-s Two !ra9i are used to kindle the sacred fire by attrition, they represent mind and body, heaven and earth, father and mother, i.e. the bringing together of polarities. !ra9yaka Lit. 'forest; produced in the forest' A specific kind of Vedic literature S1lajja. !ra and (ya are the two lakes as obstacles before entering in the city of Brahm1 named S1lajja vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 !ra9y1yama !ra9y1yama Lit. 'walking in the forest' Celibacy Arcan1 (also Arcana Arcana) A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhaki Yoga as the devotional act of ritual worship of the Divine Ardhan1r20vara A conjoined representation of )iva and )akti as symbol of their unity )aiva-s )1kta-s The )aiva worship the male or the right side, the )1kta the female or the left side. Arghya Offering, oblation Hotr1, Arghya, vide also Hotr1 Arghya Havi Ari=7a Apar1ntaj61na) Apar1ntaj61na The omen of knowledge of death (Apar1ntaj61na !rjava Daiv2sampat-s Straightforwardness as one of twenty-six Daiv2sampat Arjuna Mah1bh1rata, One of the five P19dava brothers in the epic Mah1bh1rata disciple and companion of the Lord 22
  • 24. A K4=9a in Bhagavad G2t1 !roha9a The act of ascending as opposed to Avaroha9a Arpa9avidy1 The Para (supreme) worship of Dev2 Artha Lit. 'aim, purpose' Wealth, material gains; object of the senses Puru=1rtha, vide also Puru=1rtha Savitarka Sam1dhi Aru9a The impulsive One V1gdev2-s One of the V1gdev2 corresponding to the mental activity of Icch1 (wish). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Ar3pa Formless as opposed to R3pa (with form) as one of characteristics of the Self Arvan Lit. 'primal power' Veda-s In the Veda the stallion as representing the primal power Arya Lit. 'nobleman' The Aryan people and their tradition !rya Dharma Lit. 'path of noble people' vide Veda Aryaman !ditya-s Nobility as one of the twelve !ditya A=18ha The month corresponding to parts of June/ July vide also M1sa Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi Kind of Sam1dhi in which the practitioner has overcome the stage of differentiation going beyond Pratyaya, a%sk1ra-s Pratyaya but still in the presence of Sa%sk1ra Sam1dhi. It is an intermediate state of Sam1dhi !sana Lit. 'sitting' Pi98198a) Pi98198a Yogic or Tantric posture as form of integration of the human body (Pi98198a with the cosmic Brahm198a) Brahm198a body (Brahm198a 23
  • 25. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality A^ga-s Pata6jali. sana-s, In Yoga one of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali Through !sana D48hat1 !sana-s. is obtained. There is an exoteric and esoteric symbolism of !sana Yog1sana, vide also Yog1sana Tantr1sana Asat The non-manifested; the state beyond Sat and the cause of Sat Avyakta, vide also Avyakta Sad Vidy1 Asatya Falsehood as opposed to Satya (truth) !0i= vide Abhinive0a Asmit1 Kle=a-s; Indriya-s) Egoism as on of the five Kle=a the material cause of the sense organs (Indriya Indriya vide also Abhim1na Asmit1 Sam1dhi A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a will experience what is beyond thought and own awareness Sam1dhi. Known as Asmit1 Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi, it culminates in Nirb2ja Sam1dhi !0rama Lit. 'the abode of ascetics, a hermitage; a stage in the life of a person' Spiritual retreat !0rama-s Brahmac1rin, G4hastha tha, Traditionally there are four !0rama of a man's life as lifestyles viz. Brahmac1rin G4hastha Sa%ny1sin. !0rama, V1naprastha and Sa%ny1sin The main purpose of an !0rama as spiritual retreat for a Sa%ny1sin, Karma-s, Sa%ny1sin is to exhaust own Karma so allowing the negativity to be released, in short Karma. reinvesting own Karma !0raya !lambana Support or basis of an experience for !lambana (object of an experience) vide also V1san1 A=71^ga Yoga Lit. 'Yoga of the eight steps' S3tra-s Yama, The system of Yoga as thought in Yoga S3tra of Pata6jali as a eight-fold path, i.e. Yama Niyama, !sana Pr191y1ma, Praty1h1ra, Dh1ra9a, Dhy1na, Niyama !sana, Pr191y1ma Praty1h1ra Dh1ra9a Dhy1na and Sam1dhi A=7asiddhi A=7asiddhi Siddhi-s The eight Siddhi known also as A9im1di Siddhi-s A9im1, Mahim1, Garim1, Laghim1, Traditionally there are only eight major Siddhi namely A9im1 Mahim1 Garim1 Laghim1 Pr1pti, Pr1k1mya, Va0itva. Pr1pti Pr1k1mya I0itva and Va0itva Their acquisition is a result of mastering over the five Bh3ta-s Bh3ta and an expression of moving free in the world of Prak4ti. Asteya Yama-s Non-stealing as one of the five Yama Asteyaprati=7h1 24
  • 26. A A state in which Asteya is fully established It is considered that the material goods come to a Yog2 possessing Asteyaprati=7h1. Asthi Bone vide Dh1tu !stika !stika Veda-s Believer in Veda Veda-s All the literature based on Veda is considered to be !stika. vide also N1stika Asu Lit. 'life-force, breath' Veda-s In the Veda the spirit surviving death A0uddhatattva Tattva-s The impure Tattva They consist of the twenty-four Tattva-s from Prak4titattva down to P4thiv2tattva (vide Tattva). Tattva Tattva A0uddhi Element or process which makes impure the body as opposed to )uddhi Do0a-s A0uddhi-s. All Do0a are considered to be A0uddhi A0ukl1k4=9a Karma-s The mixed Karma as one of the three accumulated Karma Asura The divine or supreme spirit; a demon A0va Lit. 'not the self' Veda-s In the Veda the swift horse as representing the mind or the manifested energy !sv1da The sense of supernatural tasting vide also Pr1tibha A0vamedha The horse sacrifice as a Vedic rite A0vattha Lit. 'under which horses stand' The sacred fig tree Ficus Religiosa, a variety of Banyan tree Guru. Esoterically it represents the Guru vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 !0vina The month that corresponds to parts of Sept./ Oct. 25
  • 27. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also M1sa A0vini Veda-s In the Veda the divine twin physicians (riding upon horses) said to restore health amongst mortals as well; the left and right life-force in the breath A0vini-s Veda-s A0vini hold a distinct position in the Veda they are practically equated with the energy flow N182-s. within Id1 and Pi^gal1 N182 A0vin2 Mudr1 Bhandha-s The mare Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bhandha Atalaloka vide Loka Atandrita The state of being alert as a yogic state Atharva Veda The name of the fourth Veda known also as Brahmaveda vide also Tantra Atij1gara Varjana-s Not having enough sleeping as one of the seven Varjana Atikr1ntabh1van2ya The most advanced kind of Yog2 the one who has accomplished the transcendence Atisvapna Varjana-s Excessive sleeping as one of the seven Varjana At2ta Dharma Dharma-s The inherent property of past time, one of the three Dharma (as inherent properties of time) !tma vide !tman !tmabh1va Reality of the individual Soul as one's self condition and beyond any description; the self Kaivalya; consciousness leading to Kaivalya the awareness of the self consciousness !tmabh1va will be experienced only when the Vi0e=a state was transcended. !tmadar0an Vision of the Soul !tmadra=7a A witness of the self beyond the intellectual consciousness vide also Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi !tmaj61na Knowledge of the Self !tmajyoti 26
  • 28. A The light of the Soul !tm1kar=i92 The attractive power of !tma vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra !tman (also !tma !tma) Lit. 'the breath; what is spontaneous' The individual Soul as seed of Brahman present in all creatures Sat, !nanda The three attributes of !tman are Sat Cit and !nanda. vide also Indra Agni Soma S3rya !tma Nivedana A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of self-offering to the Divine !tma Rati The feelings for the Self as expressions of true Bhakti Rati-s, !tma Rati as expressions of devotion and kinds of liberation, are five in number, namely S1m2pya, S1lokya, S1r3pya, S1m2pya S1lokya S1r3pya Sar=7i and S1yujya S1yujya. Rati, vide also Rati Rasa !tm1rpa9a Lit. 'offering to !tma' The attitude of offering own action as part of P3j1 (worship) to sanctify the ordinary existence It is an attitude of giving back to the Divine what really belongs to the Divine. Therefore the Mudr1, Japa, ordinary work with hands and body becomes Mudr1 the ordinary talk becomes Japa the act of eating becomes Homa or Yaj6a, the ordinary walk becomes Pradak=i9a, the act of lying down Yaj6a Pradak=i9a Pra91ma, Agnihotra, P3j1, becomes Pra91ma the act of breathing becomes Agnihotra etc. This is a high form of P3j1 a continuous awareness of the Self. !tma )akti )akti-s The transcendental awareness as one of the )akti flowing through Su=umn1 N182 as a result of balancing of Pr19a )akti and Manas )akti the union of space (!k10a and time (K1la )akti, !k10a) !k10a K1la) K1la )akti) It is the spiritual kind of energy (vide )akti allowing the occurrence of Anubh3ti experience. !tmavidy1 The knowledge of the Self Atri Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i Aty1h1ra Varjana-s Excessive eating as one of the seven Varjana vide also Mit1h1ra Au882y1na P27ha vide U882y1na P27ha 27
  • 29. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Au% vide O% Au=adhi vide O=adhi Avadh3ta Lit. 'one who has rejected all his worldly feelings and obligations' A highly spiritual person Avair1gya Attachment as one of the eight Bh1va-s Bh1va vide also Vair1gya !vara9a Lit. 'what covers' The covering of the inner reality on the path of Yoga !vara9a is one of the two functions of M1y1 as the illusion which covers the inner reality. One of Pr191y1ma. the best ways of removing !vara9a is the practice of Pr191y1ma It is a fundamental concept that !vara9a) !vara9a only by removing the covering (!vara9a the higher awareness can be experienced. !vara9a Devat1 A deity of covering Devat1-s K1me0var2, Bhagam1lin2 agam1lin2, There are three !vara9a Devat1 namely K1me0var2 Vajre0var2 and Bhagam1lin2 the deities covering the light. vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Avaroha9a The act of descending as opposed to !roha9a Avasth1 Lit. 'condition' State of human existence Avasth1traya) There are three states (Avasth1traya viz. J1grat (waking), Svapna (dreaming) and Su=upti Avasth1traya V4tti-s. (deep sleep), each one having specific V4tti Beyond Avasth1traya there is one more state known Tur2ya. as Tur2ya Avasth1 Pari91ma Citta) Pari91ma-s Transformation of state of mind (Citta accompanying the Pari91ma as a result of Sa%yama Citta Avasth1traya vide Avasth1 Avat1ra (from Avat4i i.e. to descend) Incarnation of the Divine upon earth Avat1ra-s Vi=9u. The best known Avat1ra are the ten forms of Vi=9u Avidy1 28
  • 30. A Kle0a-s; Ignorance, one of the five Kle0a an error of perception; a human experience of the cosmic M1y1 Kle0a-s, Kle0a-s. Avidy1 is regarded as the cause of Kle0a its control means the control of all other Kle0a Avirati Vik=epa-s The state of lack of due restraint as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Avi0e0a Lit. 'without difference' Gu9aparva-s One of the four Gu9aparva in which Savic1r1 Sam1dhi is experienced Avyakta Prak4ti, The non-manifested principle of creation, the primary germ of Prak4ti the state of non- differentiation N1mar3pa. Asat, Brahman, This state is devoid of N1mar3pa Avyakta is identified with Asat Nirgu9a Brahman Parabrahman or @0vara. @0vara K1me0var2, Cakra, Vyakta, vide also K1me0var2 Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Vyakta Ali^ga Avyakta N1da The non-manifested sound vide also N1da Avyakta Prak4ti The non-manifested nature, a synonym to Ali^ga !yam1tma Brahm1 Brahm1' Upani=ad-s 'The extension of the Self is Brahm1 is a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad vide also Mah1v1kya !yudha Devat1 A deity bearing weapons There are three deities presiding over the weapons of Dev2 Lalit1 namely P101^ku0a (noose and goad), Ik=ukoda98a (sugar-cane bow) and the B19a-s (the five flower arrows). Their weapons are B19a P10a, A^ku0a, Dhanu=) B19a-s. P10a A^ku0a Ik=ukoda98a (or Dhanu= and B19a They are being kept symbolically by the Dev2 in her four hands. The !yudha Devat1 are to be found between Sarvarogahara Cakra and Cakra. Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra !yurveda The science of the Indian medicine vide also Do=a 29
  • 31. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality B Bagal1 Mukhi Mah1vidy1-s The eighth of the ten Mah1vidy1 representing the unconscious plane of existence that is the source of illusion Bahira^ga The external stage, the outer expression as opposed to Antara^ga Bahiry1ga External worship known also as B1hyay1ga vide also Y1ga, Antary1ga Y1ga Antary1ga Bahi=kara9a The body as external instrument Bahi=k4ta Dhauti Antardhauti-s One of the Antardhauti as internal purification By its practice a Deva Deha may be obtained. Bahuda Lit. 'much-giving' Sanny1sin One of the preliminary stages of Sanny1sa life-style when the Sanny1sin gives the best in the life of an !0rama B1hy1k10a Outer space B1hyap3j1 Lit. 'lower worship' A ritual practice of worship, using voice, objects or images P3j1, vide also P3j1 Devay1na B1hyay1ga vide Bahiry1ga, Y1ga Bahiry1ga Bala Sampad-s Bodily and mental strength or vitality as one of the four K1ya Sampad B1l1ki Upani=ad-s Name of a sage in the Upani=ad vide also B1l1ki Vidy1 B1l1ki Vidy1 The knowledge of B1l1ki 30
  • 32. B Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1 that gradually deals with the knowledge of Puru=a Agni, V1yu, from the left and right eyes to Agni V1yu !k10a and finally to the Puru=a of the sun. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Bali A gift offering as a sacrifice in the form of fruits and flowers B19a Lit. 'arrow' A flower arrow of K1ma Tanm1tra m1tra-s The five flower arrows of K1ma denoting the five Tanm1tra (subtle forms of matter) are the A0oka, lotus, the A0oka the mango blossom, the jasmine and the blue lotus. vide also !yudha Devat1 Bandha Lit. 'binding, tying; connection with; uniting; joining' Contraction as yogic technique; lock Bandha-s Bandha are techniques used to dissolve the psychic knots and redirect the resulting energy within Bandha-s. the body. There is an esoteric and exoteric symbolism of Bandha On a higher plane they are powerful and relevant Ku98alin2 yoga techniques towards )iva and )akti union in the human body Pi98198a). Bandha-s seen as Microcosm (Pi98198a There are three major Bandha namely J1landhara Bandha Pi98198a (Water-pipe lock), U882y1na Bandha (Upwards lock) and M3la Bandha (Root lock). vide also Bandhatraya Bandhatraya Bandha-s Bandha, The triple contraction using the three main Bandha namely J1landhara Bandha U882y1na Bandha and M3la Bandha. Basti Lit. 'lower belly' +atkarma-s Vasti. One of the +atkarma known also as Vasti As a yogic technique does the cleansing the abdominal area. It is of two kinds viz. Jala Basti and )u=ka Basti. Basti Bh1dra Bh1dra The day of full-moon in the month of Bh1drapada Bh1drapada The rainy month corresponding to parts of August /September vide also M1sa Bhadr1sana The gentle !sana Bhaga Gracious God; happiness; prosperity; beauty, loveliness; love, sexual pleasure; the female organ; !ditya-s one of the twelve !ditya vide also Bhaj Bhagam1lin2 31
  • 33. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'the one adorned with glory' Devat1-s One of the !vara9a Devat1 presiding over the principle of existence of Mahat )akti-s. Bhagam1lin2 is also one of the Nity1 )akti Cakra vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Bhag1sana vide Tantr1sana Bhagavad G2t1 The Song of the Lord Ved1nta, Yoga, The most famous Yoga work, a synthesis of Ved1nta Yoga S1mkhya teachings, believed to be composed in the third or fourth century BCE. Arjuna, vide also Arjuna Kuruk=etra Bhagavan Lit. 'God-like' One of God's names; a generic and popular name of God in India vide also Bhaj Bhagavat Lit. 'the adorable one' )iva's One of )iva names Bhaj, vide also Bhaj Bhaga Bhairava Lit. 'terrible, formidable' A name of )iva as a frightening aspect of the divine; a Tantric male participant Bhairav2 Dev2; Consort of Bhairava as a particular form of Dev2 a Tantric female participant Bhairav2 Cakra vide Cakra P3j1 Bhairav2 Tantra A name of a Tantra Bhaj Lit. 'to adore; enjoy; worship; bestow; share with; distribute' Bhakti, Bhaga, Bhagavan, Bhagavat, Bhajan, Sanskrit root of words like Bhakti Bhaga Bhagavan Bhagavat Bhajan Bhakta. Bhajan Devotional song vide also Bhaj Bhakta Devotee; one following the path of Bhakti Bhaj, vide also Bhaj Bh2ma Vidy1 32
  • 34. B Bhakti Devotion Devotion is seen as channelling of emotions towards God in order to experience the eternal existence. In the tradition, Bhakti is the only way God can be reached, as the experience of the Brahm198a) Pi98198a). Macrocosm (Brahm198a in the Microcosm (Pi98198a The Bhakti M2m1%s1 S3tra describes Brahm198a Pi98198a devotion as being "Supreme longing for the Lord". It is said that the Lord becomes perceptible Japa, through devotion. Bh1vac381ma9i says: "Nothing is accomplished by constant Japa sacrifices Yantra-s Mantra-s and austerities which torture the body, because without deep devotion Yantra and Mantra do not yield fruit". vide also Bhaj Bhakticcheda Any decoration or marks on forehead, arms, cheeks, nose, breasts, etc. as an expression of devotion Devat1-s. to Devat1 Bhakti M1rga The path of devotion vide also Bhakti Yoga Bhakti Yoga The Yoga of Devotion Yoga, A^ga-s) The last stage in Yoga considered to be the Yoga of the 21st century. It has nine limbs (A^ga A^ga namely )r1va9a (listening to holy scriptures), K2rtana (singing devotional songs), Smarana (remembering the Divine), P1da Sev1na (service to the feet of the Lord), Arcan1 or P3j1 (ritual worship), Vandana (prostration before the image of the Lord), D1sya (slavish devotion to the Lord), S1khya (friendship) and !tma Nivedana (Self-offering to the Lord). In Bhakti Yoga Bh1va-s) there are five main states or conditions (Bh1va namely )1nta (tranquil), D1sya (slavish), Bh1va V1tsalya (affectionate), S1khya (friendly) and M1dhurya (sweet). vide also )uddha Bhakti Bhakti Yoga Sam1dhi The Sam1dhi as a result of Bhakti Yoga practice Bh1^g A drink made of Indian hemp leaves Bh1rati Veda-s Satya); In the Veda the word signifying the truth (Satya a high educational institution Satya Bhasma Ashes used for spiritual purpose Bhastrik1 Lit. 'causing the sound of bellows' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma Bh1=ya Lit. 'an explanatory work, exposition, commentary' Work of a spiritual kind Bh1va 33
  • 35. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'attitude; true condition; reality; disposition' State, emotion, devotional sentiment Rasa-s. In Bhakti Yoga there are five states as devotional sentiments known also as Rasa As states or Bh1va-s conditions accompanying the Li^ga (as transmigratory soul) there are eight Bh1va namely Dharma, Adharma, J61na, Aj61na, Vair1gya, Avair1gya, Ai0varya, Anai0varya. Dharma Adharma J61na Aj61na Vair1gya Avair1gya Ai0varya Anai0varya As states of Bh1va-s Bh1va, human personalities there are three Bh1va namely Pa0u Bh1va V2ra Bh1va and Divya Bh1va. Bh1va vide also Tantra Bh1vana Lit. 'imagining' Contemplation, reflection; feeling; thought Y1ga). It is also a kind of worship (meditation) of Dev2 (vide Y1ga In the tradition it is said that God is Bh1vana-s captivated by the Bh1vana (feelings). Bhaya Varjana-s Fear as on of the seven Varjana Fear is seen as a product of duality vide also Abhaya Mudr1 Bhay1naka Rasa-s Terror as one of the Rasa Bheru981 )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti Bhoga Lit. 'enjoyment' Tantra; The worldly experience as a path to spiritual growth in Tantra any worldly experience attached to Indriya riya-s the Indriya Bhog1dhi=7h1na Living organism Bhr1mar2 Lit. 'causing the sound of wasp' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma This kind of Pr191y1ma will result in the experience of An1hata )abda. vide also Ras1nanda Yoga Bhr1ntidar0ana Vik=epa-s The state of wrong perception as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Bh4gu vide Brahm1 Bh4gu V1ru9i Vidy1 The knowledge of Bh4gu V1ru9i 34
  • 36. B Vidy1-s) Ko0a-s A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 refers to the gradual knowledge of the five Ko0a beyond which the Sagu9a Brahman can be realized. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Bhr3madhya The space between the eyebrows as Cakra K=etra of !j61 Cakra vide also )1%bhav2 Mudr1 Bhuja^g1sana The cobra !sana Bhuja^g2 Lit. 'female-serpent' A name for Ku98alin2 Bhuja^gin2 Mudr1 Bhanda-s The she-serpent Mudr1 one of the Mudr1 Bhanda Bh3ma Vidy1 The knowledge of the world Vidy1, Vidy1-s, A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 as related to N1rada by Sanatkum1ra. The disciple V1k, Manas, Sa%kalpa, Citta, is led to understand gradual stages from V1k Manas Sa%kalpa Citta Dhy1na and finally to Pr19a. Bhakta) Satya, Pr19a Here are also enumerated the qualifications of a good devotee (Bhakta namely Satya Bhakta Vij61na, Mati, )raddh1, Vij61na Mati )raddh1 Ni=7h1 and K4ti. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Bh3mi Earth vide also Bh3ta Bh3mik1 vide Yoga Avasth1 Bh3mitattva vide P4thiv2tattva Bh3pura Lit. 'region (plan) of earth' vide Trailokyamohana Cakra Bh3rloka The Earth plane vide Loka Bh3 Sam1dhi The underground Sam1dhi Bh3ta Lit. 'consisting of; being' Gross element of the human body; gross form of matter; animated being 35
  • 37. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Pa6cabh3ta-s, Mah1bh3ta-s Bh3ta-s. Also known as Pa6cabh3ta Mah1bh3ta or Sth3la Mah1 Bh3ta There are five Bh3ta Bh3ta-s namely: !k10a or Vyoma (ether), V1yu (air), Tejas or Agni or Vahni (fire), Ap or Toya (water), Bh3mi or P4thiv2 (earth), all produced from the Tamas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the Tattva-s. Bh3ta-s. thirty-six Tattva For the purpose of Mudr1 the five fingers correspond to the five Bh3ta The P4thiv2, Ap, Tejas, V1yu, !k10a, order of their higher and higher absorption is P4thiv2 Ap Tejas V1yu !k10a corresponding to Devat1-s Brahm1, Vi=9u, Rudra, @0vara, Sad10iva, the Devat1 such as Brahm1 Vi=9u Rudra @0vara and Sad10iva the later seen as parallel to Bindu). the five parts of O% Mantra (i.e. A, U, M, N1da and Bindu Bh3t1di Rudiment-matter, original element Source of !k10a (ether) as the first Bh3ta (gross matter) of S4=7i. Bh3ta )uddhi Bh3ta-s) Bh3ta Purification of the gross elements (Bh3ta of the body It is an essential ritual before worship or any making of ritual art items. Bhuvana In the Veda-s the world (including the solar system) as plane of existence Veda Bhuvane0var2 Lit. 'ruler of the spheres' Mah1vidy1-s The fourth of the ten Mah1vidy1 represents the projection of the consciousness as infinite space and therefore the holder of all existence Bhuvane0var2 B2ja vide Hr2% Bhuvarloka The region between the earth and the sun; the sky Siddha-s Muni-s. A Loka inhabited by Siddha and Muni B2bhatsa Disgust as one of the Rasa-s Rasa B2ja (also written as V2ja V2ja) Lit. 'seed; germ; semen; source; origin; primary cause; truth as the cause of being; basis for the mind' B2ja as part of creation that emerged from N1da B2j1kar=i92 The attractive power of B2ja Sarv101paripuraka vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra B2j1k=ara Seed syllable or B2ja Mantra B2ja Mantra B2j1k=ara; A Mantra having three to nine syllables, synonym to B2j1k=ara an expression of a deity in a Mantra form. Bila Siddhi 36
  • 38. B The power of opening vide also Siddhi Bilva Tree of the Lord )iva known also as wood-apple, Bel tree or scientifically Aegle Marmelos, the only sacred tree of the Lord )iva Bilvapattra Leaf of Bilva tree Bindu Drop; dot; mark; source Tantra, Bindu, Bindu, In Tantra Bindu as K1ra9a Bindu then K1rya Bindu proceeds N1da and represents the infinite potentialities of the larger universe (Brahm198a about to be unfolded. The ninth Cakra Brahm198a) Brahm198a Sarv1nandamaya Cakra) Bindu. Bindu-s (Sarv1nandamaya Cakra of the )r2 Yantra is also called Bindu There are three Bindu at the Yantra, M1y1, )iva- centre of )r2 Yantra namely )iva M1y1 )akti M1y1 and )iva-Sakti M1y1. Their colours are white, red and colourless, their elements are Sun, Moon and Fire symbolized by the double Bindu of Visarga and single Bindu of Anusv1ra. The image of Bindu made of Visarga and Anusv1ra is Upani=ad-s described metaphorically in B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad (2.1.20) and other Upani=ad as a spider. In Saundaryalahar2 (7) the Divine Mother Tripurasundar2 is described with her face resembling the moon, her breasts like the frontal globes of the forehead of a young elephant, wearing mini- Tripurasundar2 Bindu. bells, therefore equating Tripurasundar2 with Bindu vide also Bindutraya Binduma98ala Cakra vide Sarv1nandamaya Cakra Bindutraya The threefold Bindu at the centre of the )r2 Tantra Bodhana An essential rite to awakening (through worship) a work of ritual art Brahm1 Trim3rti); Lord Brahm1 one of the Hindu trinity (Trim3rti the principle and manifestation of creation Trim3rti Brahm198a). Lord Brahm1 presides over the creation of the Universe (Brahm198a He is the personal Creator Brahm198a Brahman). manifested from the impersonal Universal Spirit (Brahman The first created beings by Brahm1 Brahman Mar2ci, Atri, A^giras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasi=7ha, were the ten lords viz. Mar2ci Atri A^giras Pulastya Pulaha Kratu Vasi=7ha Pracetas (or Dak=a), N1rada. Dak=a Bh4gu and N1rada They all are known under the name Praj1pati or Mah1 $=i $=i-s. vide also Sapta4=i Brahmac1rin Lit. 'student of Brahm1' A follower of Brahmacarya vide also !0rama Brahmacarya Yama-s Continence as one of the five Yama It has to be seen more as awareness of actions of a person than abstinence from sexual experience. Brahmacaryaprati=7h1 37
  • 39. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality A state in which Brahmacarya is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Brahmacaryaprati=7h1 becomes full of vitality. Brahmadv1ra The door of Brahm1 Brahmagranthi Lit. 'knot of Brahm1' The Granthi located in the Agnikha98a Pa6c1gni-s It represents the attachment to Lobha (greed) and K1ma (desire) of Pa6c1gni Granthi. vide Granthi Brahmaj61na Spiritual wisdom as knowledge of the true reality Brahmak1ra The active state of Citta in which identifies itself with the Self Brahmak1ra V4tti The V4tti of Brahmak1ra state Brahmaloka Satyaloka, vide Satyaloka Loka Brahman (from the root B4h i.e. to expand) Lit. 'expansion, evolution, growth' Tantra. In Ved1nta the impersonal Universal Spirit known also as )iva in Tantra Nirgu9a. It has two aspects viz. Sagu9a and Nirgu9a M1y1, T1raka, vide also M1y1 T1raka Tantra Br1hma9a Lit. 'one who has divine knowledge' A Brahmin priest; a specific kind of Vedic literature (900-700 BCE) $tvija-s) He is one of the four Vedic priests ($tvija who chants the hymns of the Atharva Veda while $tvija Mantra-s). A Brahmin priest is assisted by three other helper priests viz. Mantra performing incantations (Mantra Agn2dhra, Pot4. Agn2dhra Br1hma91cchansin and Pot4 As spiritual leader he belongs to the highest caste Var9a) Var9a (Var9a in the Vedic tradition. vide also Veda Br1hma91cchansin Lit. 'the one reciting after the Br1hma9a' Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Br1hma9a priest Brahma N182 A channel of energy within the Citra N182 Brahm198a Lit. 'Brahm1's egg' 38
  • 40. B Macrocosm; universe; world; cosmic body Brahm198a-s There are endless Brahm198a coexisting, each having own gods, Brahma for creation, Vi=9u Trim3rti). for preservation and Rudra for destruction (vide Trim3rti Brahm198a could also be seen as Cittav4tti of Brahman or a product of the cosmic thinking manifestation therefore is unreal. A98api98a, Brahm198a, vide also A98api98a K=udra Brahm198a Pi98198a Brahm192 vide Trim3rti Brahmarandhra Lit. 'Brahm1's opening' An opening above the Sahasr1ra Cakra through where the Soul is said to pass on death and the door between two realms of existence Brahma Tantra Veda-s All that is taught in the Veda Brahmav1din Veda-s One who explains the Veda Brahmaveda The Veda of sacred spells and charms, i.e. Atharva Veda Brahmavedi Brahm1's The Brahm1 altar Brahmayoga The highest kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana in which devotion is the essence B4haspati Lit. 'lord of prayer or devotion' Deva-s; Guru or preceptor of the Deva the name for planet Jupiter vide also !nandamaya Vidy1 B4haspati V1caspati Devas3-s B4haspati the lord of speech and prayer; one of the eight Devas3 as an aspect of B4haspati B4hat (from the root B4h i.e. to expand) Lit. 'abundant, vast, large' Veda-s In the Veda a name for Brahman Buddha (from the root Budh i.e. to wake up) Lit. 'the enlightened one' An spiritual liberated man, founder of Buddhism, who lived in the sixth century BCE Avat1ra) Vi=9u. Buddha is regarded in Hinduism as an incarnation (Avat1ra of Vi=9u Avat1ra Buddhi (from the root Budh i.e. to wake up) Lit. 'intellect, reason' The discriminating aspect of mind; intellect as a cognitive faculty 39
  • 41. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also !k10a Buddhimaya Ko0a vide Vij61namaya Ko0a Buddhitattva The Tattva of Buddhi Buddhy1kar=i92 The attractive power of Buddhi Cakra vide Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Budha Navagraha-s The planet Mercury, one of the Navagraha 40
  • 42. C C Caitanya Consciousness; the Universal Soul vide also Cetana Caitra The month corresponding to parts of March/April vide also M1sa Cakra Lit. 'wheel; circle' Centre (vortex) of energy and level of awareness Cakra-s M3l1dh1ra, Svadhi=7h1na, Ma9ip3ra, In the human body there are seven major Cakra viz. M3l1dh1ra Svadhi=7h1na Ma9ip3ra An1hata, An1hata Vi0uddha (or Vi0uddhi !j61 and Sahasr1ra Known also as Padma (lotuses) the Vi0uddhi), Sahasr1ra. Padma-s Cakra-s )ar2ra-s. Cakra are located in the S3k=ma )ar2ra body influencing also the other two )ar2ra Round the centre of energy there are expansions producing the appearances of the petals of a lotus flower, N182-s). When opened the Cakra become N182 in fact they are starting points of energy channels (N182 Cakra-s gates of connection between the three )ar2ra-s therefore the physical consciousness may thus have ar2ra Cakra-s access to other planes. The Cakra represent also the cycle of creation, preservation and destruction (absorption). Pa6c1gni, vide also Pa6c1gni Loka Cakra K=etra The horizontal projection of a Cakra trigger point in the spinal cord on the front surface of the body Cakra-s Only Svadhi=7h1na, Ma9ip3ra, An1hata, Vi0uddhi and !j61 Cakra have Cakra K=etra-s. K=etra Cakra P3j1 Circle worship Tantric rite of which Bhairav2 Cakra is the most important. Cakrar1ja Lit. 'royal wheel' Another name for )r2 Cakra Cakr1sana vide Tantr1sana Cakra )uddhi Cakra-s The process of purification of Cakra Cakre0vara The leader of a Cakra P3j1 as a Tantric Guru vide also Cakre0var2 41
  • 43. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Cakre0var2 A generic name for a )akti presiding over a Cakra P3j1 vide also Cakre0vara Cak=u )iva; The third eye, the eye of )iva the physical eye The opening of Cak=us is linked to the renunciation to desired (vide Ana^ga). Ana^ga Netra, vide also Netra J61nendriya C1mu981 A terrific aspect of Dev2 as destroyer of Ca98a and Mu98a Ca982 (or Ca98ik1 ) Lit. 'an ardent, passionate woman' A popular name of Dev2 Ca98id1s Poet and initiate of 15th century Bengal vide also R1mi Ca98ik1 vide Ca982 Candra Lit. 'shining; the moon' Navagraha-s; I81 N182; The moon or the lunar phase as one of the Navagraha the Devat1 of I81 N182 the feminine kind of energetic; a Devat1 vide also Candrakha98a Candradv1ra The passage of the moon Candrakal1 The increase/ decrease of the moon's disc in twenty-four hours, i.e. one sixteenth of the moon's disk )akti-s The moon is so personified as twenty-eight Nity1 )akti Candrak1nti Moonlight Candrakha98a Cakra-s Group containing Vi0uddhi and !jn1 Cakra and Rudragranthi Candra, Sattva, The presiding deity is Candra the Gu9a is Sattva the corresponding cosmic planes are Satyaloka. Taparloka and Satyaloka Candrama98ala Moon's halo, a representation of )r2 Cakra Candra N182 A synonym for I81 N182 42
  • 44. C Candra0ekhara Lit. 'the one who has the moon as diadem' A name of )iva Caturtha Pr191y1ma Lit. 'the fourth Pr191y1ma' Catu=p27ha Lit. 'the four P27ha-s' P27ha-s K1mar3pa, P3r9agiri iri, The four P27ha are K1mar3pa P3r9agiri J1landhara and U882y1na. Cakra, Cakra, vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Sarv1nandamaya Cakra Siddhap27ha Cau0atti Yogin2 Yogin2-s The sixty-four Yogin2 Cela Disciple Cetana Lit. 'the one that illuminates' Consciousness vide also Caitanya Ch1ndogya Upani=ad Vidy1-s One of the most important Upani=ad from where many Veda Vidy1 are extracted Ch1ya )iva) Shade, shadow; reflection; protection; giving protection (as a name of )iva Ch1ya Puru=a The consciousness beyond Buddhi Ch1y1 Up1san1 Tr17aka technique when the practitioner does the gazing on own shadow (from sun or moon) Cidagni vide Cidvahni Cidagniku98a The altar of the fire of consciousness It is from where Dev2 was born in Her physical form. Cid1k10a Lit. 'space of knowledge' Mind space as space of consciousness; the cosmic universal mind The dark colour space visualized in front of the closed eyes in which is experienced the visual aspect of mental energy is the Cid1k10a experience. Only when Ku98alin2 reaches Sahasr1ra Cid1k10a. Cakra there is the full experience of Cid1k10a Dh1ra91 Cid1k10a Dh1ra91 43
  • 45. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The practice of meditation on Cid1k10a Cidr3pa The pure consciousness as pure thought; consciousness with form vide Cit Cidvahni (also Cidagni Cidagni) H4d) H4d The celestial fire, the fire of consciousness corresponding to the heart (H4d in the human body S3tra )akti S3tra says: "Consciousness is fire because by its nature it consumes the universe". vide also N1ciket1gni Vidy1 Cikits1 Science of medicine as kind of )1stra Cinnamast1 The fifth of the ten Mah1vidy1-s Mah1vidy1 It represents the end of ordinary existence, the essential step before the emergence of a new consciousness. Cint1ma9i Lit. 'thought gem' The gem which grants all wishes The shinning "precious stone" is the pure mind covered by the veils of desire (that is to be removed by various practices). It is well described in Brahm198a Pur19a and Rudra Y1mala. Cit Lit. 'to be conscious of, know, perceive' The pure consciousness; the universal consciousness freed from any conditioning vide also Sa%vit Citr1 Lit. 'bright; excellent' One of the Nity1 )akti-s )akti Citragupta Lit. 'the hidden auditor' The one recording every action Various interpretations are given who is the one doing that. It can be regarded as the collector of Cid1k10a. information found in the Cid1k10a Citra N182 A channel of energy within the Su=umn1 N182 Citri92 vide Padmin2 Citsvar3pa The formless pure consciousness Citta 44
  • 46. C (from the root Cit i.e. to be aware) Lit. 'reflecting, thinking; aimed at' The conscious, subconscious and unconscious layers of mind and their functions reflecting the Cit Brahmak1ra, The two active states of Citta are Vi=ayak1ra and Brahmak1ra its supporting organ is the Manas. J6eya, Manas From the point of view of J61t1 J61na J6eya Citta is the one who knows. As levels of Citta-s access to different planes there are three kinds of Citta namely Citta (as an individual natural expression), Cid1k10a (as cosmic mind) and Nirmana Citta (as divine or causal mind). vide also !k10a, Pari91ma !k10a Cittabh3mi State of mental plane as kind of consciousness Cittabh3mi-s Bh1=ya) K=ipta, M38ha, Vik=ipta There are five Cittabh3mi (according to Vy1sa Bh1=ya namely K=ipta M38ha Vik=iptata, Niruddha. Ek1gra and Niruddha Cittakar=i92 The attractive power of Citta vide Sarv10aparipuraka Cakra Citta Pras1dana In Yoga the attitude towards obtaining purification of the mind Pras1dana-s Maitr2, Karu91, Upek=a. There are four Citta Pras1dana viz. Maitr2 Karu91 Mudit1 and Upek=a Cittasa%vit Cittasa%vit Citta) The experience of merging of Cit with its reflection (i.e. Citta acquired by practicing Sa%yama on An1hata Cakra Citta0uddhi Purification of the mind )uddhi, vide also )uddhi Citta Citta Vik=ep1 Antar1ya The mental obstructive destruction in Yoga known also as Antar1ya (impediment) There are nine Citta Vik=ep1-s namely Vy1dhi, Sty1na, Sa%0aya, Pram1da, !lasya, Avirati, Vik=ep1 Vy1dhi Sty1na Sa%0aya Pram1da !lasya Avirati Bhr1ntidar0ana, S3tra-s Bhr1ntidar0ana Alabdhabh3mikatva and Anavasthitatva as described in Yoga S3tra (I.30). Vik=epasahabh3, vide also Vik=epasahabh3 Vik=epa Cittav4tti Citta Activity in Citta as a cognitive experience, a superimposition on the true nature of the human being Puru=a) Puru=a (Puru=a Cittav4tti-s Pram1na, Viparyaya, Vikalpa, There are five Cittav4tti according to Pata6jali namely Pram1na Viparyaya Vikalpa Nidr1 and Sm4ti, all as conscious experiences in Citta. For the condition of state of Yoga it is necessary Sm4ti Citta Vair1gya. to restrict the activities in the mind by Abhy1sa and Vair1gya Cittav4ttinirodha Cittav4tti-s Pata6jali's S3tra-s. Cessation of Cittav4tti as Pata6jali definition of Yoga in Yoga S3tra C381ma9i Dev2's Crest jewel as Dev2 gem 45
  • 47. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality D D1haka The J17har1gni (digestive fire) of burning (heating) vide also Sarvaj61namay2 Dahar1k10a Lit. 'small space' Cakra-s The space of the lower three Cakra in the human body Dahar1k10a Dh1ra91 Cakra-s M3l1dh1ra, Ma9ipura ra) The practice of meditation on the lower Cakra (i.e. M3l1dh1ra Svadhi=7h1na and Ma9ipura Dahara Vidy1 The knowledge of the small Vidy1, Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 which could be known by meditation into the heart H4daya) (H4daya as the open door for the inner !k10a leading to the full knowledge of !k10a H4daya vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Daiv2sampat Daiv2sampat Divine quality In the Bhagavad G2t1 are mentioned twenty-six divine qualities namely Abhaya Abhaya, Sattvasa%0uddhi, J61nayogavyavasthiti D1na, Dana, Yaj6a, Sv1dhy1ya, Tapas, !rjava, Sattvasa%0uddhi J61nayogavyavasthiti, D1na Dana Yaj6a Sv1dhy1ya Tapas !rjava Ahi%s1, Satya, Akrodha, Ty1ga, )1nti, Apai0una, Day1, Aloluptva, M1rdava, Hr2, Ac1pala, Ahi%s1 Satya Akrodha Ty1ga )1nti Apai0una Day1 Aloluptva M1rdava Hr2 Ac1pala Tejas, K=am1, Dh4ti, )auca, N1tim1nit1. Tejas K=am1 Dh4ti )auca Adroha and N1tim1nit1 Daiv2 V1k It is how was called the Sanskrit language during the Vedic period *1kin2 The )akti residing in M3l1dh1ra Cakra Dak=a Lit. 'able, intelligent; strong' Praj1pati-s Dev2's One of the Praj1pati known also as Pracet1s considered to be Dev2 father; one of the twelve !ditya-s !ditya Dak=i9a Right side; having somebody to the right side as a mark of honour (as opposed to V1ma i.e. to the Agni) left); one of the sacrificial fires (vide Agni Guru. Dak=i9a is also a donation, fee or gift to a priest or Guru Dak=i9a Agni One of the three sacrificial fires, the southern fire of the altar of sacrifice In the human body it is located in the heart area, esoterically is the level of consciousness of Cakra. An1hata Cakra 46
  • 48. D Agni vide also Agni Dak=i91c1ra The right-hand division of Tantra also known as Dak=ina M1rga Dak=i9a M1rga Lit. 'path of the right' vide Dak=i91c1ra Dak=i91m3rti The Guru of Gods Dak=i91varta A shell whose convolutions are oriented towards the right Dak=i91yana Sun's progress south of the equator (from 21 June to 21 Dec) expressing the southwards way to Yama's Yama quarter; the dark path R1tri, For the departed soul it offers the experience of Dh3mra and R1tri i.e. the consciousness will return to the material plane in a new body. vide also Uttar1yana D1mara Kind of spiritual writing work promulgated by )iva Damaru A hand drum traditionally the instrument of subduing of Lord )iva (vide) Dana Daiv2sampat-s Control of senses as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat D1na Daiv2sampat-s Alms giving as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Da98a Stick Da98a Dhauti Dhauti-s Cleaning by a stick as one of the H4d Dhauti in order to cure the heart diseases Danta Dhauti Dhauti-s Cleaning the teeth area as one of the four Dhauti M3la Dhauti, There are four yogic techniques under Danta Dhauti namely Danta M3la Dhauti Jihv1 )odhana, Dhauti. )odhana Kar9a Dhauti and Kap1larandhra Dhauti Danta M3la Dhauti Dhauti-s Washing of the teeth as one of the Danta Dhauti Darbha Dried Ku0a used in religious ceremonies Dar0ana 47
  • 49. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'vision, view; understanding; doctrine' The cognitive principle; system of philosophy; meeting with a spiritual purpose; sight of a Deva or Guru. Guru vide also +a8 Dar0ana Da0a Mah1vidy1 The ten great sciences as deities vide Mah1vidy1 Da0av1yu The ten vital airs vide V1yu Dasn1mi Lit. 'ten names' )a^kara) N1ga-s The ten orders of mendicants (founded by )a^kara protected by the N1ga (naked ascetics) D1sya (also known as Kai%karya Kai%karya) A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of slavish devotion to the Lord, also Rasa-s one of the Rasa R1ma's The ideal service was done by Lak=ma9a to R1ma as R1ma servant. Daurmanasya The mental activity of being depressed As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3-s it is connected to the Manomaya Ko0a. Vik=epasahabh3 Ko0a Day1 Daiv2sampat-s Compassion as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Deha Karma-s) Karma Body as vehicle and media of actions (Karma De0a Space; region; centre of concentration synonym to !dh1ra Padma Deva (from the root Div i.e. to cast, throw, therefore expressing the action as manifestation of gods) A god, deity; spirit; spiritual being Deva-s Deva are manifestations and functions of Cit (Universal Consciousness) at various levels and as Cit. such they are creations of )akti as the kinetic aspect of Cit Their range of actions extend from the Brahman. Deva-s world of Manu=ya to Sagu9a Brahman The fundamental concept about Deva is that they Manu=ya) Manu=ya manifest both externally and internally to the human being (Manu=ya and as such become accessible through cognition and experience. vide also )iva )akti Deva Bh1=1 vide Sa%sk4ta Devadar0ana The seeing of Gods 48
  • 50. D Devadatta Lit. 'the God-given' The V1yu producing the function of yawning Cakra, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarv1^gasundar2 Deva Deha Divine body Devaloka Heaven, the world of Gods Devamaithuna The cohabitation of the Gods as expression of )iva )akti form of union Devan1gari Lit. 'divine writing' The Sanskrit alphabet vide also M1t4k1 Devas3 Ga9a Devat1-s) The procreating Gods as one class of deities (Ga9a Devat1 Devas3-s, each having specific functions, namely Agni G4hapati Soma There are eight Devas3 G4hapati, Vanaspati, Satyaprasava, Pa0upati, V1caspati, Jye=7ha 7ha, Vanaspati Savit4 Satyaprasava Rudra Pa0upati B4haspati V1caspati Indra Jye=7ha Mitra Satya and Varuna Dharmapati. They all manifest within the human body. Devasu=i Lit. 'divine tube' V1yu-s The gates of the five major V1yu located in the centre of the lotus of the heart The gates have to be seen as the openings in the K1ra9a )ar2ra through which the five major V1yu-s V1yu are born within the Suk=ma )ar2ra. The gates are located as four towards the four quarters (Sam1na to the north, Vy1na to the south, Ap1na to the west, Pr19a to the east) and one upwords Sam1na Siddhi-s, namely Ud1na. Each gate possesses specific Siddhi which have to be overcome. Beyond the Para%jyoti=, five gates it is Para%jyoti= the J2v1tm1 Itself. vide also G1yatr2 Vidy1 Devat1 God or Goddess; Deity vide Deva Devay1na The path of Gods Brahman. A spiritual path using Gods as vehicles to attain the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman Devayoni Spirit, demigod Meru. Spirits said to people Mount Kail1sa and Mount Meru )r2 Gane=a after receiving the teaching of Tantra-s )iva, Kail1sa. the Tantra from his father Lord )iva preached them first to Devayoni on Mount Kail1sa Dev2 49
  • 51. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The Great Goddess Sat2, Um1, )iva. Dev2 as Sat2 Um1 P1rvat2 and Gaur2 is the spouse of )iva She is the ruler of all the Universes Brahm198a-s) Brahm198a (Brahm198a having countless names according to Her different qualities and actions. Ka71k=a, Devat1, vide also K4p1 Ka71k=a !yudha Devat1 Lalit1 Dev2 Ku98alin2 )akti as Ku98alin2 Dev2p27ha Dev2's A symbol of creation as attribute of a part of Dev2 body as Sat2 vide also P27ha Dev2 Up1sana Dev2 worship Dhairya Fortitude Dhairy1kar=i92 The attractive power of Dhairya vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Dhairyat1 Calmness as a result of practicing Praty1h1ra Dhana6jay1 The V1yu producing the function of distension Cakra, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvasaubh1gyad1yi92 Dhanur1sana The bow !sana Dhanu= Bow Ik=ukoda98a, vide also Ik=ukoda98a Indradhanu= Dh1ra91 (from the root Dh4 i.e. to hold, preserve, support) (also Dh1ra91 Dh1ra91) Lit. 'the act of holding or maintaining' Concentration A^ga-s In Yoga one of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali Dh1ra9a Yantra A kind of Yantra to be worn by the devotee as an amulet used for protection of all kinds or acquisition of material gains or personal qualities Dharma (from the root Dh4 i.e. to hold, preserve, support) Lit. 'right conduct' Pu9ya) Bh1va-s; Puru=1rtha-s; Higher duty, virtue (or Pu9ya one of the eight Bh1va one of the Puru=1rtha inherent property of time 50
  • 52. D Dharma-s At2ta, As inherent properties of time Dharma are of three kinds viz. At2ta Vartam1na and An1gata An1gata, Adhvabheda. the process of time difference is called Adhvabheda They affect each other all the time as the potential future time becomes present then past, and the past can influence the present and therefore Karma, generates a potential state. Dharma is a play of Karma in which both cause and effect are being $ta) Karma). present in every action, but Dharma emphasizes the order ($ta in action (Karma $ta Karma vide also Adharma Dharm1dharma Merit and demerit Dharmam1rga Dharmam1rga The path of virtue Dharmamegha Sam1dhi The highest point of Sam1dhi in which the Yog2 gives up even the idea of reaching Kaivalya V1san1-s Karma-s At this point all V1san1 are buried and the Yog2 has access to a different reality. The Karma Kle0a-s (actions) and Kle0a (afflictions) do not create any effect i.e. the Yog2 is free from the manifestations of Prak4ti and the products of the three Gu9a-s, the state of J2vanmukti is reached, Gu9a Siddha. the Yog2 becomes a Siddha !nanda, vide also Sat Cit !nanda Mah1v1kya Dharma Pari91ma Citta) Pari91ma-s Transformation of the nature of mind (as Citta accompanying the Pari91ma as a result of Sa%yama Dharma01l1 A resting place for pilgrims Dh1tr2 (from the root Dh4 i.e. to hold, preserve, support) Earth Dh1tu Lit. 'ingredient; element; primitive matter' An essential element of the body Dh1tu-s Sapta Dh1tu-s) There are seven Dh1tu (Sapta Dh1tu viz. Asthi (bone), Meda (fat), M1%sa (flesh), Rakta )akti-s (blood), Tvak (skin), Majj1 (marrow) and )ukra (semen). They are the abodes of the seven )akti Cakra-s presiding over the seven Cakra and represented by the seven trunks of the elephant in M3l1dh1ra Cakra as symbol of creativity. Dhauti +atkarma-s Dhauti-s Dhauti, Dhauti, One of the +atkarma the Dhauti are of four kinds namely Antar Dhauti Danta Dhauti H4d Dhauti and M3la )odhana Dhenu Veda-s In the Veda the milch cow representing the power of creation complementing V4=abha (the bull) V1k. In the Vedic tradition Dhenu is the representation of V1k It has four udders representing the Mantra-s Sv1h1, Va=a7, Svadh1. Mantra Sv1h1 Va=a7 Hanta and Svadh1 Sv1h1 and Va=a7 feed the Deva Hanta feedsDeva-s, Svadh1 Pit4-s. the men and Svadh1 the Pit4 Dhenu has to be seen as symbol of female principle in the VedaVeda-s, Yoga. a parallel concept to Prak4ti in Yoga It is also relevant to know that the "moo" sound of a cow is O%, the opposite of Mantra O% i.e. the "moo" sound is the sound of the creation, the O% sound of the absorption. 51
  • 53. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Dh4ti Daiv2sampat-s Fortitude as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Dh3m1v1t2 Mah1vidy1-s The seventh of the ten Mah1vidy1 Called also "the smoky one" she represents the ultimate destruction, a kind of existence when everything in the universe is in a state of darkness and inertia. Dh3mra Lit. 'smoke-coloured, smoky' A certain experience leading to the path of Dak=i91yana vide also Dh3mrali^ga Dh3mrali^ga The experience of Dh3mra in the M3l1dh1ra Cakra as form taken by )iva Li^ga. It is also known as Svayamb3 Li^ga vide also )ivali^ga Dhvani The audible sound Dhy1na (from the root Dhyai i.e. to contemplate, imagine) Awareness as unbroken state of thoughts flow )iva) This is a process of expansion of consciousness in which time (representing )iva and space )akti) A^ga-s (representing )akti are brought together. In Yoga it is one of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali and an essential path to further human evolution. Through Dhy1na Dhy1na, Agni), Pratyak=atva is obtained. Consciousness is also compared with the fire (Agni which by its nature Agni Dhy1na, consumes the material universe. Dhy1na as degree of finesse, is of three kinds, namely Sth3ladhy1na, Jyotirdhy1na. Sth3ladhy1na S3k=madhy1na and Jyotirdhy1na vide also Cidvahni Dhy1na Mudr1 A kind of Mudr1 used for meditation Dhy1nasth1na Dhy1na Point of Dhy1na practice inside the human body Dhy1na Yoga Kind of Yoga by practicing various kinds of meditation Dhy1na Yoga Sam1dhi The Sam1dhi as a result of Dhy1na Yoga practice Digambara Lit. 'sky-clothed' A naked mendicant, a N1ga vide also Rakt1mbara D2k=1 52
  • 54. D Initiation of a spiritual tradition Tantra-s In the Tantra there are thirty-eight kinds of initiations, traditionally. D2rgha Long Divya Lit. 'divine' Tantra-s Divine quality; a kind of S1dhaka in the Tantra In the Divya kind of S1dhaka the Sattva Gu9a is predominant. Divyabh1va Divyabh1va Bh1va-s One of the Bh1va as a state of human personality based on equilibrium and rhythm, therefore of Sattva nature Divya Cak=u The divine eye i.e. !jn1 Cakra Divya )rotra Divine ear or hearing as a quality acquired after practicing N1da Dh1ra9a Divyaugha Lit. 'divine teacher' Navan1tha-s Three aspects of )iva as part of Navan1tha represented in the human body by the two ears )rotra) )rotra V1k) V1k ()rotra and the mouth (V1k Do=a Deficiency; fault; detrimental effect; disease; humour of the body; defect Do=a-s V1yu, As deficiencies of the body causes diseases there are three Do=a namely V1yu Pitta and Kapha Do=a-s as humours of the body. In the !yurveda system of Indian medicine the knowledge of Do=a is essential for balancing the body system. The term Do=a can be used to define any defect and has an extended use. Dra=7a Lit. 'seer, observer' D40ya) A person capable of witnessing own actions and all life experiences (as D40ya !tman. The real Dra=7a is !tman A Dra=7a lives fully, surrenders and moves with the flow of life. vide also !tmadra=7a, Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi, S1k=ibh1va !tmadra=7a Sam1dhi S1k=ibh1va Dra=7a D40ya D4=7i) D4=7i The subject and object of seeing (D4=7i D48hat1 !sana-s Strength as a result of practicing !sana D4=7i Lit. 'seeing' The action of seeing; the space between the eyebrows The word is also taken as sense experience or beyond the sense experience and is associated with !jn1 Cakra. 53
  • 55. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality D40ya Lit. 'seen' Indriya-s) A%0a-s Pi98198a; All the objects known through senses (Indriya and all A%0a of !k10a in the Pi98198a Indriya anything subject to cognition Du5kha Lit. 'unpleasant, pain, sorrow' The mental activity of being sad, distressed; suffering; grief Dvaita). The root of Du5kha is considered to be the duality (Dvaita Philosophically Du5kha as suffering Dvaita Mok=a), Mok=a is a necessity, a conditio sine qua non of liberation (Mok=a a condition the human being has to Vik=epasahabh3-s rise above and put an end to suffering. As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3 Du5kha is connected Ko0a. to the Vij61namaya Ko0a Cakra, Vimal1, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Vimal1 Kle0a Durg1 Lit. 'fortress' A form of )akti as culmination of all positive attributes Cakra K1l2) The ascent of Ku98alin2 )akti from M3l1dh1ra Cakra (where it takes the form of K1l2 Durg1. culminates in Sahasr1ra Cakra when takes the form of Durg1 Durg1 B2ja vide Hr2% Tantra) Du% is also Durg1 B2ja (as per Varad1 Tantra D3rv1 Kind of grass scientifically known as Panicum Dactylon or Agrostis Linearis Meditation on D3rv1 grass gives specific benefits. D3t2 Lit. 'female messenger' )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti known also as )ivad3t2 Dvaita Duality vide also Advaita Dvandva A pair of opposites (e.g. cold and heat or happiness and sorrow); couple; face to face Dvandva-s !sana. Dvandva as pair of opposites could be overcome by steadiness in !sana Dv1para Yuga An age of the world consisting of 864,000 years vide Yuga Dv1ra Gate, passage; aperture of the human body Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 54
  • 56. D Vidy1-s The thirty-two Vidy1 Vidy1 Traditionally the thirty-two Vidy1y1-s are the followings: !k10a Ak=ar1k=ara Ak=i !k10a, Ak=ar1k=ara, Ak=i, !nandamaya, A^gu=7ham1tra Antar1ditya, B1l1ki, !nandamaya A^gu=7ham1tra, Antar1ditya B1l1ki Bh4gu V1ru9i Bh3ma Dahara G1rgi V1ru9i, Bh3ma, Dahara, Ak=ara, G1yatr2, @0a, Jyoti=1%jyotir, Madhu, Maitrey2, N1ciket1gni, Pa6c1gni, Ak=ara G1yatr2 @0a Jyoti=1%jyotir Madhu Maitrey2 N1ciket1gni Pa6c1gni Paramapuru=a, Parya^ka, Pr191gnihotra, Puru=a, Sad, Sa%varga, )19dilya, Satyak1ma, Paramapuru=a Parya^ka Pr191gnihotra Puru=a Sad Sa%varga )19dilya Satyak1ma Ny1sa, !ru9i, Udg2tha, Upakosala, Vai0v1nara. )r2man Ny1sa Udd1laka !ru9i Udg2tha Upakosala U=asta Kahola and Vai0v1nara vide also Veda Vidy1 Dve=a (known also as Krodha Krodha) Lit. 'hatred" Kle0a-s Repulsion; hate; anger, aversion; one of the five Kle0a A^ku0a P101^ku0a, vide also A^ku0a, P101^ku0a Vair1gya 55
  • 57. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality E Ek1gra Cittabh3mi-s One-pointed state as one of the five Cittabh3mi Ek1grat1 Concentration on a single point (one-pointed), a state of doing only one action at a time Ek1grat1 Pari91ma Pari91ma-s Transformation of concentration as one of the three Pari91ma vide also Lak=ana Pari91ma Ekatattv1bhy1sa The practice of one principle only Eloke02 The hair of goddess K1l2 as symbol of mysteries of life 56
  • 58. G G Gaja Kara9i N182-s A yogic technique of vomiting in order to purify the N182 Gamana The act of going or attaining vide also Ana^gamadan1tur1 Ga9a Devat1 Class of deities Devat1-s There is a wide range of Ga9a Devat1 depending on the historical periods of India and kind of literature. vide also Devas3 Ga9apati A name of Ga9e=a Gandha Smell vide also Tanm1tra Gandh1kar=i92 The attractive power of Gandha vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra G1ndh1r2 N182 The N182 connected to the left ankle Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvava0a^kar2 Gandharva Being in the heavenly world expert in music vide also Kail1sa Gandhatattva The Tattva of Gandha Ga9e=a )iva, The elephant-headed god, a son of )iva a symbol of the primordial power, the starting point for the human access to the divine by overcoming all obstacles His vehicle is the mouse also a symbol of enduring and overcoming obstacles. Ga^g1, vide also Ga^g1 Devayoni Ga^g1 Lit. 'that which goes with Ga% 57
  • 59. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The river Ganges From its literal meaning Ga^g1 is the remover of obstacles as Ga% is the B2ja Mantra for Ga9e=a vide also Pray1ga, Trive92 G16j1 Indian hemp Vidy1 G1rgi Ak=ara Vidy1 G1rgi's The G1rgi knowledge about the Imperishable Vidy1-s) V1caknav2. A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 named after G1rgi V1caknav2 This Vidy1 refers to !k10a pervading all in the past, present and future beyond which is the imperishable Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 G1rhapatya Agni One of the three sacrificial fires, the one kept as perpetual fire by a householder Traditionally a man received it from his father and has to be transmitted to his sons. In the human body it is located in the navel area. Esoterically this fire is the level of consciousness attained in the Cakra. Ma9ip3ra Cakra vide also Agni Garim1 Lit. 'heaviness' One of the eight yogic powers of becoming very heavy Siddhi, vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi Garu81sana The eagle !sana Gaur2 A spouse of )iva (Rudra Rudra) Rudra )akti. A form of )akti Her colour is white vide also Dev2 Gauripa77a A Yoni shaped pedestal upon which the )ivali^ga is placed as representing )akti as holder. G1yatr2 Lit. 'way of going; song, hymn' The most sacred Vedic Mantra of twenty-four syllables arranged as a triplet of eight syllables each S1vitr2, It is also called S1vitr2 being addressed to S1vit4 (the Sun), so G1yatr2 Mantra is also S1vitr2 Mantra. G1yatr2) Mantra. Mantra G1yatr2 Dev2 (the goddess G1yatr2 is the presiding deity of this Mantra G1yatr2 Vidy1 The knowledge of G1yatr2 Vidy1-s) A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 that is considered to be the most important because Mantra. it brings the knowledge of all the others by singing or uttering the G1yatr2 Mantra The knowledge Upani=ad-s of this Vidy1 comes from Ch1ndogya and B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad and other Vedic 58
  • 60. G Devasu=i-s, An1hata )abda V1k literature. This Vidy1 deals also with the concepts of Devasu=i )abda, V1k, Para%jyoti= and many others. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Gha7a Avasth1 A Yoga Avasth1 of a Yog2 after overcoming the Vi=9ugranthi Ghatika Unit of time of twenty-four minutes Ghatika-s. One day consists of sixty Ghatika Ghr19a Organ of smell, the nose vide also J61nendriya Ghr19atattva The Tattva of Ghr19a G2ta Sacred song G61na vide J61na Gomukh1sana The cow-mouth !sana Gop1la Lit. 'cowherd' A name of K4=9a vide also Govinda Gop2 Woman cowherd as companion of K4=9a in V4nd1vana $=i-s. From mythological point of view they are female incarnations of $=i Gorak=1sana The Gorak=a !sana Govinda Lit. 'chief herdsman' A name of K4=9a derived from the word Go meaning cow Graha Graha Lit. 'holding, seizing, acquiring' A planet having a magic influence over the destinies of people A Graha can also be called an evil spirit influencing the body and mind of somebody. As planets they have a strong influence on the Cakra Cakra-s. Traditionally there are nine planets (vide Navagraha). Navagraha 59
  • 61. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Graha9a The knowledge acquired through senses vide also Sam1patti Grah2t4 The knower vide also Sam1patti Grah2t4 Graha9a Gr1hya S3tra-s In Yoga S3tra the triple merge of the one who knows, the knowledge, and the object of knowledge Yantra. This is a parallel concepts to J61ta J61na J6eya of the )r2 Yantra Such a merge is possible only when A6janat1 quality is acquired. Gr1hya The object of knowledge vide also Sam1patti Gr1ma Devat1 Village deity Granthi Psychic knot as stage of manifested consciousness Brahmagranthi, Along Su=umn1 N182 there are three knots viz. Brahmagranthi Vi=9ugranthi and Rudragranthi. Rudragranthi Each one is a door to a different level of consciousness. Each Granthi belongs to a Agnikha98a, S3ryakha98a, Candrakha98a a98a), specific Kha98a (vide Agnikha98a S3ryakha98a Candrakha98a each Kha98a corresponds Mantra. to a K37a of Pa6cada01k=ar2 Mantra The force of M1y1 is very powerful in the knots. Pains and Granthi-s’ various physical disorders often accompany Granthi piercing. Gr1vastut Lit. 'the one praising the Soma stones' Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Hot4 priest named after the hymn to the Soma stones G4hastha Householder vide also !0rama Gu9a Quality, attribute, characteristic; a property of Prak4ti Gu9a-s Trigu9a Trigu9a) Sattva, The three Gu9a (Trigu9a are Sattva R1jas and Tamas vide also Ali^ga Gu9aparva Ali^ga, Gu9aparva Gu9aparva State of the Gu9a-s as stages of their manifestations Gu9a Gu9aparva-s Vi0e0a, Avi0e0a, Ali^ga. There are four Gu9aparva namely Vi0e0a Avi0e0a Li^gam1tra and Ali^ga Gu9a Rahita !k10a Pa6caka-s The first of the Vyoma Pa6caka described as the space without attributes 60
  • 62. G Gupta Lit. 'the hidden one' A name of K4=9a Gupt1sana The hidden !sana Guru Lit. 'remover of darkness' Navagraha-s Spiritual teacher, preceptor; the planet Jupiter one of the Navagraha As spiritual teacher, Guru helps the )i=ya (disciple) to contact and awaken the inner Guru (i.e. the Guru-)i=ya Self). As far as the Guru )i=ya relationship is concerned, Guru is basically the individual projection of every )i=ya. )i=ya Guru Tattva Essence of the concept of role of a Guru Gy1na vide J61na 61
  • 63. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality H H1kin2 The )akti residing in the !jn1 Cakra Ha%sa Lit. 'accord; harmony; swan' The symbol for the Supreme Reality; one of the stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle Ha%sa5 The Ajap1 Japa Mantra )iva) It has two parts. The Ha% (representing )iva is produced during inhalation and Sa5 (representing )akti) )akti is produced during the exhalation of the air. H1na The act of rejecting or abandoning Yoga, Prak4ti. In Yoga H1na is the liberation of Puru=a from Prak4ti vide also Ana^garekh1 Hanta vide Dhenu Hanum1n The monkey devotee of R1ma renowned for his deep devotion, courage and strength Hara A name of )iva Harac381ma9i )iva's )iva crest-gem, i.e. the moon vide also Candra0ekhara Hari A name of Vi=9u or K4=9a Hastijihv1 N182 The N182 connected to the right side of the body Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvasa%mohi92 Hastin2 vide Padmin2 H1sya Rasa-s Humour as one of the Rasa Ha7ha Yoga Mantra) The physical Yoga having the goal to balance the solar influence (represented by Ha Mantra and 62
  • 64. H Mantra) the lunar influence (represented by &ha Mantra in the human body Havana The offering to the Vedic sacrificial fire, known also as H1van Havi The object of oblation vide also Hotr1 Arghya Havi Hetu Phala) Phala Cause of an experience as source of an effect (Phala vide also V1san1 Him1laya Lit. 'abode of snow' Range of mountains bounding India on the north, home of many places of pilgrimage and spiritual retreats Himavat Lit. 'snowy' The Him1laya mountains; the king of Kail1sa Hira9yagarbha The golden womb The womb from where the manifestation takes place is in the subtle body, but its seed is in the causal body. The texts from Ved1nta describe Hira9yagarbha as being in the region of An1hata Cakra Hl1din2 )akti The )akti of rejoice, exhilaration, joy and bliss L2l1) It is a name of R1dh1 dancing (as form of L2l1 to experience ecstasy. Homa The act of oblation or sacrifice vide also !tm1rpa9a Agnihoma !tm1rpa9a, Agnihoma Homaku98a (also known as Agniku98a) Agniku98a A hole in the ground where sacrificial fire is burnt for oblations vide also Ku98a Hotra The act of oblation with fire vide also Agnihotra Hotr1 The sacrificer (performer of an oblation) vide also Hotr1 Arghya Havi Same as Hotra 63
  • 65. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Hotr1 Arghya Havi The One who offers, the Offering, the Object of Offering Agnihotra) Veda-s, Referring to the act of oblation (Agnihotra in Veda it has a parallel significance to J61ta Agnihotra Tantra-s. Agnihotra) J61na J6eya in Tantra The object of Hotra (Agnihotra is to realize the unity of Hotr1 Agnihotra Hotr1, Arghya and Havi, thus acquiring knowledge of high degree, Hot4 $tvija-s) the one who chants the hymns of $g Veda while $tvija One of the four Vedic priests ($tvija performing oblation with fire Maitr1varu9a, A Hot4 is assisted by three other helper priests, viz. Maitr1varu9a Acch1v1ka and Gr1vastut. Hotrin vide Agnihotrin H4d Heart H4daya Heart; the heart as the seat of feelings H4day1k10a The space of the heart H4day1k10a Dh1ra91 The Vedic practice of meditation on the space of the heart For other Vedic practices vide Veda Vidy1. H4d Dhauti Dhauti-s Cleaning the heart-throat area as one of the four Dhauti Dhauti, There are three yogic techniques for cleaning the heart-throat area namely Da98a Dhauti Vamana Dhauti and V1sodhauti. Hr2 Daiv2sampat-s Modesty as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Hr2% The Tantric Mantra called H4llekh1 B2ja, B2ja, B2ja, B2ja, It is also known as )akti B2ja Durg1 B2ja Bhuvave0var2 B2ja M1y1 B2ja M3la B2ja. H4llekh1 vide H42% H3ti (from the root Hve i.e. to invoke) A sacred rite of invocation and offering to the Divine within the human body 64
  • 66. I I Icch1 Lit. 'desire, will' The mental activity of wishing Cakra, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Aru91 Icch1 )akti The energy of will Id1 N182 N182-s Known also as Candra N182 it is one of the major N182 (in the human subtle body) running up Su=umn1, the left side of Su=umn1 the central channel Cakra, A0vini, Sarvasampattip3ra92, Candra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra A0vini Sarvasampattip3ra92 Candra Candra N182 Ik=ukoda98a The sugar-cane bow of K1ma Dhanu=, Known also as Dhanu= it denotes the mind. vide also !yudha Devat1 Il1 Veda-s Manu, In the Veda the Goddess Earth, daughter of Manu a symbol of inspiration and love Ilya The tree in the Brahmaloka that is seen after passing the Viraj1 river and before the S1lajja city The seeing of the tree enables the devotee to have a preliminary Gandha (smell as experience) of the existence of Brahma and to overcome it eventually. vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 Indra Lord of Light representing the archetypal of pure being as object of human knowledge Veda-s In the Veda Indra is called "the thunderbolt" as an expression of strength and vigour. He is the divine warrior breaking all barriers, the transcendental experience of stepping from unconsciousness Yoga. to consciousness. Indra is equated with the concept of Puru=a in Yoga Svarloka, Vidy1, Vidy1, Indra dra, vide also Svarloka Parya^ka Vidy1 !nandamaya Vidy1 Agni S3rya Indra Indra Agni Soma S3rya Indra Agni Soma S3rya Veda-s The four Godhead of the Veda Veda-s The concept of Indra Agni Soma S3rya of the Veda is a parallel idea with that of Sat Cit !nanda. Sat), !nanda Therefore Indra is the fundamental Reality (Sat Agni the Consciousness (Cit and Sat Cit) Cit Soma the state of Ecstasy or Bliss (!nanda S3rya is the door-gate of access through knowledge !nanda). !nanda J61na) Sat, !nanda. (J61na of the unity of Sat Cit and !nanda J61na !tman, vide also !tman Agni S3rya Indra 65
  • 67. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Indradhanu= The rainbow Indra Jye=7ha Indra the leader of the heaven Devas3-s, Indra, Devat1-s. One of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Indra the most important of Devas3 Ga9a Devat1 . Indriya Manas) Manas Sense and action organs and the mind (Manas as source of lower consciousness of objects experience Indriya-s J61nendriya-s, five Karmendriya and Manas In Tantra their Indriya consist of five J61nendriya Karmendriya-s Manas. Cakra-s Praty1h1ra. stimulation brings the stimulation of Cakra as the externalised practice of Praty1h1ra vide also Asmit1, Rudra, Antarindriya Asmit1 Rudra I^gitaj6a The interpretation of the inner intention by external gestures of a person Lak=a9a vide also Lak=a9a Siddhi @0a Vidy1 The knowledge of God A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. It refers to Sagu9a Brahman as a subject of Vidy1 knowledge, but to Nirgu9a Brahman as the subject of Self-realization only (ref. @01v1sya Upani=ad). Upani=ad vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 @01na )iva; An old name of )iva the sun as a form of )iva @0itva Lit. 'superiority' One of the eight yogic powers that of being above others vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi I=7a Devat1 The chosen deity of an aspirant as the expression of the supreme reality to be followed or worshipped in various forms I=7ihan (from I=7i i.e. impulse) Overcoming a specific place and time in the Brahmaloka thus enabling the devotee not to destroy the sacrifice of crossing the lakes !ra and Nya Pa6c1gni-s). Pa6c1gni It helps also to rise above the five internal fires (Pa6c1gni vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 @0vara (from the root @0 i.e. to rule) Lit. 'lord' Yogi-s; The Supreme Puru=a as non-manifested state; a name of )iva as patron of Yogi God in Yoga Bh3ta. @0vara is also the Devat1 of V1yu Bh3ta Parabrahman Asat, Avyakta, Nir1k1ra, man, vide also Parabrahman Asat Avyakta Nir1k1ra Sagu9a Brahman 66
  • 68. I @0varapra9idh1na Niyama-s Devotion to God as one of the five Niyama @0varapra9idh1naprati=7h1 A state in which @0varapra9idh1na is experienced A Yog2 possessing this state will be able to experience the ecstasy accompanying the surrender to the Divine. @0varatattva The Tattva of J61na )akti (the energy of knowledge) vide also @=vara Itarali^ga Lit. 'identification with this and that' The experience of the similar nature of J2v1tman and !tman taken by )iva in !j61 Cakra as advanced form of awareness vide also )ivali^ga 67
  • 69. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality J J1gar2 The name of J2va in the J1grat state Jagat The ever-changing universe as phenomenal world J1grat V4tti) The Avasth1 of waking associated with a specific V4tti (vide J1grat V4tti J2va Sthula )ar2ra) In this state the J2va consciousness is in the gross body (Sthula )ar2ra and the perception is through the senses and mind. J1gratsvapna J1grat) J1grat Svapna) Svapna An intermediate state between waking (J1grat and dreaming (Svapna J1grat V4tti The condition of the waking state associated in the mind with the Alpha brain waves Avasth1, vide also Avasth1 V4tti Jala Water vide also Ap Jala Basti Basti-s The Basti with water as one of the two Basti J1landhara Bandha Lit. 'water pipe lock' Bandha-s The ‘vital centre’ Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha vide also Bandhatraya J1landhara J1landhara P27ha vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra In the S3k=ma )ar2ra it is equated with Vi0uddhi Cakra P27ha, vide also P27ha Catu=p27ha Janarloka Brahm1-s The Loka of rebirth inhabited by Brahm1 son Sanatkum1ra Janma Cakra The wheel of life (from Janma meaning birth) Janmar10i Janmar10i Zodiacal sign Janmasiddha 68
  • 70. J A perfect being by birth Janmayoga Horoscope J1nujugm1sana Lit. 'posture of the joined knees' vide Tantr1sana Japa Repetition of a Mantra vide also !tm1rpa9a Japa Anu=7h1na The Anu=7h1na related to Japa Japam1l1 Mantra-s The rosary used for counting of Mantra Ja71yu The vulture king J17har1gni The digestive fire as form of Agni J17har1gni-s Recaka, Pacaka, )o=aka, D1haka, Pl1vaka, K=1raka, Udg1raka, The ten J17har1gni are: Recaka Pacaka )o=aka D1haka Pl1vaka K=1raka Udg1raka K=obhaka, K=obhaka J4mbhaka and Mohaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Janim1 J1tu Janus Janim1 Veda-s In the Veda birth, being, nature J1tyantara Pari91ma Fundamental transformation of the mind equivalent to rebirth brought by Prak4ty1p3r1t In practical terms it represents the awakening of potentialities of the mind. Jayin2 The fulfilled One V1gdev2-s One of the V1gdev2 corresponding to the mental quality of Sattva (equilibrium). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Jihva Organ of taste, the tongue vide also J61nendriya Jihv1 )odhana Dhauti-s Cleaning the root of the tongue as one of the Danta Dhauti Jihvatattva Tattva The Tattva of Jihva Jij61su 69
  • 71. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'desirous of knowing' A kind of spiritual initiation as Sanny1sa lifestyle in a preliminary stage J2va vide J2v1tman J2vanmukta Mukti) Prak4ti, A person who attained liberation (Mukti and whose consciousness is not touched by Prak4ti but Mukti still acts in the world of Prak4ti A J2vanmukta has a simultaneous perception of Prak4ti and the state of Mukti thus becoming integrated into the pure consciousness. vide also Marut J2vanmukti The state of a J2vanmukta J2v1tm1 vide J2v1tman J2v1tman The individual Soul vide also Param1tman, Advaita Param1tman J2v1tm1, J2va, )1r2ra, Known also as J2v1tm1 J2va the individual Soul becomes )1r2ra Tejasa or Pr1j6a depending Sth3la, K1ra9a. in which kind of )ar2ra (body) dwells, respectively Sth3la S3k=ma or K1ra9a J61na (from the root J61 i.e. to know) Bh1va-s Knowledge, perception as one of the eight Bh1va J61na extends from sense perception to the perception of !tman as full absorption. Synonyms for Vidy1, Praj61. J61na are Vidy1 Praj61 The real J61na is that knowledge, which gives liberation; any other Vij61na. knowledge is called Vij61na Sam1dhi, Aj61na, vide also Savitark1 Sam1dhi Aj61na J61ta J61na J6eya J61na Anu=7h1na J61na-s The Anu=7h1na related to J61na (as spiritual studies) J61na Cak=u The third eye i.e. !j61 Cakra J61na Mudr1 A hand Mudr1 practice in order to acquire knowledge and wisdom Netra J61na Netra The eye of knowledge i.e. !j61 Cakra J61na )akti The energy of wisdom or knowledge J61na Yoga The Yoga of knowledge or wisdom J61nayogavyavasthiti 70
  • 72. J Daiv2sampat-s Steadfastness in knowledge of Yoga as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat J61nendriya Organ of perception in the human body J61nendriya-s There are five J61nendriya namely )rotra (ears), Tvak (skin), Netra or Cak=u (eyes), Jihva (tongue), Ghr19a (nose) produced from the Rajas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the thirty-six Tattva-s. Tattva J61nin One following the J61na path J61t1 J61t1 vide J61ta J61na J6eya J61t1 J61na J6eya The One who knows, the Knowledge, the Object of Knowledge The illusory triad of the Self, which has to merge at the stage when the Self is fully realized. Yantra, vide also )r2 Yantra Sam1patti J6eya J6eya vide J61ta J61na J6eya J4mbhaka The J17har1gni of intake of breath (energy) vide also Sarvarak=1svar3pi92 Jv1l1m1lin2 Lit. 'flame-garlanded' )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti It bestows esoteric knowledge of one's previous births. Jv1l1m1l1 means garland of fire. Jye=7ha The month corresponding to parts of May/ June vide also M1sa Jyoti Lit. 'light' )abda; The inner light as the cause of An1hata )abda any spiritual light experience Jyotirdhy1na The causal form of meditation Jyotirli^ga The form taken by )iva in Sahasr1ra Cakra as experience of Jyoti or the highest form of awareness As an external expression there are twelve enlightened shrines of )iva in India. vide also )ivali^ga Jyoti=1mjyotir Vidy1 71
  • 73. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The knowledge of the light of lights Vidy1, Vidy1-s Y1j6avalkya. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 as related to Janaka by $=i Y1j6avalkya It !tm1, H4daya). describes the light of lights i.e. !tm1 the Soul as seated in the heart (H4daya H4daya vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Jyoti=mat2 Lit. 'shining, luminous' Gu9a) Condition of the mind experiencing Jyoti (associated with Sattva Gu9a through which Vi0ok1 is obtained Dh1ra91, Dh1ra91, Mudr1. Typical methods are practices of H4day1k10a Dh1ra91 N1da Dh1ra91 )1%bhav2 Mudr1 Jyoti=mat2 Prav4tti !loka) !loka The mind faculty that is able to experience the light (!loka Siddhi-s. This faculty enables the acquisition of many Siddhi 72
  • 74. K K Kadamba The tree Nauclea Cadamba whose fragrant blossoms of orange colour are used in worship particularly of Dev2's Dev2 K1di The first of all )r2 Vidy1 Mantra Kail1sa Him1laya-s Mythical mountains in Him1laya Siddha-s Gandharva-s, )iva. Mountains frequented by Siddha and Gandharva the paradise of )iva Here is where P1rvat2, )iva's spouse, the daughter of the Mountain King was born. These mountains are also P1rvat2 )iva K=etra, )iva K=etra where there are the three great shrines of Gangotri (the source of the Ganges), Sad10iva iva) Kedarnath (a Ma7h and temple of Sad10iva and Badrinath (a temple of an incarnation of Lord Vi=9u). $=i-s Muni-s, Vi=9u It is the place of Satsa^ga of Lord )iva for $=i and Muni a place of great beauty, the fabulous residence of Kubera built of Cint1ma9i and surrounded by Kadamba trees. The mystic J2va. mount is to be sought in the Sahasr1ra Cakra in the body of every J2va Kail1sav1sin Lit. 'the one dwelling on the mount Kail1sa' A name of )iva Kai%karya vide D1sya Kaivalya (from the word Kevala vide) Kevala, The state of absolute unity of spirit as a culmination of supreme knowledge and absence of Avidy1 As a process of unfolding the pure consciousness, Kaivalya is defined as the Pratiprasava Gu9a-s (involution) of the three Gu9a when they acquire an undisturbed condition, so being able to fulfil Puru=1rtha-s. the Puru=1rtha Kaivalya Mukti The liberation of absolute unity Kaivalyapr1gbh1ram Lit. 'tendency towards absolute unity' Citta) Citta The process of mind's (Citta attraction towards the unity experienced by a practitioner in the final stages of own S1dhana K1ki Mudr1 Lit. 'gesture of the crow' Bandha-s The crow Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha K1kin2 The )akti residing in An1hata Cakra Kal1 73
  • 75. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality A small part of a whole; an atom, an essential part of matter K1la Lit. 'of a dark colour' Time; death Kal1 Ka6cuka Form of )akti limiting the perception of the real nature of matter as being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti Tattva, vide also Tattva Kal1tattva K1la Ka6cuka Form of )akti limiting the perception of time integrated with space being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti Tattva, vide also Tattva K1latattva Kal1tattva The Tattva of Kal1 Ka6cuka K1latattva The Tattva of K1la Ka6cuka K1l2 (word derived from K1la vide) K1la, Lit. 'the dark one' The divine Mother as the consort of )iva K1l2 as the first Mah1vidy1 is the )akti of K1la and the original creative principle. As a goddess Mah1vidy1-s she transforms herself into the ten Mah1vidy1 as expressions of planes of existence and cycles of life. K1l2 is also the first expression of the awakened Ku98alin2 as destroyer of ignorance. K1lid1da Lit. 'servant of K1l2' )akuntal1, A celebrated poet of ancient India author of )akuntal1 and other works. K1liya The serpent-demon who was defeated by K4=9a as expression of victory over lust Kali Yuga An age of the world consisting of 432,000 years It is held that this Yuga began year 3102 (or 3114) BCE, being the age in which we live in. Kalki Vi=9u, The tenth incarnation of Vi=9u yet to come Kalpa Resolve; a fabulous period of time Kalpataru The wish-fulfilling tree )1rad1 A Kalpataru day is considered to be the first of January every year. As per )1rad1 Tilaka work, Ku98alin2, Kalpataru is the awakened Ku98alin2 the source of all things desired. 74
  • 76. K K1ma Desire, the passion associated with Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra Veda, One of the names of K1madeva as one who generates desire for love. In the $g Veda K1ma is described as the first movement of creation. Puru=1rtha, vide also Puru=1rtha Pa6c1gni K1m1^ga The mango tree Magnifera Indica K1mab19a An arrow of K1madeva K1ma B2ja vide Kl2% K1mabindu Lit. 'wish drop' A drop of melted butter into the sacred fire in order to obtain the fulfilment of a wish K1madeva The God of Love Madan1, Manmatha, K1ma, Smara, M1ra, He can assume any form at will. His other names are Madan1 Manmatha K1ma Smara M1ra Pradyumna, Ana^ga, Kusume=u, Kandarpa, Manobhava, Kamar1ja, Pradyumna Ana^ga Kusume=u Kandarpa Manobhava Kamar1ja etc., all as expressions of love, attachment and desires. His two wives are Rati and Pr2ti as sentiment and joy. His B2ja Brahm1, Mantra is Kl2%. K1madeva is the son of Brahm1 the Creator as K1ma (desire) comes always as part of the creation, but even exists without an object of desire (vide Ana^ga, K1ma). His emblem Ana^ga K1ma Makara, is the Makara hence the name Makaraketana (the one having the Makara for an emblem). K1madhenu The cow of plenty, the mythical cow of Vasi=7ha Tilaka, Ku98alin2. As per )1rad1 Tilaka K1madhenu is the awakened Ku98alin2 K1makal1 K1me0var2, K1ma signifies the union of )iva and )akti as K1me0vara and K1me0var2 Kal1 is their manifestation K1m1kar=i92 The attractive power of K1ma vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra K1m1k=y1 Sati's Temple in K1mar3pa (Assam-India) where Sati Yoni fell to ground It is a Tantric centre of great power. Kamal1 Mah1vidy1-s The tenth of the ten Mah1vidy1 represents the state of reconstituted unity when everything is joy, happiness and good fortune Lak=m2's Kamal1 is also one of Goddess Lak=m2 names. Dev2 is also named Kamal1 as she is in every )akti. 75
  • 77. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality K1mar1ja Lit. 'king of desire' One of the names of K1madeva as king of desires vide also K1ma K1mar1jak37a One group (section) of Pa6cada02 Mantra known also as Madhyak37a It is presided over by S3rya K1mar3pa Lit. 'shape assumed at will; the Yoni' An old region corresponding to the actual east part of Bengal and west part of Assam in India where the famous temple K1m1k=y1 is located K1mar3pa P27ha vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra P27ha, vide also P27ha Catu=p27ha Cakra. In the S3k=ma )ar2ra it is equated with Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra It is also a Yonip27ha. K1ma0ara Lit. 'love's shaft' An arrow of K1madeva K1me02 The passionate One V1gdev2-s U=na. One of the V1gdev2 corresponding to the mental activity of U=na vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra K1me0vara Lit. 'the king of love' A name of )iva without attributes vide also K1makal1 K1me0var2 Lit. 'the queen of love' One of the !vara9a Devat1-s presiding over the principle of existence of Avyakta Devat1 K1makal1, Nity1). K1me0var2 is also a name for the Supreme )akti (vide K1makal1 K1me0var2 Nity1 vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra K1me0var2 Nity1 K1me0var2, The eternal K1me0var2 a name for the Supreme )akti K1min2k16cana Lust and gold as expressions of desire and greed K1myahoma Homa with the purpose of attainment of one's desires 76
  • 78. K Ka6cuka Lit. 'cover, disguise' Limitation Forms of )akti in which the primordial unity is obscured by M1y1 )akti so the inner perfection of Cit !nanda as )iva )akti union is limited. There are five Ka6cuka (part of the thirty-six Ka6cuka-s Tattva-s), viz. Kal1 Vidy1 R1ga K1la and Niyati Tattva Kal1, Vidy1, R1ga, Niyati. Kandarpa Lit. 'inflamer even of a god' K1madeva‘s One of K1madeva names, as the one inflaming love Kap1labh1ti Lit. 'shinning skull' +a7karma-s One of the +a7karma used to destroy the disorders caused by Kapha (phlegm) V1makrama, )2tkrama. It is of three kinds namely V1makrama Vyutkrama and )2tkrama Kap1larandhra Dhauti Dhauti-s Cleaning of the frontal sinuses as one of the Danta Dhauti Kapha One of the three Do=a-s Do=a In the !yurveda system, Kapha is a deficiency of phlegm as a cause to diseases. K1ra9a Cause, origin K1ra9a Bindu The causal source, which proceeds the K1rya Bindu K1ra9a R3pa Causal form vide also R3pa K1ra9a K1ra9a )ar2ra Sa%sk1ra-s) Sa%s1ra) The causal body (composed of Sa%sk1ra as vehicle of transmigration (Sa%s1ra Sa%s1ra Its centre is the heart. This )ar2ra is the cause of all other lower bodies. Karav2ra The plant oleander (Nerium Odorum) or its flower; a species of Soma used in worship K1rik1 A verse of an essential statement usually applied in grammar and philosophy Karma (from the root K4 i.e. to accomplish) Action and its accumulations Karma, The accumulated Karma is of three kinds, viz. )ukla Karma K4=9a Karma and A0ukl1k4=9a Karma-s) Karma producing fruits according to own nature. The actions (Karma are accompanied by Karma Pari91ma, Sa%sk1ra. Pari91ma T1pa and Sa%sk1ra As degree of finesse Karma is of two kinds, i.e. Sth3la and S3k=ma. S3k=ma Karma accumulates only when there is a sense of doing something. From the point of 77
  • 79. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Nirupakrama. view of timely effect, Karma is of two kinds, viz. Sopakrama and Nirupakrama Karm10aya, vide also Karm10aya Sa%sk1ra Karma Deva A god created by own actions as compared to a !j1naya Deva (god by birth) vide also !nandamaya Vidy1 Karma Sanny1sa One of the preliminary stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle when the Sanny1sin although living in the world is committed to spiritual life Karma Sanny1sa is also a kind of initiation of yogic type. vide also Dik=a Karm10aya Karma-s Karma-s Repository of acts as Karma of various natures, the store of the traces of past Karma Sa%sk1ra-s accumulated in the forms of Sa%sk1ra Karma Yoga The Yoga of action vide also Pari0rama Karmendriya Organ of action in the human body Karmendriya-s There are five Karmendriya namely V1k (mouth), Upastha (genitals), P1yu (anus), P192 (hands), P1da (feet) produced from the Rajas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the thirty-six Tattva-s. Tattva vide also Vikara9a Bh1va Kar9a Dhauti Dhauti-s Cleaning of the ear opening as one of the Danta Dhauti Karobari The caretaker of a spiritual institution Kartar2 A two-syllables Mantra K1rtika The month corresponding to parts of Oct./ Nov. vide also M1sa K1rttikeya The god of war, son of )iva and P1rvat2 Karu91 Rasa-s The sentiment of compassion; compassion as one of the Rasa Pras1dana-s Karu91 is also one of the Citta Pras1dana as an attitude towards unhappy people. vide also Maitry1di K1rya 78
  • 80. K Effect; action K1ra9a, vide also K1ra9a Satk1ryav1da K1rya Bindu The effect source, which follows the K1ra9a Bindu Ka=1ya Rasa-s) Rasa Astringent as one of the essential tastes (Rasa Ka7uka Rasa-s) Rasa Pungent as one of the essential tastes (Rasa Kaula The essence common to both )iva and )akti Tantra-s )akti, Kaula Dharma and Kaulika Dharma are synonyms. In the Tantra Kula means )akti Akula Kaula. means )iva and the union between Kula and Akula is called Kaula The path of Su=umn1 is also Kula, Dev2's Kaulin2. named Kula as Dev2 names are Kulayogin2 and Kaulin2 Traditionally there are eight kinds of women attending on Kaula worship. Kaulam1rga The Kaula path Kaulika vide Kaula Kaulin2 The essential (basic) One V1gdev2-s Tamas. One of the V1gdev2 corresponding to the mental quality of Tamas Cakra, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Kaula Kaumud2 Lit. 'moonlight' The day of full-moon in the month of K1rtika when the festival in honour of K1rttikeya is held Candra. Kaumud2 is also personified as goddess, the wife of Candra Kaumud2c1ra The day of full-moon in the month of !0vina Kavitva The literary ability vide also P198itya K1vya Poem; charming K1ya Body K1y1gni The fire of the body as digestive fire 79
  • 81. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality K1yar3pa Form of the body Performing Sa%yama on K1yar3pa and suspending the reception of the light in the eyes will enable the Yog2 to become invisible. K1ya Sampad Bodily perfection R3pa, L1va9ya, In Ha7ha Yoga the marks of bodily perfection are four viz. R3pa L1va9ya Bala and S3tra-s Vajsa%hananatv1ni (vide Yoga S3tra III.46). K1ya Sthairya Steadiness of the body K1yika Kind of worship "by body" of the Dev2 vide also Y1ga Ke0ava Lit. 'having long or handsome hair' A name of K4=9a Ke0ava assumes various forms in different Yuga-s. Yuga Ketu Navagraha-s The descending node in astronomy and astrology, one of the Navagraha Kevala Lit. 'entirely, wholly' The state of highest possible knowledge Kevala Kumbhaka Spontaneous Kumbhaka as a result of full awakening of Ku98alin2 vide also Sahita Kumbhaka Keval2 Lit. 'causing absorption' Pr191y1ma In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma Kha8ga Siddhi The power of breaking through vide also Siddhi Khajuraho Lit. 'agitated chest' The famous Tantric temples Kha98a Lit. 'part, chapter, group, section of a work' Division 80
  • 82. K Khecar2 The flying One Khecari Mudr1 Bandha-s The Mudr1 of flying as one of the Mudr1 Bandha Khy1ti Awareness vide also Vivekakhy1ti K2rtana One of the A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of singing songs for the Divine A^ga K2rti Fame Kle0a Affliction, suffering Avidy1 Asmit1, R1ga, Dve=a, In Yoga the five afflictions binding down the human being are Avidy1, Asmit1 R1ga Dve=a Abhinive0a. Avidy1, Asmit1, R1ga, R1ga, Dve=a, Abhinive0a From Avidy1 Asmit1 will appear, from Asmit1 R1ga from R1ga Dve=a from Dve=a, Abhinive0a. Kle0a-s Dve=a Abhinive0a Kle0a can be eliminated mainly by living into an !0rama and coming back to society after a while. vide also Du5kha Kl2% K1ma B2ja K4=9a. A B2ja for K1madeva and K4=9a Kon1rak Lit. 'corner of the time-wheel' The famous Tantric temple in Orissa (India) Ko0a Lit. 'sheath; body' Sphere of consciousness Ko0a-s viz. Annamaya Pr19amaya Manomaya Vij61namaya and There are five Ko0a Annamaya, Pr19amaya, Manomaya, )ar2ra-s. !nandamaya as an integral part of the three )ar2ra vide also Vik=epasahabh3 Krama Lit. 'proceeding, going towards; progressing step by step; method' Sequence, order Kratu $=i; Name of a $=i capacity; will vide also Sapta4=i Kriy1 )akti The energy of action 81
  • 83. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Kriy1 Yoga The practical Yoga K4kara The V1yu producing the function of hunger Cakra, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvavighaniv1ri92 Krodha Varjana-s Anger as one of the seven Varjana Krodha, Cakra. Krodha known also as Dve=a is the passion associated with Ma9ip3ra Cakra Pa6c1gni, vide also Pa6c1gni A^ku0a K4p1 Mercy K4p1 Ka71k=a Dev2's A side look (glance) full of grace as Dev2 kind of look K4p1s1gara Lit. 'the one who is an ocean of mercy' A name of K4=9a K4=9a Lit. 'dark-blue; the one who attracts' Avat1ra) An incarnation (Avat1ra of Vi=9u Avat1ra K4=9a Karma Karma-s The bad (dark) Karma as one of the three accumulated Karma K4ta Yuga Yuga, vide Satya Yuga Yuga K4ti The quality of being active vide also Bh3ma Vidy1 K=am1 Daiv2sampat-s Forgiveness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat vide also Ak=am1 K=1raka The J17har1gni of bile secreting vide also Sarv1dh1rasvar3pi92 K=atriya Var9a-s One of the four Var9a in the Vedic tradition consisting of military and administrative people K=etra Field 82
  • 84. K vide also Kuruk=etra K=ipta Cittabh3mi-s Uncontrolled state as one of the five Cittabh3mi K=2ra V4k=a Fig-tree K=obhaka The J17har1gni of churning of the food vide also Sarv1nandamay2 K=udra Brahm198a Lit. 'little universe' The human body as Microcosm About the human body as a Microcosm the work Vi0vas1ra Tantra says: "What is here is elsewhere, what is not here is nowhere". As such there is a fundamental parallel concept between Pi98198a) Microcosm (K=udra Brahm198a or Pi98198a and Macrocosm (Brahm198a K=udra Brahm198a). Brahm198a )akti, Pi98198a, vide also )iva )akti Pi98198a Brahm198a Kubera The god of wealth known also as Kuvera vide also Kail1sa Kuh3 The new moon personified Kuh3 N182 The N182 connected to the right side of forehead Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvavidr1vi92 Kuja Navagraha-s The planet Mars, one of the Navagraha Kukku71sana The cock !sana Kula vide Kaula Kulaku98a M3l1dh1ra The place where Ku98alin2 sleeps in M3l1dh1ra Cakra Kul1m4ta The nectar flowing from Sahasr1ra Cakra Kulasundar2 )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti Kum1r2 P3j1 Worship of virgin in the Tantric tradition 83
  • 85. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Men do the worship. A girl in her eighth year is called Gaur2. Kumbhaka Controlled retention of breath as one of the three states of Pr191y1ma As a rite Kumbhaka is the inner Agnihotra. Ku98a Lit. 'pit, round hole in the ground where fire is burnt; coiled; circular' The place in the human body where the sexual glands are situated; a special hole used in the Agni) Agni ceremonial rite of sacrificing to the fire (Agni Ku98alin2 Lit. 'that which is coiled' The evolutionary energy as power/ force resting at the base of the spinal column where is described as being coiled three and a half times around Svayambh3 Li^ga When Ku98alin2 is raised up through the Su=umn1 N182 the higher levels of consciousness are Cakra-s experienced while the Cakra are activated until Ku98alin2 reaches Sahasr1ra Cakra that is the end of its journey. Ku98alin2 is the aspect of K1ra9a Bindu in the human body. Kumbhaka, vide also Kevala Kumbhaka Ku98a Ku98alin2 )akti The Serpent Power; the transformative energy of creation It has three forms namely Adha50akti, Madhya0akti and #rdhva0akti. When Ku98alin2 )akti Adha50akti #rdhva0akti Cakra-s has passed through all the seven Cakra the consciousness of the Yog2 becomes uninterrupted between the lowest and the highest centres. Ku98alin2 Yoga The Yoga of Ku98alin2 known also as Laya Yoga K3rma Lit. 'tortoise' The V1yu producing the function of closing and opening of eyelids Vi=9u K3rma is also one of Vi=9u's incarnations, the representation of the axis mundi, the centre of stability around which everything evolves. Cakra, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvam4tyupra0ama92 K3rm1sana The tortoise !sana Kuruk=etra Lit. 'field of the Kuru-s' The battlefield described in the Bhagavad G2t1 as symbol of the inner battlefield within the human body Kurukull1 A name of India and its people personified as goddess Her Vidy1 is called Trikha9d1 vide also V1r1h2 84
  • 86. K Ku0a Grass scientifically known as Poa Cynosuroides used in certain sacred ceremonies and for meditation in Yoga Kusuma Flower; menstrual discharge vide also Ana^gakusuk1 Kusume=u Lit. 'arrow of flower' One of the names of K1madeva as one whose love arrows are flowers vide also Kusuma Ku7icaka Lit. 'happy in the hut' One of the preliminary stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle when the Sanny1sin starts to live in an !0rama Ku72r Cottage, hut as a retreat for a Sanny1sin 85
  • 87. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality L Laghim1 Lit. 'lightness' One of the eight yogic powers the one allowing somebody to become very light; lightness as a result of practicing Pr191y1ma Siddhi, vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi Laghu Short Lajj1 Modesty; shame; bashfulness L1kin2 The )akti residing in the Ma9ip3ra Cakra Lak=a9a Lit. 'expressing indirectly, indicating; symbol, sign' Characteristic, attribute, mark; a kind of )1stra; expression of a condition )1stra Lak=a9a Pari91ma Citta) Pari91ma-s Transformation of quality of the mind (Citta accompanying the Pari91ma as a result of Citta Sa%yama Lak=a9a Siddhi The power to have a correct interpretation of nature’s warnings of past, present and future events This ability makes possible to have accurate predictions. Tantra, vide also )akuna Tantra Siddhi Lak=ma9a R1ma; The brother of R1ma renowned for his devotion to R1ma a famous Tantric temple at Khajuraho (India) Lak=m2 Kamal1, Goddess of prosperity, spouse of Lord Vi=9u known also as Kamal1 Ram1 Lak=m2 B2ja vide )r2% Lak=ya Aim, goal Lalan1 Cakra A minor Cakra located to the back wall of the pharynx serving to store the Am4ta falling from Bindu prior to the release to Vi0uddha Cakra 86
  • 88. L Lalit1 Lit. 'she who plays; she who is charming, lovely, desired' A special name of Dev2, the great Goddess, the great )akti Her play is world-play. The word Lalit1 has the meanings of eight human qualities namely brilliancy, manifestation, tenderness, depth, concentration, energy, grace and compassion. She is the Vidy1, Yantra. deity of )r2 Vidy1 the supreme Kame0var2 at the centre of )r2 Yantra According to Padma Pur19a, Pur19a Lalit1 is the deity worshipped at Pray1ga. The Goddess Lalit1 has many names, the most famous group being Lalit1 Sahasran1ma Stotra Stotra. vide also !yudha Devat1 Lalit1 Sahasran1ma Stotra The most relevant reference book in the )akti tradition Lat1 Creeper; slender body; woman partner Lat1 S1dhana A Tantric practice of a female with a male Esoterically is the expression of Dev2 Ku98alin2 encircling the Svayambh3 Li^ga like a creeper Lat1) Cakra. (Lat1 in M3l1dh1ra Cakra Lat1 Laulik2 vide Neti Lava9a Rasa-s) Rasa Salt, one of the essential tastes (Rasa L1va9ya Sampad-s Beauty as one of the four K1ya Sampad Laya Lit. 'absorption, dissolution' The process in which a product dissolves or is absorbed into that from which has originated. vide also Niv4tti Layakrama Lit. 'going towards absorption' The process of absorption as opposed to S4=7ikrama Yantra Practically any act of Yoga is a Layakrama act. In the )r2 Yantra the action of absorption have the direction from Trailokyamohana to Bindu. Practically any act of Yoga is a Layakrama act. Laya Siddhi Yoga Kind of Yoga by practicing with Yoni Mudr1 Laya Siddhi Yoga Sam1dhi The Sam1dhi as a result of Laya Siddhi Yoga practice Laya Yoga Yoga, The Yoga of dissolution known also as Ku98alin2 Yoga a combination of Karma and J61na Yoga-s Yoga 87
  • 89. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality )akti. The final absorption into Ku98alin2 means becoming one with the J61na )akti L2l1 Divine play producing the universe vide also Lalit1 Li^ga Lit. 'emblem; sign; form in disguise' A mark of identification; the transmigrating soul Li^gam1tra Lit. 'with mark' Gu9aparva-s One of the four Gu9aparva in which !nanda Sam1dhi is experienced Li^ga Mudr1 The gesture of the Li^ga form generating heat in the body )ar2ra Li^ga )ar2ra The subtle body, same as S3k=ma )ar2ra Lobha Greed, the passion associated with M3l1dh1ra Cakra vide also Pa6c1gni Loka Lit. 'plane; world; region' Degree of space access and level of awareness Loka-s, Traditionally there are fourteen Loka seven above (and including) the Bh3rloka and seven Bh3rloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janarloka, below. The above earth worlds are Bh3rloka Bhuvarloka Svarloka Maharloka Janarloka Brahmaloka). Atalaloka, Vitalaloka, Taparloka and Satyaloka (or Brahmaloka The below regions are Atalaloka Vitalaloka Sutalaloka, Ras1talaloka, Tal1talaloka, Mah1talaloka P1t1laloka. Sutalaloka Ras1talaloka Tal1talaloka Mah1talaloka and P1t1laloka There is a Loka-s Cakra-s correspondence between Loka and Cakra as expressing various levels of awareness (consciousness). 88
  • 90. M M Mada Pride, arrogance, the passion associated with Vi0uddha Cakra vide also Pa6c1gni Madan1 Lit. 'love, passion; the season of spring; intoxication' One of the names of K1madeva as one who intoxicates with love vide also Ana^gamadan1 Madan1tur1 Lit. 'love-sick' vide Ana^gamadan1tur1 Madhu Lit. 'sweet, delightful; honey' The season of spring; a name of )iva Madhubh3mika Madhubh3mika Siddhi-s A Yog2 who can experience his Siddhi in the world of Prak4ti Madhura Rasa-s) Rasa Sweet, one of the essential tastes (Rasa M1dhurya Bh1va-s Yoga, Rasa-s Loveliness, sweetness; deep affection; one of the Bh1va of Bhakti Yoga also one of the Rasa Madhu Vidy1 The knowledge of the honey A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 Vidy1-s) having the central point the sun and its manifestations as Madhu (honey) of all the gods and their manifestations. The universe is compared to the honeycomb similar to the honeycomb of the human body. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Madhya Middle Madhyak37a vide K1mar1jak37a Madhyam1 The audible (whispering) stage of )abda Madhya Marga vide Su=umn1 89
  • 91. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Madhya0akti )akti-s The middle one of the Ku98akin2 )akti Madhya T2vrasa%vega T2vrasa%vega-s Medium intensity of eagerness as one of the three T2vrasa%vega Madya vide Pa6ca Mak1ra M1gha The month corresponding to parts of Jan./ Feb. vide also M1sa Mah1 Bandha Bandha-s The great Bandha as one of the also Mudr1 Bandha Bandha-s A kind of Bandha in which the three major Bandha are performed concurrently. vide also Bandhatraya Mah1bh1rata The great Indian epic attributed to the sage Vy1sa P19du-s) and the forces of evil (the It describes the conflict between the forces of light (the P19du Dh4tar1=tra-s). Dh4tar1=tra Mah1bh3ta vide Bh3ta Mah1bindu vide Par1bindu Mah1deva Lit. 'the great god' A name of )iva Mah1 K1ra9a )ar2ra )uddhatattva-s The great causal body associated with the state of Tur2ya and )uddhatattva vide also Tur2y1t2ta Mah1k10a Pa6caka-s The third of the Vyoma Pa6caka described as the great space Mah1 M1y1 Lit. 'great illusion' The objective universe Mah1 Mudr1 The great Mudr1 as one of the most important Mudr1 Bandha-s Bandha Mah1navam2 The ninth day of the bright half of !0vina and Caitra Mah1pralaya 90
  • 92. M The great dissolution Mah1puru= Mah1puru=a )iva, The Great Being; a name of )iva as holder of consciousness Maharloka The region above the polar star A Loka inhabited by Bh4gu and other saints, also known as the middle region. Mah1 $=i Great seer of the Vedic tradition vide Brahm1 Mah10akti Supreme )akti Parama0akti. A synonym for Parama0akti In that supreme sphere crossing all worlds her residence is called Apar1jita. Parama0iva. Sattva. Mah1 Kail1sa or Apar1jita There she is one with Parama0iva Her body is of pure Sattva Mahat The highest intelligence; the cosmic principle of Buddhi Tanm1tra-s. On the human plane Mahat takes the form of the Tanm1tra Bhagam1lin2, vide also Bhagam1lin2 Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Mah1talaloka vide Loka Mah1tattva The centre of individuality in any Avasth1 (state) of a person, experienced as Aha%k1ra or Asmit1. Asmit1 Sa%yama on Mah1tattva leads to Nirmana Citta experience. M1h1tmya Greatness Mah1tripur1sundar2 Mah1tripur1sundar2 The Great Beautiful Tripur1 vide also Sarv1nandamaya Cakra Mah1vajre0var2 )akti-s One of the Nitya )akti Mah1v1kya Upani=ad-s: Tattvamasi, Aha%brahm1smi, The four great sayings of the Upani=ad Tattvamasi Aha%brahm1smi Praj61nam Brahm1 and !yam1tma Brahm1 Upani=ad-s. They summarise the whole philosophical concept of the Upani=ad The experience of these four sayings is possible only after attaining Dharmamegha Sam1dhi through yogic techniques, i.e. full spiritual liberation. Mah1 Vedha Bandha-s The awakening Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha The awakening refers to Ku98alin2 )akti 91
  • 93. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Mah1videh1 Lit. 'great bodiless' The awareness of Cid1k10a as a way to destroy/ remove !vara9a Mah1vidy1 Lit. 'great wisdom' S1dhana; )akti-s The third kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana the ten Tantric )akti )akti-s K1l2, T1r1, +o8a02, Bhuvane0var2, Cinnamast1, Bhairav2, As Tantric )akti they are K1l2 T1r1 +o8a02 Bhuvane0var2 Cinnamast1 Tripur1 Bhairav2 Dh3m1v1t2, Dh3m1v1t2 Bagal1 Mukhi M1ta^g2 Kamal1 representing the gradual transformation of the Mukhi, M1ta^g2, K1l2. primordial principle of creation that is Goddess K1l2 Mah1vidy1-s Yantra-s Mah1vidy1 have specific Yantra to depict the polarity of their divine nature either positive or Mah1vidy1-s negative. In Tantra the ten Mah1vidy1 are degrees of experiences towards unity. Mah1y1ga Great Worship Yogin2-s )ivayog2-s The paramount worship of Dev2 or of the sixty-four Yogin2 as is performed by )ivayog2 only. vide also Y1ga Mah1yaj6a Great sacrifice (offering) $tvija, vide also $tvija Yaj6a Mah1 Yuga The great Yuga vide Yuga Mahim1 Lit. 'greatness' One of the eight yogic powers of becoming as big as the universe Siddhi, vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi Maithuna Lit. 'coupling, union' Yogi, Sexual union between a Yogin2 and a Yogi representing )akti (energy) and )iva (consciousness) R3pa-s Sth3la, K1ra9a. Maithuna has three R3pa (forms) namely Sth3la S3k=ma and K1ra9a The Sth3la Maithuna Pr19a-s (gross union) is the sexual union, the S3k=ma Maithuna is the union of Pr19a (energies), and the K1ra9a Maithuna is the union of Ku98alin2 )akti with )iva as a culmination experience in Tantra. Tantra But K1ra9a Maithuna transcends the ordinary experience being the esoteric kind of Maithuna. R3pa-s Maithuna The three R3pa of Maithuna are expressions of the experience of duality matter- spirit. Mak1ra, M3rti, vide also Pa6ca Mak1ra Mithuna M3rti Samarasa Maitr1varu9a Lit. 'the one belonging to Mitra and Varu9a' Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest, the first assistant of a Hot4 priest Maitrey2 Vidy1 92
  • 94. M The knowledge of Maitrey2 Vidy1, Vidy1-s, Y1j6avalkya, A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 in which R=i Y1j6avalkya on retiring from his Maitrey2, household life, instructs Maitrey2 one of his two wives into the knowledge of !tma in order to obtain immortality. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Maitr2 Maitr2 The sentiment of friendship Pras1dana-s Maitr2 is also one of the Citta Pras1dana as an attitude towards happy people. vide also Maitry1di Maitry1di Maitr2, The group of sentiments of Maitr2 Karu91 and Mudit1 leading to a particular state of Sam1dhi Majj1 Marrow vide Dh1tu Makara Crocodile regarded as an emblem of K1madeva Makaraketana Lit. 'one having the Makara for an emblem' One of the names of K1madeva Makar1sana The dolphin !sana M1l1 Lit. 'wreath, garland; crown; rosary, necklace' Tulsi, Rudr1k=a 1k=a, A string of beads of Tulsi Rudr1k=a crystal, etc., used mainly for Japa practice Esoterically it represents the impurity of the mind. vide also Ana^gam1lin2 M1l1 Mantra A Mantra having more than twenty syllables, a sacred text in the form of a wreath M1lin2 Female florist M1lin2 Tantra A kind of Tantra M1%sa Flesh; meat Mak1ra, vide Pa6ca Mak1ra Dh1tu Manana Lit. 'reflection, thinking, meditation' 93
  • 95. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality A method of reflection in order to differentiate between what is real and what is unreal and achieve Viveka on any particular experience Manas The mind as organ of perception or supporting organ The mind is the organ through which the human being will have a finite experience of the infinite Cit Samvit) consciousness (Cit or Samvit through Citta as reflection of Cit. vide also !k10a M1nasa Kind of worship "by mind" of the Dev2 vide also Y1ga M1nasap3j1 Lit. 'mental worship' A ritual practice of mental worship such as using a Mantra for example vide also P3j1 Manaska The knowledge of Brahman through the mental plane vide also Amanaska Manas )akti K1la) )akti-s The awareness of time (K1la as one of the )akti flowing through I81 N182 thus enabling the K1la J61nendriya-s J61nendriya to function )akti). Manas )akti is the mental kind of energy (vide )akti vide also )iva )akti Manastattva The Tattva of Manas M1navaugha Lit. 'the human teacher' Navan1tha-s Three aspects of )iva as part of Navan1tha represented in the human body by two nostrils Ghr19a) Ghr19a P1yu) P1yu (Ghr19a and the anus (P1yu Ma98ala Lit. 'circular; group, multitude' Kind of Yantra representation of a Devat1 either in bi-dimensional or tri-dimensional form Ma98ala, There is a fundamental concept that the human body is a Ma98ala thus subject to all forms of Yantra worship. Ma98alap27ha A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Ma98ala or Yantra forms vide also P27ha Ma98apa Hall; temple 94
  • 96. M Ma98uk1sana The frog !sana M198uk2 Mudr1 Bandha-s The frog Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha Ma^gala Lit. 'happiness' Anything auspicious; an aspect related to the )iva concept; a name for planet Mars Ma9i Gem, jewel, pearl Ma9ip3ra Cakra (known also as N1bhipadma N1bhipadma) Lit. 'city of jewels wheel' The Cakra located in the subtle body on the vertebral column behind the navel Netra, P1da, This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Netra the Karmendriya of P1da the R3pa, Ko0a, Tanm1tra of R3pa is the centre for Sam1na V1yu and the seat of Pr19amaya Ko0a the level Svarloka. of awareness is Svarloka vide also L1kin2 Manmatha Lit. 'stirring the mind; destroying the mind' One of the names of K1madeva as one who agitates the mind Manobhava Lit. 'mind born' One of the names of K1madeva as one who is first born in the mind, then takes different forms Manomaya Ko0a The body of mind as sphere of consciousness )ar2ra, It forms S3k=ma )ar2ra the subtle body. This Ko0a is the expression and experience of the mind Cakra. and has its seat in the An1hata Cakra Manonman2 The cessation of mind functioning as a yogic experience Mantha Lit. 'churning' The activity of stirring round an offering as part of an oblation; the churning-stick or the mash-pot Mantra Lit. 'liberation of the mind' A sacred formula as a subtle form of a Devat1, an expression of the consciousness as sound Devat1 Mantra-s Pi98a, Kartar2, B2ja, M1l1. Mantra are of five kinds viz. Pi98a Kartar2 B2ja Mantra and M1l1 A Mantra having ten to twenty syllables is called Mantra (vide all five kinds). Mantra practice goes in spiral bringing the O%, mind closer and closer to the source of the sound. The most celebrated is Mantra O% the sound going towards absorption. 95
  • 97. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Mantrap27ha A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in a Mantra form vide also P27ha Manu=ya Human being M1ra Lit. 'killing' One of the names of K1madeva as one who kills for love M1ra is personified as a demon wearing a crown with a shinning jewel that it blinds those looking at it. The jewel is the fascination of vice, the demon M1ra is in fact the personification of the human temptation to vice hence an aspect of K1madeva who kills for the vicious love. K1madeva M1ra9akarma Lit. 'action of destruction of an enemy' +a7karma-s, One of the +a7karma which gives the power to kill one's enemy Tantra-s. This is one of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra M1rdava Gentleness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s Daiv2sampat M1rga Lit. 'search, seeking' Path; the spiritual path vide also Devay1na M1rga02r=a The month corresponding to parts of Nov./ Dec. known also as Sahas or Agrah1ya9a vide also M1sa Mar2ci Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i Marut Lit. 'shinning one' Veda-s In the Veda the Storm-Gods sons of Rudra and companions of Indra symbolizing the liberated sages i.e. the Self-realized seers $=i, vide also $=i Sapta4=i M1sa Month Caitra, Vai01kha, Jye=7ha, !=18ha, )r1va9a, Bh1drapada, !0vina, The lunar months are Caitra Vai01kha Jye=7ha !=18ha )r1va9a Bh1drapada !0vina K1rtika, M1rga02r=a, Pau=a, M1gha, K1rtika M1rga02r=a Pau=a M1gha Ph1lguna. M1t1 Mother 96
  • 98. M M1ta^g2 Mah1vidy1-s The ninth of the ten Mah1vidy1 representing the power to control and annihilate evil and exercise virtues M1ta^gin2 Mudr1 Bandha-s The she-elephant Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha Ma7ha A place of hermitage; an !0rama Mati The quality of determination vide also Bh3ma Vidy1 M1tr1 A unit of time for measuring the duration of Pr191y1ma approximated to one second or less M1t4k1 Lit. 'source' Devan1gari, Letters from A to Ha of Devan1gari the Sanskrit alphabet; divine mother )abda, Its source is )abda the letters symbolizing functions of the same creative force. The letters are to Mantra-s, Devat1-s. be regarded as Mantra sounds representing the subtle forms of Devat1 M1t4 means mother M1t4k1-s hence M1t4k1 emphasises a creative aspect. In symbols of the human subtle body, M1t4k1 are Cakra-s. present on letters on the petals of Cakra There are 50 letters of Devan1gari alphabet. Matsya Fish; an Avat1ra of Vi=9u as representation of the beginning of manifestation of the universe Mak1ra vide also Pa6ca Mak1ra Matsy1sana The fish !sana Matsyendr1sana The king of fish !sana Mauna Dra=7a) Vow of silence as a yogic Praty1h1ra technique developing the attitude of a seer (Dra=7a Dra=7a M1y1 Illusion of duality in Ved1nta Avidy1. It has two functions namely !vara9a and Vik=epa and manifests in the human mind as Avidy1 )akti, vide also M1y1 )akti Brahman M1y1 B2ja vide Hr2% M1y1 )akti The energy of illusion, the cosmic energy Tantra-s, It is a manifestation of )akti which veils in various degrees Herself as consciousness. In Tantra M1y1 is real, only her manifestation becomes an illusion (mere semblance). 97
  • 99. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality M1y1tattva The Tattva of M1y1 )akti May3r1sana The peacock !sana Meda Fat vide Dh1tu Me8hra Penis Mekhal1 (also Mekhala Mekhala) Lit. 'girdle, belt; ceremony of investiture' Name of the girdle worn by the men of the first three castes of Hindu tradition Mu6ja, M3rv1, That of a Brahman is made of Mu6ja that of a K=atriya of M3rv1 that of a Vai0ya of )a9a. Var9a, vide also Var9a Ana^gamekhal1 Meru Him1laya-s Mythical mountain in the Him1laya Here is the centre of the world-lotus, in esoteric terms the Sahasr1ra Cakra Meru Da98a The vertebral column symbolized by the stem of the V291 of Tripurasundar2 M2m1%s1 Dar0ana-s One of the +a8 Dar0ana M2m1%s1-s It has two branches namely P3rva and Uttara M2m1%s1 M291k=i Lit. 'the one having fish-eyes' )iva; A form of )akti as spouse of )iva kind of Soma plant; a famous Tantric temple in Madhurai (India); a daughter of Kubera Mi0ra Mixed Mi0rabindu The point of return of thought after activity and the union with the pure thought Par1bindu-s One of the three Par1bindu representing the )iva )akti M1y1 as well as the Icch1 )akti as manifestations. Bindu, vide Bindu Par1bindu Mit1h1ra Moderate diet An1h1ra, vide also An1h1ra Aty1h1ra Mithuna M3rti 98
  • 100. M Statue of a couple in an erotic posture Khajuraho, Konarak M291k=i, They are displayed in various temples like Khajuraho Konarak, M291k=i Padman1bhasv1m2 )r2ra^gam). (in Trivandrum, Kerala, India), )r2ra^gan1tha (in )r2ra^gam Mitra Lit. 'friend' A name of Sun-god in the Veda-s; one of the twelve !ditya-s Veda !ditya Mitra Satya The light of truth Devas3-s, One of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Mitra. Modin2 The delighting One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental activity of Sukha (delighted). V1gdev2 vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Moha Infatuation, attachment Known also as R1ga it is the passion associated with An1hata Cakra. Pa6c1gni, vide also Pa6c1gni P10a Mohaka Mohaka The J17har1gni (digestive fire) causing pain and fainting vide also Sarvapsitaphalaprad1 Mohana Infatuating, bewildering as expression of K1ma Mohi92 A fascinating woman; a form of Dev2 Mok=a Liberation, release from worldly transmigration Puru=1rtha vide also Puru=1rtha M4da%ga (also M4da^ga M4da^ga) A two-sided drum M4du T2vrasa%vega T2vrasa%vega-s Low intensity of eagerness as one of the three T2vrasa%vega M4t1sana The corpse !sana M4ti Yoga The Yoga dealing with death M4tyu6jaya Lit. 'conqueror of death' 99
  • 101. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality A name of )iva M38ha Cittabh3mi-s Confused state as one of the five Cittabh3mi In this state Tamas Gu9a predominates. Mudit1 The sentiment of joy Pras1dana-s Mudit1 is also one of the Citta Pras1dana as an attitude towards virtuous people. vide also Maitry1di Mudr1 Gesture of invocation Mudr1-s Mudr1 represent the language in which the body speaks to the divinity, an expression of body Mudr1-s, consciousness. Through Mudr1 Sthirat1 is obtained, their practice brings certain experiences in Mudr1-s. the mind. There is an exoteric and esoteric symbolism of Mudr1 For the purpose of Mudr1 the Bh3ta-s. Mudr1-s Abhaya, Vara, Vy1khy1na, five fingers correspond to the five Bh3ta Example of Mudr1 are Abhaya Vara Vy1khy1na J61na, Pr19a, Ap1na, Li^ga, Varu9a, )3nya, Surabhi. J61na Pr19a Ap1na Li^ga Varu9a )3nya Surabhi Mudr1-s Many other Mudr1 are associated with Mudr1 Bandha techniques. !tm1rpa9a, Mak1ra vide also !tm1rpa9a Pa6ca Mak1ra Mudr1 Bandha A joined Yoga technique of gesture and contraction practice Mudr1-s Mudr1, Ten Mudr1 are enumerated in the Ha7ha Yoga Prad2pik1 namely Mah1 Mudr1 Mah1 Bandha, Mah1 Vedha, Khecar2, U882y1na Bandha, M3la Bandha, J1landhara Bandha, Bandha Vedha Khecar2 Bandha Bandha Bandha Kara92, Vajrol2 )aktic1lana. ol2, Vipar2ta Kara92 Vajrol2 )aktic1lana In the Ghera98a Sa%hit1 are enumerated twenty-five Mudr1-s, Bandha-s Mudr1, Nabhomudr1, U882y1na, Mudr1 that are in fact Mudr1 Bandha namely Mah1 Mudr1 Nabhomudr1 U882y1na J1landhara, Bandha, Bandha, Vedha, Khecar2, J1landhara M3la Bandha Mah1 Bandha Mah1 Vedha Khecar2 Vipar2ta Kara92 YoniKara92, Yoni, Vajrol2, )aktic1lan2, T181g2, M198uk2, )1mbhav2, Pa6cadh1ra91-s, (i.e. P4thiv2 Dh1ra91, Vajrol2 )aktic1lan2 181g2 M198uk2 )1mbhav2 Pa6cadh1ra91 Dh1ra91 Dh1ra91, Dh1ra91, Dh1ra91, Dh1ra91), A0vin2, P10in2, !mbhas2 Dh1ra91 !gney2 Dh1ra91 V1yav2 Dh1ra91 !k102 Dh1ra91 A0vin2 P10in2 K1k2, M1ta^gin2, Bhuja^gin2. K1k2 M1ta^gin2 and Bhuja^gin2 Mudr1p27ha A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Mudr1 form vide also P27ha Muh3rta An astronomically determined time of auspicious beginnings Mukta A person of liberated soul vide also J2vanmukta Mukt1sana The freedom !sana Muktatrive92 N182 82-s A name for M3l1dh1ra Cakra as a place of lower intersection of the three main N182 and giver Mukti) Mukti of liberation (Mukti 100
  • 102. M Mukti Final liberation vide also J2vanmukti M3la Root, origin M3la Bandha Lit. 'root lock' Bandha-s The root Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha vide also Bandhatraya M3la B2ja vide Hr2% M3l1dh1ra Cakra Cakra Lit. 'root's support Cakra' The Cakra located between the scrotum and the anus Ghr19a, P1yu, This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Ghr19a the Karmendriya of P1yu the Gandha, Ko0a, Tanm1tra of Gandha is the centre for Ap1na V1yu and the seat of Annamaya Ko0a the level of awareness is Bh3rloka. Bh3rloka Muktatrive92, *1kin2, vide also Muktatrive92 *1kin2 Dh3mrali^ga M3la Mantra vide Hr2% M3laprak4ti The primary cause of matter as transcendental basis of physical nature; the original root (out of which matter evolved) based in M3l1dh1ra Cakra in the human body V1k, vide also V1k )abda M3la )odhana Yogic technique of purification of the rectum with water in order to allow Ap1na V1ya to flow Dhauti-s freely; one of the four Dhauti M3la Triko9a !sana) Primary triangle of the )r2 Yantra as seat (!sana of Dev2 !sana It represents the threefold process of S4=7i (creation), Sthiti (preservation) and Sa%h1ra (dissolution). M3la Triko9a Cakra vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Mumuk=u One aspiring to Mok=a Muni Lit. 'one who knows' A saint; one having spiritual knowledge 101
  • 103. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Mu6ja (also Mau6ja Mau6ja) The specie of grass Saccharum Sara vide also Mekhal1 M3rch1 Lit. 'causing fainting (i.e. loosing the mental consciousness)' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma M3rti Image; symbol; figure; form of Devat1 M3rv1 The specie of hemp Sanseviera Roxburghiana Maurva M3rvik1) urva, (also Maurva M3rvik1 vide also Mekhal1 102
  • 104. N N N1bhi Navel N1bhipadma vide Ma9ip3ra Cakra Nabhomudr1 Bandha-s The navel Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha N1ciket1gni Vidy1 The knowledge of the fire of N1ciketas A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1Vidy1-s) which deals with the heavenly fire and its H4d). H4d correspondence in the human body, the heart (H4d Vidy1, vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Cidagni N1ciketa (also N1ciketas N1ciketas) Yama. The young Brahmin in the Ka7ha Upani=ad who received teachings from Lord Yama N1da Sound )iva- It represents the first impulse towards creation, the dual aspect of )iva-)akti as sound or word. From N1da emerged B2ja. vide also Bindu N1da Dh1ra9a Dh1ra9a on sound as a specific practice of concentration in order to obtain Divya )rotra vide also Jyoti=mat2 N1da Yoga Yoga of the sound as yogic concept based on sound consciousness N1da Yoga Kind of Yoga practice using gross or subtle sounds leading in a specific way to the state of Sam1dhi N182 Lit. 'tube, pipe' S3k=ma )ar2ra) Channel of energy in the subtle body (S3k=ma )ar2ra N182-s V291's Traditionally there are 72,000 N182 in the human body as symbolized by V291 strings of Tripurasundar2. N182-s Su=umn1, I81, Pi^gal1, Tripurasundar2 The fourteen main N182 in the human body are Su=umn1 I81 Pi^gal1 Sarasvat2, )a^khin2, P3=1, G1ndh1r2, Payasvin2, Yo0ovat2, Hastijihv1, V1ru92, Vi0vodar1, Sarasvat2 )a^khin2 P3=1 G1ndh1r2 Payasvin2 Yo0ovat2 Hastijihv1 V1ru92 Vi0vodar1 Kuh3, Ala%bus1. N182-s Su=umn1, Pi^gal1, Kuh3 Ala%bus1 The most important N182 are Su=umn1 I81 and Pi^gal1 out of which Su=umn1 is central to the experience of spiritual awakening. N1ga 103
  • 105. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'snake, serpent' A naked ascetic; the V1yu producing the function of hiccup Cakra kra, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvadu5khavimoci92 N1gan1yaka vide Ananta Nak=atra Lit. 'star; constellation' Any heavenly body; a lunar mansion Traditionally there are twenty-seven constellations in number, each one related to a specific tree Nak=atra V4k=1) (Nak=atra V4k=1 or animal. V4k=a Nak=atra V4k=a vide Nak=atra N1ma Name Nama5 Reverence, veneration as a Mantra of invocation of a Devat1 N1m1kar=i92 The attractive power of N1ma vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra N1mar3pa Name and form M3laprak4ti is the source of all the manifestations of N1mar3pa world as products of V1k or )abda. )abda vide also N1mar3pa Vidy1 N1mar3pa Vidy1 A S3k=ma (subtle) kind of worship as knowledge of name and form Dev2's For the purpose of Dev2 worship the Lalit1 Sahasran1ma Stotra is the most relevant. V1k, )abda, M3laprak4ti vide also V1k )abda M3laprak4ti Namask1ra Salutation, homage N1rada A sage devotee of Lord K4=9a vide Brahm1 N1rasi%ha (also Narasi%ha Narasi%ha) Vi=9u, A man-lion as Avat1ra of Lord Vi=9u a representation of transition between animal and human N1r1ya9a Lit. 'the human path' 104
  • 106. N Devat1 as beginning of humanity; the first human; a name of Vi=9u N1r2 Woman, wife N10ik1gra D4=7i Seeing the tip of the nose as kind of Dh1ra91 yogic practice N1stika Veda-s Non-believer in Veda Veda-s All the literature not based on the Veda is considered to be of N1stika kind vide also !stika Natar1ja Lit. 'king of dance' An aspect of )iva as Lord of Dance )iva dances upon the demon Apasm1ra who represents the ego which makes people forget their true nature. vide also Rudra N1tha Lit. 'help, protection' Lord; a name of )iva vide also Navan1tha N1tim1nit1 Daiv2sampat-s Absence of pride as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Nauli +a7karma-s One of the +a7karma Nava Cakra Lit. 'nine wheels' A name for the )r2 Yantra Cakra-s In the )r2 Yantra the nine Cakra also represent S4=7i (Creation), Sthiti (Preservation) and Sa%h1ra Sa%h1ra (Dissolution), each Cakra being a mathematical arrangement of three by two, therefore the Trailokyamohana represents the S4=7i S4=7i and the Bindu represents the Sa%h1ra Sa%h1ra. Sa%h1ra Navagraha The nine planets Navagraha-s S3rya, Candra, Kuja, Budha Guru, )ukra, )ani, dha, The Navagraha are: S3rya Candra Kuja Budha Guru )ukra )ani R1hu and Ketu. vide also Graha Navam2 The ninth day of the bright half of the moon in every month vide also Mah1navam2 Navamu98i 105
  • 107. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'nine skulls' Bhaya) Bhaya A Tantric practice to overcome fear (Bhaya Navan1tha The nine Lords They are all aspects of )iva as three Divyaugha (Prak101nanda, Vimar01nanda and Divyaugha-s !nand1nanda), three Siddhaugha-s ()r2 J61n1nanda, )r2 Saty1nanda and )r2 Siddhaugha P3r91nanda), three M1navaugha (Svabh1va, Pratibha and Subhaga). The nine Lords helped M1navaugha-s Tantra01stra )akti to reveal the Tantra01stra on earth in the Satya Yuga as teachers, therefore they are the nine Tantric teachers. Navaratna The nine precious gems They are Padmar1ga (ruby), Mukt1 (pearl), Prav1la (coral), Vaidurya (lapis lazuli), Pu=par1ga (topaz), Vajra (diamond), N2la (sapphire), Marakata (emerald), Gomeda (cow's fat stone). Navar1tra A period of nine days Navayon2 Cakra Lit. 'the wheel of nine Yoni-s' vide )r2 Yantra N1yik1 A female partner in the Tantric ritual Ne=74 Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Adhvaryu priest Neti Lit. 'not this' +a7karma-s One of the +a7karma known also as Laulik2 Upani=ad-s Neti Neti is also a famous expression in the Upani=ad signifying that the human being is not part M1y1) M1y1 S4=7i). S4=7i of the ever changing nature (M1y1 seen now, nor part of this kind of creation (S4=7i Netra Organ of sight, the eye vide also J61nendriya Netratattva The Tattva of Netra Nidhi Siddhi The power of determination vide also Siddhi Nidr1 Cittav4tti-s Dreamless sleep as one of the five Cittav4tti vide also Yoga Nidr1 106
  • 108. N Nidr1 J61na The state of conscious sleeping Nigama Scripture Nigama-s Veda-s Veda-s Nigama are considered to be the Veda or any work as auxiliary or explaining the Veda or a Muni-s). In the Tantra Nigama are Muni doctrine or instruction as words of gods or holy persons (Muni Tantra-s Nigama-s )i=ya. sacred works in which Dev2 is Guru and )iva is )i=ya Nigarbha Sahita Pr191y1ma vide Sahita Kumbhaka Nigrahahoma Homa with the purpose of restraining an enemy Tantra-s. vide +a7karma for the magical rites in the Tantra N2laka97ha Lit. 'one having blue throat' A name of )iva as the one who has taken poison in order to save the world Nilapatak1 )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti also known as N2lapat1kin2 N2lapat1kin2 vide N2lapatak1 Nir1k1ra Without form, ‘non-manifested’ as a name for Nirgu9a Brahman vide also !k1ra Nira6jan1 Sam1dhi; Stainless; a name for Sam1dhi a name for Su=umn1 N182 Nirb2ja Sam1dhi B2ja) Sam1dhi without seed (B2ja beyond Pratyaya and devoid of awareness B2ja Ali^ga, A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a is able to reach the Ali^ga the stillness as state of Gu9a-s. non-differentiation of the three Gu9a Nirb2ja Sam1dhi is the union with the Divine and the Sam1dhi. final goal for liberation. Beyond that is a different reality subject to Dharmamegha Sam1dhi vide also Sab2ja Sam1dhi Nirgu9a Without quality or attribute Brahman, As an aspect of Brahman Nirgu9a is beyond any description. vide also Sagu9a Nirgu9a Brahman The Universal Spirit without qualities Brahman, Parabrahman, Avyakta, @0vara, vide also Brahman Parabrahman Avyakta @0vara Nir1k1ra Nirgu9op1sana 107
  • 109. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The contemplation experience after the $tambhar1 Prajn1 state vide also Sabu9op1sana Nirliptat1 Lit. 'out of being attached' Param1tm1) Detachment as a result of practicing Sam1dhi as the experience of the cosmic self (Param1tm1 Param1tm1 Nirmana Citta The divine mind simultaneously experienced through Sa%yama on Mah1tattva of artificially Karma-s created minds of a Yog2 in order to get consciousness of past Karma and enjoy their fruits Karma-s Karm10aya-s. By the enjoyment of the fruits of past Karma the Yog2 becomes free of various Karm10aya Yog2's The created minds are under the control of Yog2 natural mind that directs them in various planes of consciousness, so the whole experience is entirely conscious. The created minds are to be seen as Yog2's expressing various kinds of personalities when the experience is downloaded to the Yog2 natural Sa%skara-s. mind that becomes gradually free of Sa%skara vide also Nirmanak1ya Citta Nirmanak1ya Nirmanak1ya Citta V1san1-s, The causal individual mind experience as source of particular V1san1 an expression of Nirmana Citta (divine mind) Nirodha Lit. 'restrain; cessation; dissolution' Restriction to be observed on the Yoga path; a synonym for Pr191y1ma or for Kumbhaka Yoga. As cessation Nirodha refers to Cittav4ttinirodha as definition of Yoga Nirodha Pari91ma Pari91ma-s Transformation of perception of the mind as one of the three Pari91ma vide also Avasth1 Pari91ma Nirodha Yoga Cittav4tti ti-s The Yoga of cessation of any kind of Cittav4tti Niruddha Cittabh3mi-s Restrained state as one of the five Cittabh3mi Indriya-s The restrained state refers to the eleven Indriya therefore Niruddha state is a kind of Praty1h1ra. Nirupakrama Karma The dormant Karma that is not producing any fruits in the present vide also Apar1ntaj61na, Sa^cita Karma Apar1ntaj61na Nirv19a Emancipation; bliss; self-realization Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi Lit. ' Sam1dhi without Vic1ra' State of Sam1dhi in which the consciousness is experienced as reflection of the form beyond the state of Vic1ra With the accomplishment of Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi the Dra=7a becomes !tmadra=7a and is already 108
  • 110. N inside the experience of spiritual salvation. This state of Sam1dhi is also known as Nirvic1r1 Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi. Sam1dhi vide also $tambhar1 Prajn1 Nirvikalpa Sam1dhi Lit. ' Sam1dhi without Vikalpa' State of Sam1dhi in which there is no separation between J61t1 (one who knows) and J6eya (object of knowledge) as full expression of union with Sagu9a Brahman Cakra This experience in Yoga is similar to the experience of consciousness at Sahasr1ra Cakra level in Tantra. Nirvitark1 Sam1dhi Lit. ' Sam1dhi without Vitarka' State of Sam1dhi in which the mind is devoid of awareness and the knowledge of the form comes from within and beyond the state of Vitarka Nirvitarka Sam1dhi. This state of Sam1dhi is also known as Nirvitarka Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi Ni01cara Lit. 'one who acts during the night' A demon using the dark of night for wrong doings Ni=kala Without parts The kind of form (Ni=kalar3pa) of Brahman that can only be attained through J61na. Ni=k1ma Without desire Ni=k1ma Ni=k1ma Karma Sa%sk1ra-s, Action without desire as an attitude of a Yog2 who is free to accumulating Sa%sk1ra i.e. there is Karma-s) Karma no sense of doing of actions (Karma Ni=k1ma S1dhaka Kind of Yoga practitioner known also as Sanny1sin walking the path of liberation and being Puru=1rtha-s aware of all the four Puru=1rtha Ni=patti Avasth1 Avasth1-s The final stage of the four Yoga Avasth1 when the consciousness of the Yog2 has reached the unity in Sahasr1ra Cakra Ni=7h1 The quality of firmness in service vide also Bh3ma Vidy1 Nitya Eternal, perpetual Nity1 )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti Nity1klinn1 109
  • 111. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti Nity1 )akti The eternal expressed by the moon )akti-s K1me0var2, Bhagam1lin2, Nity1klinn1, Bheru981, Vahniv1sin2, The sixteen Nity1 )akti are K1me0var2 Bhagam1lin2 Nity1klinn1 Bheru981 Vahniv1sin2 Mah1vajre0var2, D3t2, Tvarit1, Kulasundar2, Nity1 Nilapatak1, Vijay1, Sarvama^gal1, ty1, Mah1vajre0var2 D3t2 Tvarit1 Kulasundar2 Nity1 Nilapatak1 Vijay1 Sarvama^gal1 Jv1l1m1lin2, Citr1, !dy1. Jv1l1m1lin2 Citr1 !dy1 They preside over the sixteen days/ nights between new-moon and full- Yantra, moon. Each one has a specific Yantra the full description is in the work known as Tantrar1ja Tantra. Tantra vide also Candrakal1 Niv4tti The dissolution (return) process as a mind experience vide also Prav4tti Niyama Lit. 'restraining' A^ga-s One of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali )auca, Santo=a, Tapas, Sv1dhy1ya, It contains five inner disciplines to be observed namely )auca Santo=a Tapas Sv1dhy1ya @0varapra9idh1na, @0varapra9idh1na all as expressions of a balanced state of mind. Niyati Not joined Niyati Ka6cuka Form of )akti limiting the perception of the unity of cause and effect as being one with the primordial )iva )akti the Ka6cuka separating cause and effect )akti; Tattva, vide also Tattva Niyatitattva Niyatitattva The Tattva of Niyati Ka6cuka Ny1sa Lit. 'placing, applying' Awareness of a particular Devat1 as assigned or installed in specific parts of the body; psycho- physical posture; renunciation Ga9e=a, Graha, Nak=atra, Yogin2, The six principal Ny1sa practices refer to Ga9e=a Graha Nak=atra Yogin2 R10i and P27ha. vide also A^ga Ny1sa Ny1ya Dar0ana-s One of the +ad Dar0ana 110
  • 112. O O O8821na P27ha vide U882y1na P27ha Ojas Lit. 'vigour, bodily strength, energy' Vitality O% Mantra-s The most celebrated of all Mantra known also as Pra9ava or O%k1ra As attributes it is circular in form, eternal, pervading all. Various actions such as recitation, reading Kirtan, rites, penance, sacrifices, Yoga techniques, Kirtan in short every spiritual act should be preceded O%. by O% In its detailed form O% consists of five parts A, U, M, N1da and Bindu corresponding to Brahm1, Vi=9u, Rudra, Sad10iva. the five gods Brahm1 Vi=9u Rudra @0vara and Sad10iva There are different kinds of Kulluk1, Setu, Mah1setu. pronunciation of the sacred syllable namely Kulluk1 Setu Mah1setu For its use in the Vedic Svara-s Pra9ava, perspective, there are four Svara (tones) of Pra9ava i.e. Ud1tta (for Br1hma9aBr1hma9a-s), Anud1tta K=atriya-s), Pracita (for Vai0ya and Auk1ra (for )3dra (for K=atriya Vai0ya-s) )3dra-s). The chanting of O% Mantra is in fact the chanting of the name of God. In many books O% is described as having three parts A, U, Brahm1, Rudra. M for the threefold designation of Brahman as Brahm1 Vi=9u and Rudra There is a rich Veda-s, V4tti-s, literature to describe Pra9ava AUM as indicating three Veda three V4tti three Loka three Loka-s, Granthi-s, Granthi etc. Vidy1, vide also Udg2ta Vidy1 Udg2ta O%k1ra vide O% O% Nama5 )iv1ya vide Pa6c1k=ar2 O=adhi (also Au=adhi Au=adhi) Lit. 'light receptacle' Herb, any medicinal herb; creature Devan1gari). Devan1gari There are fifty relevant herbs, one for each of the fifty letters of Sanskrit alphabet (Devan1gari 111
  • 113. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality P Pacaka Pacaka The J17har1gni of digestion of food vide also Sarva0aktiprad1 P1da Foot; chapter vide also Karmendriya P1da Sev1na A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of service to the feet of the Lord P1datattva The Tattva of P1da Padma Lotus vide also Cakra Padm1sana The lotus !sana Padmin2 )a^khin2, The first of the four classes into which females are divided, the other three are said to be )a^khin2 Citri92 and Hastin2 P1duk1 Siddhi The power to impress somebody vide also Siddhi Pa6cabh3ta vide Bh3ta Pa6cada01k=ar2 vide Pa6cada02 Pa6cada02 Mantra, The fifteen-syllables Mantra the Dev2 Herself in Her S3k=ma form Guru. Pa6cada0ak=ar2, It is to be learned from a qualified Guru Pa6cada02 is known also as Pa6cada0ak=ar2 )r2 Mantra, Vidy1r1ja, )1kta-s, Vidy1 Mantra Vidy1r1ja G1yatr2 of the )1kta etc. It contains three groups (K37a i.e. K37a-s) K37a V1gbhavak37a, )aktik37a. K37a-s V1gbhavak37a Madhyak37a or K1mar1jak37a and )aktik37a The three K37a are identified Dev2. with the face, the trunk and the limbs of Dev2 It has the body of three and a half as expressing the )akti. Lalit1tri0at2 Ku98alin2 )akti The work Lalit1tri0at2 gives the Mantra indirectly in the three hundred names where there are twenty names beginning with each of the syllables. Pa6cadh1ra91 112
  • 114. P Dh1ra91-s P4thiv2, !mbhas2, !gney2, Bandha- The five Dh1ra91 namely P4thiv2 !mbhas2 !gney2 V1yav2 and !k102 as Mudr1 Bandha s (vide) Pa6c1gni Lit. 'the five fires' Cakra-s Passions associated with the five lower Cakra The Pa6c1gni-s are Lobha, K1ma, Krodha (or Dve=a), Moha (Sa^ga or R1ga) and Mada (or Pa6c1gni Lobha K1ma Dve=a Sa^ga R1ga Smaya). Pa6c1gni-s Sa%sk1ra-s. Smaya The Abhivyaktik1ra9a of Pa6c1gni are the Sa%sk1ra Pa6c1gni Vidy1 The knowledge of the five fires Vidy1-s) A Vidy1 Vidya (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 is fully described in the )atapatha Br1hma9a as the knowledge told to N1ciketas by Yama. Vidy1, Tejas, vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Tejas Pa6c1gni Pa6cako=a Ko0a-s) Ko0a The five bodily sheaths (Ko0a Pa6cak=ar2 Mantra The five-syllables Mantra i.e. O% Nama5 )iv1ya Pa6ca Mak1ra The five M's Mak1ra-s A form of Up1sana the Pa6ca Mak1ra are Madya (wine), M1%sa (meat), Matsya (fish), Mudr1 (parched cereals) and Maithuna (sexual union). The five M's are symbols of different stages Pr191y1ma Praty1h1ra, Dh1ra91, 91y1ma, Sam1dhi, in the Pr191y1ma i.e. Pr191y1ma Praty1h1ra Dh1ra91 Dhy1na and Sam1dhi behind their ordinary meanings is the transcendence of human addictions. Pa6camu98i The Tantric practice of the five skulls Pa6ca Sahita Pr191y1ma Pr191y1ma-s The five united Pr191y1ma Advanced Pr191y1ma techniques for body regeneration. Pa6catattva Tattva-s P4thiv2, Ap, Tejas, The five lower Tattva namely P4thiv2 Ap Tejas V1yu and !k10a Pa6catattva Dh1ra91 Pa6catattva-s Meditation on the Pa6catattva Pa98it Scholar; pandit P198itya Proficiency in learning and wisdom; erudition 1ditva, Kavitva, It is of four kinds viz. V1ditva Kavitva V1gmitva and Vy1khy1t4tva. P19i Hand (from the root P1 i.e. to drink) 113
  • 115. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Karmendriya P19ini The great grammarian of the 7th century BCE P19itattva The Tattva of P19i P1pa Vice, sin Par1 (also Para Para) Lit. 'supreme' The supreme state; the transcendental state of )abda The supreme state is experiencing the union with the supreme consciousness. Par1bindu The supreme Bindu as the original Bindu )vetabindu, Represented by a triangle Par1bindu is differentiated into )vetabindu Raktabindu and Mi0rabindu Mi0rabindu called together K1makal1. Figuratively is described as Mah1tripurasundar2 residing Yantra. at the centre of the )ri Yantra vide also Sarv1nandamaya Cakra Parabrahman Brahman, Supreme Brahman unconditioned Absolute Tat, Asat, Avyakta, As manifested principle Parabrahman has many names such as Tat Asat Avyakta Nirgu9a Brahman etc. Parabrahman as Supreme Absolute is the upper reality generating two kinds of Parama0iva) Parama0iva monotheism in the Hindu tradition; one is centred upon a supreme God (Parama0iva and another Dev2, Dev2 Lalit1, Mah10akti Parama0akti). upon a supreme Goddess (Dev2 Lalit1 Mah10akti or Parama0akti vide also Para%jyoti= Paradhy1na The supreme form of meditation Par1ha%t1 The supreme Ego i.e. the supreme consciousness Param (also Parama Parama) Supreme Paramaha%sa Lit. 'supreme swan' One of the advanced stages of spiritual life of a Sanny1sin Sa%ny1sa, vide also Sa%ny1sa Ha%sa Param1k10a Pa6caka-s The second of the Vyoma Pa6caka described as the supreme space Param19u A9u) A9u The ultimate atom (A9u 114
  • 116. P Paramapuru=a Vidy1 The knowledge of the supreme Puru=a Vidy1-s N1ciketas A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 in which N1ciketas is instructed by Yama in Indriya-s, Indriya Manas, Buddhi, Avyakta) knowing various stages (Indriya Manas Buddhi Avyakta leading to the knowledge of the Puru=a. supreme Puru=a vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Parama0akti The Supreme )akti vide also Parabrahman Parama0iva The Supreme )iva vide also Parabrahman Parama0iva Parama0akti The Supreme )iva )akti Nirgu9a, It is the Supreme consciousness as Nirgu9a in which )iva is the static aspect and )akti the active Cit). Cit aspect of the same Supreme Consciousness (Cit The static and active aspects have to be seen only as potentialities without any characteristics i.e. Parama0iva is the potentiality of consciousness and Parama0akti the potentiality of manifestation. Param1tm1 vide Param1tman Param1tman (also Param1tm1 Param1tm1) J2v1tman, The Supreme Soul as compared to J2v1tman the individual Soul Param1tman and J2v1tman are two manifestations (one external and one internal as refers to the Sat). Sat human being) of the same Reality (Sat Para%jyoti= Supreme Light The light beyond the five gates (vide Devasu=i ), the light of J2v1tman. Para%jyoti= is also Parabrahman. Parabrahman Par1n1da The supreme sound Par1p3j1 Lit. 'supreme worship' A ritual form of transcendental worship vide also P3j1 Para0ur1ma Vi=9u, An Avat1ra of Vi=9u a representation of the emergency of the brave man sometimes called Bh1rgava Bh4gu) J1madagnya or Bh1rgava (as descending from Bh4gu Para0ur1ma Sutra An authoritative scripture of Kaula doctrine of Tantra 115
  • 117. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Paravairagya Highest Vairagya in which various roots of bondage are eliminated through a direct cognition of Puru=a Par1tpar1 Supreme of the Supreme P1r1ya9a P1r1ya9a Daily reading of a sacred text Paricaya Avasth1 A Yoga Avasth1 of a Yog2 after overcoming the Rudragranthi Pari91ma Sa%yama; Transformation as a result of performing Sa%yama principle of evolution; change in general Pari91ma-s Pari91ma, As a result of Sa%yama the Pari91ma are of three kinds viz. Sam1dhi Pari91ma Ek1grat1 Pari91ma. Pari91ma and Nirodha Pari91ma Each one is accompanied by three stages of transformations of Pari91ma, properties of the mind viz. Dharma Pari91ma Lak=a9a Pari91ma and Avasth1 Pari91ma Pari91ma. Karma). Pari91ma is also the change accompanying every action (Karma As principle of evolution there Karma are five stages of Pari91ma namely: from non-manifest to manifest, from mineral to vegetable, from vegetable to animal, from animal to human, from human to superhuman. vide also Prak4ti Pari0rama Pari0rama Physical labour as technique for body purification vide also Karma Yoga Pari0uddhi Purification of memory vide also )uddhi P1rvat2 Lit. 'stream of a mountain' A name of )akti )iva's Kail1sa. )iva spouse as daughter of Himavat the mountain King of Kail1sa She is often depicted with Svastika) )iva. folded hands (vide Svastika and her face full of devotion for her Lord )iva vide also Dev2 Parya^ka Brahmaloka. The couch on which Brahm1 sits in the Brahmaloka Every part of the couch represents a specific manifestation related to Brahm1. Vidy1 Parya^ka Vidy1 The knowledge of the couch Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 in which the devotee is led in successive stages to Parya^ka. reach the Parya^ka The obstacles in the Brahmaloka start with !ra and (ya lakes, then I=7ihan Somasavana), place and time, Viraj1 river, Ilya tree (an A0vattha tree named Somasavana S1lajja city, Apar1jita palace, Indra and Praj1pati as doorkeepers, Vibhu hall, Vicak=a9a throne and finally Parya^ka couch. 116
  • 118. P vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 P10a Lit. 'knot; bondage; noose' The noose as representation of R1ga vide also P101^ku0a P101^ku0a Noose and goad Corresponds to the attraction and repulsion, passion and anger, love and hate, denoting R1ga and Dve=a. The P101^ku0a B2ja Mantra is O% Hr2% Kro% Kro%. Devat1, P10a, vide also !yudha Devat1 P10a A^ku0a Pa0cimott1n1sana The back-stretcher !sana P10in2 Mudr1 P10a) Bandha-s The noose (P10a Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha P10a Pa0u Lit. 'cattle; animal; an ignorant person' Tantra-s Conditioned individual; a kind of S1dhaka in the Tantra in whom the Tamas Gu9a is predominant Pa0u Bh1va h1va-s One of the Bh1va as a state of human personality based on instinct, therefore of Tamas nature vide also S1dhaka Pa0un1tha Lit. 'lord of cattle' A name of )iva Pa0upati Lit. 'lord of animals; lord of the souls covered by ignorance' A name of )iva Pa0y1c1ra The first kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana (vide) when a Mantra is given by a Guru Pa0yanti The mental stage of )abda P1t1laloka vide Loka Pata6jali The author of the Yoga treatise Yoga S3tra He lived probably around year 200 BCE. Pau=a 117
  • 119. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The month corresponding to parts of Dec./ Jan. vide also M1sa Pavam1na Veda-s In the Veda the self-purifier i.e. the mind Payasvin2 N182 The N182 connected to the right ankle Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvaj4mbhi92 P1yu Anus vide also Karmendriya P1yutattva The Tattva of P1yu Phala Hetu) Hetu Effect of an experience having the source a cause (Hetu vide also V1san1 Phala0ruti The panegyric of accruing benefits of a text in the Stotra literature Ph1lguna The month corresponding to parts of Feb./ Mar. vide also M1sa Pi98a Body; a monosyllable Mantra (vide) Deha, ar2ra, vide also Deha )ar2ra K1ya Pi98198a Lit. 'the body-egg' The human body as Microcosm, a reproduction of Brahm198a Brahm198a, Known also as K=udra Brahm198a the A98a (egg) is seen as the potentiality of reproducing its Brahm198a. own original source, the Brahm198a Pi98198a is the link between the earth and the cosmic planes, a unity of psycho-cosmic experiences. For the purpose of meditation Pi98198a is divided into five parts extending from soles to the top of the head, P4thiv2 (from soles to knees), Ap (from knees to hips), Tejas (from nose to the navel), V1yu (from navel to nose), !k10a (from nose to the Bh3ta-s top of the head). Therefore Pi98198a made up of Bh3ta is the representation of the cosmic man. vide also A98api98a Pi^gal1 N182 S3rya N182-s Known also as S3rya N182 it is one of the major N182 (in the human body) running up the right Su=umn1, side of Su=umn1 the central channel Cakra, Sarvamantramay2, S3rya, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvamantramay2 S3rya A0vini P27ha 118
  • 120. P Place of pilgrimage; shrine, temple; a symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 (Goddess); a Sat2-s Tantric sacred place where the fifty parts of Sat2 body fell, so becoming pilgrimage centres P27hasth1na-s, P27ha-s Known also as P27hasth1na the P27ha can be of Sth3la (gross), S3k=ma (subtle) and K1ra9a Vidy1p27ha Ma98alap27ha-s, Yon2p27ha-s, Stanap27ha-s, dy1p27ha-s, (causal) forms and experienced as Vidy1p27ha Ma98alap27ha Yon2p27ha Stanap27ha Dev2p27ha-s, Siddhap27ha-s, etc. They may or may not have holy shrines like P27hat2rtha-s or Dev2p27ha Siddhap27ha P27hat2rtha P27hak=etra-s P27ha-s P27hak=etra do. The P27ha is where Dev2 resides in a form or as different parts of the body of Sat2. Sat2 P27hak=etra P27hak=etra Location of a P27ha in a K=etra place; holy shrine P27hasth1na vide P27ha P27hat2rtha Location of a P27ha in a T2rtha place; holy shrine Pit4 Ancestor Dhenu, vide also Dhenu !nandamaya Vidy1 Pitta Do=a-s One of the three Do=a In !yurveda system of medicine a deficiency of bile as a cause to diseases. Pl1vaka The J17har1gni of flooding of gastric juice vide also Sarvavy1dhivin10in2 Pl1vin2 Lit. 'causing floating' Pr191y1ma-s In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma Pot4 Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Br1hma9a priest Pracetas Lit. 'clever, wise' Dak=a, vide Dak=a Brahm1 Pradak=i9a The act of turning towards persons or objects so as to place them on one's right side of the body as form of worship vide also !tm1rpa9a Pradh1na The universal Soul as primary germ of the material universe Prak4ti. In S1mkhya philosophy Pradh1na is similar to Prak4ti Pradyumna 119
  • 121. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'he who conquers everything' One of the names of K1madeva as one who overcomes any obstacle for the sake of love Praj1pati Lit. 'lord of creatures' Veda-s, Agni, Soma, A god having a dominant position in the Veda sometimes identified with Agni Soma Savit4 or Indra and the first ten created beings of Brahm1 (vide) Vidy1, vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 !nandamaya Vidy1 Praj61 Lit. 'to know, understand' Wisdom, knowledge, consciousness personified as goddess Sarasvat2 vide also J61na Pr1jna The Soul in the K1ra9a )ar2ra vide also J2v1tman Praj61jyoti Jyoti) Praj61) A Yog2 who can experience the light (Jyoti of consciousness (Praj61 Jyoti Praj61 Praj61nam Brahm1 Upani=ad-s 'The ultimate truth is consciousness' a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad vide also Mah1vakya Pr1k1mya Lit. 'freedom of will' One of the eight yogic powers of possessing irresistible determination Siddhi, vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi Prak10a Lit. 'shinning, bright; manifest; light' A name for the pure Self Prak10a Prak10a !vara9a Covering of the light, as a veil to knowledge of the Self Prak4ti Lit. 'primary substance; nature; original form, primordial matrix' A name of )akti as personified energy in the creation; the Primordial Female Principle in Yoga ari91ma, Gu9a-s. Triggered by Pari91ma the primary substance takes various successive forms marked by Gu9a Trigu91tmik1, M1y1, )akti, Tattva, vide also Trigu91tmik1 M1y1 )akti Tattva A=7asiddhi Prak4ti Tattva The Tattva of Prak4ti consisting of the three Gu9a-s giving birth to all manifestations of nature Gu9a Prak4ti (Prak4ti) Prak4t Prak4ty1p3r1t 120
  • 122. P The overflow of Park4ti (nature) caused by the removal of Avidy1 After this experience the development of the super-consciousness occurred. vide also J1tyantara Pari91ma Pralaya Dissolution of the physical universe as opposed to S4=7i (creation) Mah1pralaya, vide also Mah1pralaya Brahm198a Pram1da Vik=epa-s The state of carelessness as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Pram19a Cittav4tti-s Correct knowledge as a form of Vidy1 and one of the five Cittav4tti Pratyak=a, !gama. Pram19a is of three kinds namely Pratyak=a Anum1na and !gama vide also Viparyaya Pr19a Lit. 'breath of life; spirit; vitality' The V1yu which draws the life-force into the body Cakra, Sarvasiddhiprad1, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvasiddhiprad1 Devasu=i Pr191gnihotra Vidy1 The knowledge of sacrificing Pr19a to Agni Vidy1-s) Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 containing also two other Vidy1 namely Pr19a Pratardana. V1c) and Pratardana This Vidy1 deals with the sacrifice of the speech (V1c to the breath and of the V1c Pr19a-s breath as the five Pr19a to the internal fire by breathing or taking food as acts of oblation. This sacrifice leads to Pratardana the act of piercing of the Granthi-s by Ku98ali92 )akti. Granthi )akti vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Pra91ma Lit. 'bowing' The act of prostration or obeisance vide also !tm1rpa9a Pr19amaya Ko0a The body of energy as sphere of consciousness This Ko0a is the expression and experience of the energy field and has the seat in the Cakra-s Svadhi=7h1na and Ma9ip3ra Cakra Pr19a Mudr1 The gesture of acquiring Pr19a energy Pr19a )akti !k10a) )akti-s The awareness of space (!k10a as one of the )akti flowing through Pi^gal1 N182 enabling the !k10a Karmendriya-s Karmendriya to function )akti). It is the pranic kind of energy (vide )akti vide also )iva )akti 121
  • 123. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Pra9ava vide O% vide also T1raka Pr19a Vidy1 The knowledge of Pr19a A Veda Vidy1, which together with Pratardana Vidy1 is contained within the Pr191gnihotra Vidy1 Vidy1. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Pr191y1ma Lit. 'lengthening of the breath' The process of expansion and regulation of the flow of energy within Pr19amaya Ko0a of the A^ga-s human body; in Yoga one of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali Pr191y1ma, Through Pr191y1ma Laghim1 is obtained and Prak10a !vara9a will gradually disappear. It has P3raka, Recaka, three states viz. P3raka Kumbhaka and Recaka it is regulated by De0a (place as climate), K1la (time as duration of the three states) and S1^khya (number of rounds). There is one more state Indriya-s Pr191y1ma, (beyond the Indriya experiences) named Caturtha Pr191y1ma a continuous awareness of the Agnihotra. breath, i.e. Ajapajapa practice. As a form of rite Pr191y1ma is identified with Agnihotra Bheda, In Ha7ha Yoga Prad2pik1 eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma are enumerated viz. S3rya Bheda Ujj1y2, )2tk1r2, )2tal2, Bhastrik1, Bhr1mar2, Pl1vin2. Ujj1y2 )2tk1r2 )2tal2 Bhastrik1 Bhr1mar2 M3rch1 and Pl1vin2 There are many other Pr191y1ma-s Pr191y1ma both from Tantric and Vedic traditions. The Ghera98a Sa%hit1 enumerates also Sahita, Bheda, Ujj1y2, )2tal2, Bhastrik1, eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma viz. Sahita S3rya Bheda Ujj1y2 )2tal2 Bhastrik1 Bhr1mar2, Keval2. Bhr1mar2 M3rch1 and Keval2 vide also Nirodha Pr192 The breathing creature Pra9idh1na Lit. 'put completely' Surrender to God as a sure way to Self-realization Pr1pti Lit. 'reaching; obtaining' One of the yogic powers of obtaining anything at will Siddhi, vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi Pr1rabdha Lit. 'undertaking, beginning' Commencement of an action Pr1rabdha Karma Past action producing result in the present, a synonym to Sopakrama Karma Pras1da Grace; the offering of food as sign of grace Prasa%khy1na 122
  • 124. P Kind of Dhy1na (meditation, reflection) in which the practitioner will accept goods only for the present needs Prasava Lit. 'impulse forward' Evolution as state of Prak4ti when the elements of nature produce more effects vide also Pratiprasava, Vyakta Pratiprasava Prast1va The chanting of prelude sung by the Prastrot4 priest Prastot4 Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Udg1t4 priest by chanting the Prast1va Pratardana Vidy1 The knowledge of the piercing Vidy1 Vidy1. A Veda Vidy1 which together with Pr19a Vidy1 is contained within the Pr191gnihotra Vidy1 vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Prathamakalpika A Yog2 as beginner in experiencing Sam1dhi Pr1tibha Lit. 'to shine upon' Sa%yama) The reflective Self; a specific power acquired naturally (without Sa%yama by somebody having the knowledge of the Self )r1va9a, Vedana, !dar0a, In the state of Pr1tibha the supernatural senses of )r1va9a Vedana !dar0a !sv1da and V1rta Siddhi-s. arise naturally as Siddhi Pr1tibha J61na Lit. 'knowledge flashing upon the thoughts' Intuition Pratihart4 Pratihart4 Lit. 'the one bringing back' Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Udg1t4 priest Devat1pratim1) Pratim1 (Devat1pratim1 Devat1pratim1 Icon of a deity, quasi similar to Murti in two-dimensional form Pratipad The new-moon time Pratipak=a Bh1vana The practice of thinking of the opposite quality in order to transform the negative habits into positive ones Pratiprasava Involution as state of Prak4ti when the elements of nature return to their original cause Prasava, Vyakta, vide also Prasava Vyakta Yoga 123
  • 125. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Pratiprasth1t4 Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Adhvaryu priest Pratyabhij61 The consciousness recognizing the identity of the individual Soul and the Supreme Soul as state of illumined knowledge vide also Savic1r1 Sam1dhi Praty1h1ra Awareness as an externalised (first) then internalised state, the gradual withdrawal of the mind from the objects experience A^ga-s Pata6jali, In Yoga one of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali the first step in understanding Praty1h1ra, the pure mind. Through Praty1h1ra Dhairyat1 is obtained. This transitional (between the outer Japa, K2rtana, Tr17aka, and inner experiences) step in Yoga employs various practices like Japa K2rtana Tr17aka N1da Yoga, S1dhana. Yoga Tantra S1dhana vide also Indriya Pratyak=a Pram19a-s Correct knowledge based on non-defective senses as one of the three Pram19a Pratyak=atva Conscious and continuous perception as a result of practicing Dhy1na Pratyaya In Yoga the basis (as content of mind) on which the consciousness functions Pratyaya is subject to the three Gu9a-s Gu9a Prav4tti The creative process as mind faculty Niv4tti, vide also Niv4tti Jyoti=mat2 Prav4tti Pray1ga Lit. 'place of sacrifice' A place of pilgrimage near All1h1b1d (India) where is the confluence of three rivers namely Ga^g1, Ga^g1 Yamun1 and Sarasvat2 Trive92, The confluence is also known as Trive92 symbolically corresponding to !j61 Cakra Lalit1, vide also Lalit1 )y1ma Prayoga Recitation of a sacred formula Pr2ti Lit. 'joy' One of the two wives of K1madeva Priya Dear, beloved P4thiv2 (also P4thv2) P4thv2 124
  • 126. P Earth A%0a-s Karmendriya-s The A%0a of P4thiv2 in the Pi98198a are the five Karmendriya vide also Bh3ta P4thiv2 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on earth as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 P4thiv2tattva The Tattva of P4thiv2 known also as Bh3mitattva Puhapak1sana vide Tantr1sana P3j1 Recitation; ritual; chanting or reading of a sacred text as a ritual practice of worship Known also as Arcan1, P3j1 is part of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga. The ritual practice is of Arcan1 A^ga Yoga B1hyap3j1, Par1p3j1, three kinds viz. B1hyap3j1 M1nasap3j1 and Par1p3j1 and is both internal and external. The fundamental concept of ritual is its cosmic meaning; any P3j1 is an involvement of the cosmic energies. P3jar2 P3j1) Performer of recitation of a sacred text (vide P3j1 P3jy1 Worthy of devoted worship Pulaha Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i, Brahm1 Sapta4=i Pulastya Name of a $=i Sapta4=i, vide also Sapta4=i Brahm1 Punarjanma Rebirth as a result of Soul transmigration Pu9ya Virtue, merit; holy vide also Dharma Pura Lit. 'in advance, forward; a stronghold, fortress' The human body; the living principle, life P3raka Controlled inspiration of breath as one of the three states of Pr191y1ma Pur19a Lit. 'ancient' 125
  • 127. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality A class of Sanskrit scripture of stories about gods as manifestations of one reality Pur19a-s Pur19a are written in a popular manner and considered to be part of sacred books of Hinduism. Pura0cara9a Mantra-s Repetition of Mantra under certain conditions for a specific number of times P3r9a Lit. 'full, complete' One of the stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle when the Sanny1sin is firmly established in the life of an !0rama P3r9a Sanny1sa is also the first stage of Tantric initiation. P3rnabhi=eka Full initiation as a special ceremony in the )1kta tradition P3r9agiri P27ha vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra P27ha, vide also P27ha Catu=p27ha In the S3k=ma )ar2ra (the subtle body) it is equated with An1hata Cakra. P3rn1huti Complete offering (oblation) when the ladle is emptied P3r9am1s2 The full-moon time P3r9im1 The day of full-moon P3r9im1r1rti The night of full-moon Puru=a Lit. 'sleeping town; male' A particular manifestation of consciousness as a transformation of )iva into a passive witness of Prak4ti; Yoga; Prak4ti the Primordial Male Principle in Yoga a conscious being as a small scale replica of the Creator Vidy1-s, In the Veda Vidy1 Puru=a as an external expression is the Sun, as internal expression is the Indra. right eye or Indra In Yoga philosophy Puru=a is an awareness in course of evolution experienced Cittav4tti-s Gu9a-s beyond the Cittav4tti and the Gu9a eventually, so leading to Self-realization. There are infinite Puru=a-s Puru=a, stages of mental consciousness therefore infinite Puru=a (vide Vai0v1nara Puru=a Tejom1y1 Puru=a, Puru=a) Puru=a Vi0va Puru=a all as hidden cause of manifestations. iva, Brahman, U=as, vide also )iva Brahman U=as Indra Puru=a Prak4ti The dual transformation of )iva )akti principle The interplay between Puru=a and Prak4ti is the cause of all manifested world. A fundamental concept in experiencing Puru=a is that it starts with the instrumentality of Prak4ti. Bindu, vide also Bindu V4=abha Dhenu 126
  • 128. P Puru=1rtha Lit. 'aim of Puru=a' Object of human desire Puru=1rtha-s K1ma, Artha, There are four Puru=1rtha viz. K1ma Artha Dharma and Mok=a Puru=atattva The Tattva of Puru=a Puru=a Vidy1 The knowledge of Puru=a Vidy1, Vidy1-s. Vidy1, A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 In this Vidy1 the human being is seen as the Sacrificer and Puru=a the Y1j6a. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Puru=avi0e=a A state of consciousness, which manifests in every human being as experience of the Divine P3rvac2ti Lit. 'first thought' Veda-s In the Veda the original basis of consciousness as Brahman P3rvap2ti Lit. 'first drinking' Veda-s In the Veda the original absorption into Brahman P3=an Veda-s !ditya-s A god in the Veda representing prosperity; one of the twelve !ditya P3=1 N182 The N182 connected to the left thigh Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvara6ja92 Pu=pa Flower; menstrual flow Pu=pi92 A woman in her period 127
  • 129. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality R R1dh1 K4=9a's K4=9a beloved The love between K4=9a and R1dh1 symbolizes the human-God relationship, which becomes complete only when the human surrenders completely to God. R1ga (from the root Ra6j i.e. to be attracted by) Lit. 'red colour; passion' Kle0a-s Infatuation; love; passion; attachment as one of the five Kle0a known also as Moha P10a, P101^ku0a, vide also P10a P101^ku0a Vair1gya Ka6cuka R1ga Ka6cuka Form of )akti limiting the perception of the real nature of love as being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti Tattva, vide also Tattva R1gatattva R1gatattva The Tattva of R1ga Ka6cuka Rahasya Lit. 'secret' The secret doctrine of esoteric teaching Rahasya Rahasya N1ma Sahasra The thousand secret names R1hu Navagraha-s The ascending node in the astronomy/ astrology one of the Navagraha Raja The pollen of flowers; the menstrual excretion' Rajas Lit. 'emotion, affection' The quality of passion, activity and motion; the woman's menstrual discharge One of the three Gu9a-s sometimes identified with Tejas. Gu9a Tejas Cakra, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Jayin2 Rajas Tapas The purification of Rajas Gu9a vide also Tapas R1ja Yoga 128
  • 130. R The royal Yoga R1ja Yoga Sam1dhi The Sam1dhi as a result of R1ja Yoga practice R1ki92 The )akti residing in Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra R1k=asa A kind of demon R1k=asa-s The abode of R1k=asa was )r2 La^ka (former Ceylon), the domain of the great R1k=asa R1va9a. known as R1va9a Rakta Blood vide also Dh1tu Raktabindu Lit. 'red spot' The point of activity of thought vide Bindu Par1bindu-s, One of the three Par1bindu it represents the )akti M1y1 as well as the Kriy1 )akti as manifestation. Rakt1mbara Lit. 'red clothed' A mendicant wearing red garment vide also Digambara Ra% vide Agni B2ja R1ma (from the root Ram i.e. to rejoice) Lit. 'charming, lovely' An incarnation of Vi=9u as symbol of joy within It is considered that R1ma appeared on earth approx. 9000 years ago. R1m1ya9a The great epic of V1lm2ki relating the story of R1ma and S2t1 as ideal husband and wife and their devotion for each other vide also R1va9a R1mi The washer-maid lover of Ca98id1s Rasa Lit. 'taste, flavour; character of a work; kind of sentiment; essential taste' Essential taste; devotional sentiment Rasa-s, As essential tastes there are six Rasa viz. Madhura (sweet), Amla (sour), Lava9a, (salt) , 129
  • 131. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Ka7uka (pungent), Tikta (bitter) and Ka=1ya (astringent). As sentiments and characters of a work Rasa-s, there are ten Rasa viz. )4ng1ra (love), V2ra (heroism), B2bhatsa (disgust), Raudra (fury), Bhay1naka H1sya (humour), Bhay1naka (terror), Karu91 (compassion), Adbhuta (wonder), )1nta , (peacefulness) and V1tsalya (affection). As devotional sentiments and degrees of Bhakti there are Rasa-s Bh1va-s, Rati-s five Rasa or Bh1va called also Rati namely )1nta (peace), D1sya (service), S1khya (friendship), V1tsalya (affection) and M1dhurya (loveliness). When these five sentiments are directed towards the Self, they take the forms of !tma Rati. vide also Tanm1tra Ras1kar=i92 The attractive power of Rasa vide Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Ras1m4ta Curan Product of Ayurvedic Tantra based on sulphide of mercury V4nda. The receipt is given in Siddhayoga of V4nda Ras1nanda Yoga Kind of Yoga by practicing with Bhr1mar2 Pr191y1ma Ras1nanda Yoga Sam1dhi The Sam1dhi as a result of Ras1nanda Yoga practice Ras1talaloka vide Loka Rasatattva The Tattva of Rasa Ras1ya9a The Indian alchemy Rati Lit. 'sentiment; devotion; pleasure' One of the two wives of K1madeva Rasa). Rati is the goddess expressing various degrees of Bhakti (vide Rasa To direct these sentiments towards the Self is called !tma Rati. Rati !sana vide Tantr1sana Ratna Jewel, gem R1tri Night Dak=i91yana, vide also Dak=i91yana )ivar1tri Raudra Rasa-s Fury as one of the Rasa R1va9a 130
  • 132. R The great R1k=asa )iva, He was initially a great Bhakta of Lord )iva then became a demon in R1m1ya9a epic, later on attaining Self-realization. Ravi The Sun God vide also Agni, S3rya Agni Recaka Lit. 'emptying' Pr191y1ma; Controlled expiration of breath as one of the three states of Pr191y1ma the name for J17har1gni (digestive fire) of elimination vide also Sarvaj61 Rekh1 (also Rekha ekha) Line, stripe; delineation vide also Ana^garekh1 $g Veda Lit. 'the Veda of praise' Ma98ala-s The most ancient sacred book consisting of 1028 hymns arranged in ten Ma98ala Veda-s Based on the calendars used in the Veda and star positions, the $g Veda is thought to date to 4000 or 6000 BC when Sarasvat2 river (now dried) was the greatest river of ancient India. vide also Veda Rocan1 (also Rocana Rocana) Lit. 'shinning, bright sphere' Veda-s In the Veda a name for the heaven as sphere of consciousness Loka, vide also Loka Rodas2 Rodas2 Rodas2 Veda-s In the Veda heaven and earth as kind of Devat1 vide also Rocan1 Roga Disease $=i Lit. 'seer' An inspired sage in the Vedic tradition vide also Sapta4=i $ta Lit. 'rule, order' The rule of order of things It applies equally at the grand scale of the universe, as well as at the nature and human levels. $ta has to be seen as the natural law of orderly things that is suitable for everything. It is immutable and 131
  • 133. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality $ta, out of the control of humans and even of gods. All have to obey the rules of $ta which is created at Sat) Sat the highest level of the reality (Sat as foundational design of manifestation. It has to be followed in Dharma. $tvija-s) rituals and human behaviour, thus being the basis of Dharma The Vedic priests ($tvija do apply $tvija $ta when performing their duties. Praj61 $tambhar1 Praj61 The super-consciousness state full of cosmic experience as a culmination of Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi vide also Nirgu9op1sana $tu Lit. 'season' The natural sequence of seasons $ta, An observation that has a deep spiritual connotation that is conceptualised as $ta order of things at every scale. $tvija A Vedic priest Veda-s Hot4, Adhvaryu, Br1hma9a, There are four chief priests of the Veda namely Hot4 Adhvaryu Udg1t4 and Br1hma9a each one having three helper priests making sixteen the number of priests necessary to perform the Mah1yaj6a with the Soma juice (Soma Rasa or Am4ta Soma Am4ta). Rudra Trim3rti) )iva; One of the Gods of Hindu trinity (Trim3rti an aspect of )iva the principle and manifestation of Trim3rti transformation; the Devat1 of Tejas Bh3ta Brahm198a) Lord Rudra presides over the transformation of Macrocosm (Brahm198a and Microcosm Brahm198a Pi98198a). Natar1ja, (Pi98198a In Brahm198a he acts as Natar1ja an agent of transformation at grand scale. In the Pi98198a Rudra-s J61nendriya-s, Pi98198a (the human body as microcosm) there are eleven Rudra i.e. five J61nendriya five Karmendriya-s Manas), Indriya-s. Karmendriya and the mind (Manas all together are known as the eleven Indriya Manas Rudragranthi Lit. 'knot of Rudra' The knot located in the Candrakha98a Siddhi-s It represents the attachment to Mada (pride) and Siddhi (supernormal powers). The Ku98alin2. transcendence of this knot is equivalent to full awakening of Ku98alin2 Rudr1k=a Lit. 'pervaded by Rudra' The tree Elaeocarpus Granitrus or its seed used for rosaries by followers of )iva tradition It is also known as Ak=a. Rudr192 vide Trim3rti Rudra Pa0upati Rudra the lord of the souls covered by ignorance Devas3 vas3-s, One of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Rudra. R3pa Form; sight 132
  • 134. R R3pa-s There are three kinds of R3pa (forms) namely Sth3la (gross), S3k=ma (subtle) and K1ra9a (causal). They apply to a wide variety of threefold concepts of which Tripur1 is seen as the most comprehensive. The three forms are to be seen as levels of vibrations of energy and as such any threefold concept could be understood by the Citta only if it has the awareness of a threefold Sampad-s. perception. R3pa means also beautiful form as one of the four K1ya Sampad anm1tra, vide also Tanm1tra Tripur1 R3p1kar=i92 The attractive power of R3pa vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra R3patattva The Tattva of R3pa 133
  • 135. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality S Sabar Mantra (from Sabar i.e. milk, nectar) Mantra representing the quintessence of a sacred text )abda Lit. 'vibration, sound; word' The vibration of sound; the thought process in the form of words Vaikhar2, Madhyam1, There are four stages of )abda namely Vaikhar2 Madhyam1 Pa0yant2 and Par1 by which the S1dhana-s whole universe of N1mar3pa comes into existence. Various S1dhana using )abda in different forms (like K2rtana, Bhajan, Mantra, N1da Yoga, etc.) have the purpose to merge the sound K2rtana Bhajan Mantra Yoga M3laprak4ti. consciousness into the mental consciousness. The original cause of )abda is M3laprak4ti In the Veda-s Sarasvat2, Veda V1k Dev2 was later identified with Sarasvat2 the goddess of speech. Karmendriya, vide also Karmendriya Savitark1 Sam1dhi )abda Brahman Brahman as the primal sound-energy )abd1kar=i92 The attractive power of )abda vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra )abdatattva The Tattva of )abda Sab2ja Sam1dhi B2ja) Pratyaya Sam1dhi with seed (B2ja based on Pratyaya B2ja Towards finer and finer realms of consciousness Sab2ja Sam1dhi is of six kinds viz. Savitark1, Savitark1 Nirvitark1, Savic1r1, Nirvic1r1, Asmit1. Nirvitark1 Savic1r1 Nirvic1r1 !nanda and Asmit1 Other varieties of Sab2ja Sam1dhi are Sam1dhi, Sampraj61ta Sam1dhi Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi Sam1dhi. Sam1dhi vide also Nirb2ja Sam1dhi, Savikalpa Sam1dhi )accid1nanda In Vedanta existence-consciousness-bliss as a state similar to Nirb2ja Sam1dhi in Yoga vide also Sat Cit !nanda +a8a^ga Lit. 'six limbs' The science of forms The forms are seen as outer expressions of the inner reality, the means to provide a spiritual experience by understanding their transcendental correspondence. Although +a8a^ga as a word +a8a^gany1sa) refers to the six limbs (vide +a8a^gany1sa its expression as science of forms is very wide, Yantra, Ma98ala, addressing the symbol-values of Yantra Ma98ala statues, icons, temples, geometry, architecture, etc. vide also M3rti 134
  • 136. S +a8a^gany1sa Lit. 'Ny1sa of the six limbs' Mantra-s The act of installing of deities by touch and Mantra invocation into six parts of the body namely heart, forehead, crown of the head, anus, eyes and navel. vide also +a8a^ga Sad10iva Lit. 'always auspicious' )iva; A form of )iva the Devat1 of !k10a Bh3ta Sad10ivatattva The Tattva of Icch1 )akti (the energy of will) +a8 Dar0ana M2m1%s1 Ny1ya, Vai0e=ika, m1%s1, The six classical philosophies of the Indian tradition namely M2m1%s1 Ny1ya Vai0e=ika S1%khya, Yoga S1%khya Yoga, Ved1nta They are also known as Indian orthodox (i.e. accepted by Hinduism) systems of philosophy. vide also Tattva Cintana S1dhaka Lit. 'efficient, effective' Adept, spiritual aspirant practicing S1dhana According to Gandharva Tantra a competent S1dhaka should be Dak=a (intelligent), Jitendriya (having senses under control), Sarv1hi%s1 Vinirmukta (free from injuring all creatures), Veda-s), )uci (pure), Sarvapr19ihita Rata (doing always good to all beings), !stika (believer in Veda )uci Brahman). Tantra-s S1dhaka-s Brahmav1d2 (with faith in Brahman In the Tantra there are three kinds of S1dhaka viz. Pa0u, Divya, Gu9a-s. Yoga-s Pa0u V2ra and Divya each one having preponderance over one of the three Gu9a In Yoga S1dhaka-s Ni=k1ma. there are two kinds of S1dhaka viz. Sak1ma and Ni=k1ma vide also Tantra )1str1dhik1ra S1dhana (also S1dhan1 S1dhan1) Lit. 'leading straight to a goal' Yoga, Tantra, Veda, A practice from Yoga Tantra Veda etc. with a spiritual aim The goal of S1dhana is to enable the practitioner as manifestation of )iva )akti at Microcosmic K=udra Brahm198a) Brahm198a) level (i.e. K=udra Brahm198a to experience )iva )akti at Macrocosmic level (i.e. Brahm198a where the experience is unlimited. S1dhana, S1dhana, vide also Tantra S1dhana Veda S1dhana Yoga S1dhana S1dhik1 A female S1dhaka S1dhu A holy man, saint; a saintly woman Sad Vidy1 Sat) Sat The knowledge of the reality (Sat Vidy1-s) Sat, A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 which deals with Asat as the cause of Sat as the knowledge imparted by sage Udd1laka to his son )vetaketu. 135
  • 137. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Sagarbha Sahita Pr191y1ma vide Sahita Kumbhaka Sagu9a With quality as attribute Sagu9a and Nirgu9a apply to a wide range of descriptions where the subjects can be with or Brahman. without qualities or attributes, like Dev2 being in Her Sagu9a or Nirgu9a aspects or Brahman Sagu9a) Nirgu9a). The concept applies to any reality with attributes (as Sagu9a or without attributes (as Nirgu9a Sagu9a Brahman The Universal Spirit possessing qualities vide also Brahman, !nandamaya Vidy1, Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Brahman Vidy1 Sagu9op1sana The contemplation of objects as an introduction to meditation Up1sana vide also Up1sana, Nirgu9op1sana Sahaja Lit. 'original, natural' The stage of Self-realization J61na, Sam1dhi, vide also J61na Sam1dhi Vidy1 Sahajol2 Mudr1 Yogin2) A variant of Vajrol2 Mudr1 practiced by a female Yog2 (i.e. Yogin2 S1ham Lit. 'She I am' A Mantra to identify oneself with )akti vide also Soham Sahas Lit. 'power, strength' Veda-s In the Veda the power to overcome the ignorance vide also M1rga02r=a Sahasr1ra Cakra (known also as Soma Cakra Cakra) Cakra), The thousand-petals lotus (Cakra the most important Cakra in the human body where the highest Cakra level of consciousness is experienced The awakening of this Cakra enables one to leave the body in full consciousness as the level of awareness is Satyaloka. The "one thousand" is just symbolic of a number, practically this Cakra Satyaloka Nir1k1ra. has unlimited extensions and all the potentialities of the consciousness as !k1ra and Nir1k1ra Jyotirli^ga, Ku98alin2, Meru, vide also Jyotirli^ga Ku98alin2 Meru Kail1sa Sahita Kumbhaka Lit. 'supported Kumbhaka' P3raka, A Pr191y1ma technique in which the ratio between P3raka Kumbhaka and Recaka is 1:4:2, therefore based mainly on Kumbhaka but supported also by P3raka and Recaka 136
  • 138. S Mantra-s) Known also as Sahita Pr191y1ma it is of two kinds viz. Sagarbha (with repetition of Mantra Mantra-s). Sahita Kumbhaka leads to Kevala Kumbhaka and Nigarbha (without repetition of Mantra )akti. therefore the awakening of Ku98alin2 )akti Sahodara Lit. 'born of the same womb' A sister or brother )aiva A follower of )iva and kind of philosophical tradition in India in which the male principle is paramount Sakala With parts Sak1ma With desire Sak1ma S1dhaka Kind of Yoga practitioner known also as Sa%s1r2 concerned mainly with the first two of the Puru=1rtha-s Puru=1rtha i.e. K1ma and Artha Sakara With form, manifested S1khya A^ga-s Friendship; one of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of friendship, also one of Rasa-s the Rasa S1kin2 The )akti residing in the Vi0uddhi Cakra )akra ditya-s Courage as one of the twelve !ditya S1k=i Witness vide also Dra=7a S1k=ibh1va Attitude of a witness S1k=i) Cit). S1k=ibh1va The real witness (S1k=i is the Universal Consciousness (Cit By practicing S1k=ibh1va a S1k=i Cit S1dhaka is on the same side with the real witness. The practical manner is to reserve approx. 1% of the conscious activity of the brain to witness what the other 99% does. Dra=7a, vide also Dra=7a !tmadra=7a )1kta )aktip3jaka; A follower (worshipper) of )akti known also as )aktip3jaka kind of philosophical tradition in India in which the female principle is paramount )akti Lit. 'power, energy' 137
  • 139. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide )iva )akti )aktim1n) Energy as manifested form taken by )iva as Power-Holder ()aktim1n )aktim1n R3pa-s As manifestation )akti is the vibration of any frequency in the three R3pa possessing all aspects of life from beneficial to malefic, sensual to sublime, creative to destructive. There are three kinds )akti-s) )akti, )akti, of energies ()akti namely Pr19a )akti Manas )akti and !tma )akti i.e. pranic, mental and )akti spiritual energies. )akti B2ja vide Hr2% )aktic1lan2 Mudr1 (or )aktic1lan1 )aktic1lan1) Bandha-s The awakening of )akti Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha )aktik37a One group (section) of Pa6cada02 presided over by Soma )aktim1n )akti The Power-Holder and Power The Power-Holder is )iva and the Power is )akti. There is nor )iva without )akti or )akti without )iva, they are One as the static aspect (i.e. )iva) and the moving (kinetic) aspect (i.e. )iva )iva )akti) Sat). )akti of the same Reality (Sat Sat vide also )iva )akti )akti P3j1 )akti worship )akti0odhana )akti0odhana The ritual of purification of the woman representing )akti in )akti P3j1 practice. )aktitattva The Tattva of )akti vide also )iva )akti )akti Up1san1 Female worship )aktiv2ra A male partner of a woman who represents )akti pertaining the )akti worship ritual (i.e. )akti P3j1) P3j1 )akuna )1stra vide )akuna Tantra )akuna Tantra The doctrine (science) of omens )akunopade0a) Tantra, It is known also as )akuna Upade0a ()akunopade0a or )akuna )1stra. A part of Tantra the )akunopade0a )akuna Tantra deals with nature's warnings of forthcoming events. The power of correct interpretation of these warnings is called Lak=a9a Siddhi. The warnings are hidden symbols of Prak4ti's Prak4ti messages. vide also Lak=ana, Lak=ana Siddhi Lak=ana 138
  • 140. S )akunopade0a vide )akuna Tantra )alabh1sana The locust !sana )1lagr1ma Vai=9ava-s A sacred stone worshipped by Vai=9ava The black stone containing a fossil ammonite is found near the )1lagr1ma village on the river Ga9dak2 in Nepal. Its name comes from the )1l trees (Vatica Robusta) which grow in the area. The black ammonite falls into the river from the mountain Ga9dak2 (which according to Pur19a, Bh1gavata Pur19a Vi=9u had transformed himself). The )1lagr1ma believed to be pervaded by Vai=9ava-s the presence of Lord Vi=9u is the most sacred object of Vai=9ava having the same status as )aiva-s. )ivali^ga for )aiva S1lajja Lit. 'granting modesty' Brahm1, The city of Brahm1 in the Brahmaloka representing the experiences of the world of Brahm1 as Rasa-s various Rasa as sentiments Vidy1) The devotee has to raise above these kinds of experiences (vide Parya^ka Vidy1 by a Dra=7a attitude. vide also S1k=ibh1va S1lokya Lit. 'same world' The state in which the devotee lives on the same plane with the Divine vide also !tma Rati )am Lit. 'contentment, peace' Auspiciousness as a name of )iva Sam1dhi Lit. 'union with the Lord' Awareness as states of consciousness (transcending the mind eventually) in which any duality will J2v1tma) disappear gradually and the individual Self (J2v1tma of a Dra=7a merges with the cosmic Self J2v1tma Param1tm1) Param1tm1 (Param1tm1 Yoga, A^ga-s Pata6jali In Yoga Sam1dhi is one of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali Through jali. Sam1dhi, Sam1dhi Nirliptat1 is obtained. There are only two categories of Sam1dhi viz. Sab2ja and Nirb2ja, Sampraj61ta, Nirb2ja other kinds such as Sampraj61ta Asampraj61ta are only intermediate states of Sam1dhi. Sam1dhi-s Sam1dhi There are also Sam1dhi as a result of particular kinds of Yoga practices like Bhakti Sam1dhi, Sam1dhi, Sam1dhi, Yoga Sam1dhi R1ja Yoga Sam1dhi Laya Siddhi Yoga Sam1dhi Dhy1na Yoga Sam1dhi Sam1dhi, Sam1dhi, N1da Yoga Sam1dhi Ras1nanda Yoga Sam1dhi as stated in Ghera98a Sa%hit1 work. The Sam1dhi concept has to be seen as the experience of awareness therefore it has limitless aspects. Sam1patti, Nira6jan1, vide also Sam1patti Nira6jan1 Samarasa Sam1dhi Pari91ma Pari91ma-s Transformation of consciousness as one of the three Pari91ma vide also Dharma Pari91ma 139
  • 141. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Sam1dhi Praj61 The higher intelligence possessing a spiritual vision Sam1dhi. It is developed as a result of successfully practicing Sampraj61ta Sam1dhi Sam1na The V1yu which controls digestion into the body Cakra, Sarvak1maprad1, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvak1maprad1 Devasu=i S1m1nya Homa The ordinary Homa Sam1patti Lit. 'coming together' The state of merge in various stages of individual identity with cosmic identity known in Yoga Grah2t4, Graha9a, Gr1hya. S3tra as the merge of Grah2t4 Graha9a Gr1hya This is a state preliminary to Sam1dhi. Both Sam1patti and Sam1dhi employ the same process, however Sam1patti deals with an impure mind, but Sam1dhi arises in a pure mind, therefore its !vara9a). !vara9a perception is much more advanced by the removal of covering (!vara9a After purification of the mind Sam1patti graduates into Sam1dhi. Sam1dhi vide also Samarasa Samarasa (also Samarasatva Samarasatva) The experience of unity in Tantric practices, a state parallel to Sam1dhi in Yoga vide also Maithuna Samarpa9a The act of offering Samastavidy1 The Sth3la (gross) worship of Dev2 Samatva (also Samat1 Samat1) Balance, equanimity S1ma Veda Sa%hit1-s The Veda of chanting, one of the four Veda Sa%hit1 Samaya Traditional custom Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkum1ra, Samaya also means the five books of Sanaka Sanandana Sanatkum1ra )uka and Vasi=7ha because they describe the traditional custom, therefore the traditional custom of Samaya becomes Samaya doctrine. vide also )ubh1gama Pa6caka Samayana The state of emptiness, equanimity and mental tranquillity In this state the cognitive, cognative and volitional functions cease to exist. )1%bhav2 Mudr1 140
  • 142. S Bandha-s The consort of )a%bhu Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha yoti=mat2, Bhr3madhya, vide also Jyoti=mat2 Bhr3madhya !j61 Cakra )a%bhu Lit. 'causing happiness’ A name of )iva Sa%dhy1 The twilight prayer Sa%h1ra A work of dissolution Triko9a, vide also M3la Triko9a S4=7i Sa%h1rakrama Going towards dissolution, a synonym for Layakrama Sa%hit1 Veda-s A collection of writings, the main ones being the four Veda S1m2pya The state in which the devotee realizes proximity with the Divine vide also !tma Rati Sa%kalpa (also Sa^kalpa Sa^kalpa) Resolve, determination, declaration of purpose A spiritual technique when the practitioner makes a personal declaration of purpose in specific circumstances like a P3j1 or during Yoga Nidra )a%kar1c1rya vide )a^kara S1%khya (also S1^khya S1^khya) Lit. 'number' Dar0ana-s One of the +ad Dar0ana Sa%kr1nti The passage of the sun the northwards way vise also Uttar1yana Uttar1yana Sa%ny1sa (also Sanny1sa Sanny1sa) Lit. 'renunciation of the world' !0rama-s; Karma-s Renunciation as one of the four !0rama a way of investing Karma Jij61su, Karma, Ku7icaka, Bahuda, There are gradual stages of Sa%ny1sa life starting with Jij61su then Karma Ku7icaka Bahuda P3rna, Ha%sa P3rna Ha%sa, etc., all as various degrees of spiritual life. Bhagavad G2ta says: "Sanny1sa Sanny1sa Karma-s", in other words investing own actions for personal and community equals investing the Karma development. Sa%ny1sin (also Sanny1sin Sanny1s2 Sanny1sin, Sanny1s2) Lit. 'giving up' 141
  • 143. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Ascetic, one who has renounced all earthly concerns !0rama, S1dhaka, vide also !0rama Ni=k1ma S1dhaka Sv1mi Samprad1ya Tradition, belief transmitted from one teacher to another Sampraj61ta Sam1dhi Kind of Sam1dhi in which the practitioner is still able to differentiate vide also Sam1dhi Praj61 Sa%s1ra Life of transmigration from one birth to another; the life of birth and death as the law of cyclic spiritual progress Sa%s1r2 vide Sak1ma S1dhaka Sa%0aya Vik=epa-s The state of doubt as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Sa%sk1ra V4tti; Tantra-s Latent impression in the Citta as subtle form of V4tti sacramental rite in the Tantra The latent impressions as potentialities are the accumulated seeds of consciousness as objective Sam1dhi. consciousness of past experiences which survive up to the state of Nirb2ja Sam1dhi There are Sa%sk1ra-s. Sa%sk1ra-s) multiple layers of Sa%sk1ra The impressions (Sa%sk1ra accompany every action (Karma Sa%sk1ra Karma). Karma Sa%sk1ra-s By practicing Sa%yama on own Sa%sk1ra the knowledge of previous births is obtained. )ar2ra, Karma, V1san1, vide also K1ra9a )ar2ra Karma V1san1 Ni=k1ma Karma Sa%sk4ta Lit. 'well done' The Aryan language, which was standardised by P19ini the great grammarian of the 7th century BCE The language is also called Deva Bh1=1 (i.e. the language of gods). Sa%varga Vidy1 The knowledge of absorption Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 It refers to the correlation between the individual Pr19a-s Pr19a-s Pr19a and the universal V1yu in which Pr19a are absorbed. It is also related to the food Anna) (Anna giving, the individual Pr19a being seen as the food that will be given (therefore absorbed) Anna Vai0v1nara Vai0v1nara) to the humankind (Vai0v1nara seen as the body of V1yu. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Sa%vega Urge, eagerness vide also T2vrasa%vega Sa%vid Perception Sa%vit 142
  • 144. S Bhairav2; Goddess Sa%vit also called Bhairav2 the Pure Consciousness synonym with Cit vide also Cittasa%vit Sa%yagdar0ana The perfect vision that enables the devotee to dispel darkness and avoid Punarjanma (rebirth) Sa%yama The state when Dh1ra91, Dhy1na and are Sam1dhi are applied together as three consecutive Dh1ra91 J61na, stages towards J61na a state of mental control over the applied awareness vide also Siddhi )a9a The species of hemp Cannabis Sativa or Crotolaria Juncea vide also Mekhal1 Sanaka vide Samaya Sanandana vide Samaya San1tana Dharma The Eternal Dharma Sanatkum1ra Brahm1's One of Brahm1 sons vide also Janarloka, Samaya Sa^cita Karma Past actions not yet manifested, a synonym to Nirupakrama Karma )198ilya Vidy1 The knowledge of )198ilya Vidy1, Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 refers to the Soul (in the heart) as Pr1j6a in the K1ra9a )ar2ra. The meditation is on the Soul expending and contracting in the centre of the heart H4d). H4d (H4d vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Sa^ga Attachment vide also Pa6c1gni )ani Navagraha-s The planet Saturn one of the Navagraha Sa^kalpa (also Sa%kalpa Sa%kalpa) Lit. 'determination' Resolution, a firm affirmation taken in specific yogic technique practices; purpose, desire vide also Anu=7h1na 143
  • 145. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality )a^kara The author of the celebrated Tantric text Saundaryalahari (eighth century CE) known also as )a^kar1c1rya or )a%kar1c1rya he is the founder of the ten orders ( Dasn1mi) of mendicants in Dasn1mi India vide also N1ga Sa^ka71sana The twister !sana )a^kha Conch-shell used for ritual, ornaments or as instrument to produce sounds )a^khin2 vide Padmin2 )a^khin2 N182 The connected to the left side of the body vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvonm1di92 Cakra Sanny1sa vide Sa%ny1sa Sanny1sin vide Sa%ny1sin )1nta Rasa-s Peacefulness as one of the Rasa )1nti Daiv2sampat-s Peacefulness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat )1ntikarma Lit. 'action of peace' One of the +a7karma-s giving protection from the evil influences of planets and curses by others, +a7karma or removes diseases and dispels fears bringing peace and happiness This +a7karma will counterbalance the ill effects of the others five malefic magical rites, therefore bringing the Tantric concept of polarity into effect. Santo=a Contentment as one of the five Niyama-s Niyama Santo=aprati=7h1 A state in which Santo=a is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Santo=aprati=7h1 becomes very happy. Saptabh3mi The seven upper worlds Cakra-s. In the human body they correspond to the seven Cakra vide also Loka Sapta Sapta Dh1tu 144
  • 146. S vide Dh1tu Sapta4=i The seven seers $=i-s Marut), Atri, A^giras, Pulastya, In astronomy the seven $=i are the seven stars viz. Mar2ci (or Marut Atri A^giras Pulastya Pulaha, Pulaha Kratu and Vasi=7ha of the constellation Ursa Major. vide also Brahm1 Sarasvat2 Lit. 'she who is full of inspiration' Brahm1; Trive92) Veda-s Consort of Lord Brahm1 name of a river (vide Pray1ga and Trive92 in the Veda Praj6a, As a personification of Praj6a Sarasvat2 presides over arts and eloquence, wisdom and learning. vide also $g Veda Sarasvat2 N182 The N182 connected to the left shoulder Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarv1rthas1dha92 )ar2ra Body, frame There are there bodies as states of consciousness viz. Sth3la (gross), S3k=ma (subtle) and K1ra9a Tantra-s )ivali^ga-s (causal). They are represented in the Tantra in the form of the three types of )ivali^ga and Ko0a-s experienced through the five Ko0a as different vibrations of energy. Beyond these three bodies )ar2ra, there is the Mah1 K1ra9a )ar2ra their source associated with Tur2ya state. )1r2ra The Soul in the Sth3la )ar2ra (gross body) J2v1tman vide also J2v1tman )ar2r1kar=i92 The attractive power of )ar2ra vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Sar=7i The state in which the devotee realizes the knowledge of the Divine vide also !tma Rati Sar3pa With form S1r3pya The state in which the devotee realizes same form with the Divine vide also !tma Rati Sarv1dh1rasvar3pi92 The one in the form of all supports In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of K=1raka vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra 145
  • 147. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Sarvadu5khavimoci92 The remover of all sufferings In the human subtle body corresponds to N1ga V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2 The destroyer of duality In the human subtle body corresponds to Su=umn1 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvahl1di92 The delighter of all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to V1ru92 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvai0varyaprad1 The giver of all sovereignty (authority) In the human subtle body corresponds to J17har1gni of )o=aka. )o=aka vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarvaj61 The one who knows all Recaka. In the human gross body corresponds to J17har1gni of Recaka vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarvaj61namay2 The one full of all knowledge D1haka. In the human gross body corresponds to J17har1gni of D1haka vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarvaj4mbhi92 The releaser of all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Payasvin2 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvak1maprad1 The giver of all desires (wants) V1yu. In the human subtle body corresponds to Sam1na V1yu vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvakar=i92 The one who attracts all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Vi0vodar1 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvama^gal1 146
  • 148. S )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti Sva%. The B2ja Mantra is Sva% Sarvama^gal1k1ri92 The one bringing all auspicious things V1yu. In the human subtle body corresponds to Ud1na V1yu vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvamantramay2 Mantra-s Consisting of all Mantra N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Pi^gal1 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvam4tyupra0ama92 The one bringing to a state of peace the indication of death V1yu. In the human subtle body corresponds to K3rma V1yu vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarv1nandamaya Cakra Lit. 'the wheel consisting entirely of bliss' Lalit1 Lalit1) The Red Central Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presiding by Mah1tripur1sundar2 )akti (Lalit1 It is also known as Binduma98ala Cakra. Here is where Dev2 Lalit1 as supreme K1me0var2 is Cakra united with Her Lord Kame0vara in the state of supreme union of Sat Cit !nanda in U882y1na P27ha. Bindu-s P27ha It is represented as three Bindu (points), the one above representing the face, the two below representing the breasts. Meditation on this Cakra brings the identity of the S1dhaka with Lalit1. Lalit1 Par1bindu, vide also Par1bindu Bindu Sarv1nandamay2 The one full of all bliss In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of K=obhaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarv1^gasundar2 The one beautiful in all limbs V1yu. In the human subtle body corresponds to Devadatta V1yu vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvap1pahar1 The dispeller of all evil In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Udg1raka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarvapriya%kar2 The doer of what is liked by all V1yu. In the human subtle body corresponds to Vy1na V1yu 147
  • 149. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvapsitaphalaprad1 The giver of the fruit of all wants In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Mohaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Lit. 'the wheel protecting all' The ten Blue Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripuram1lin2 )akti )akti-s Sarvaj61, The )akti to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities of protection namely Sarvaj61 Sarva0aktiprad1, Sarva0aktiprad1 Sarvai0varyaprad1, Sarvai0varyaprad1 Sarvaj61namay2, Sarvaj61namay2 Sarvavy1dhivin10in2, Sarvavy1dhivin10in2 Sarv1dh1rasvar3pi92, Sarv1dh1rasvar3pi92 Sarvap1pahar1, Sarvap1pahar1 Sarv1nandamay2, Sarv1nandamay2 Sarvarak=1svar3pi92, Sarvarak=1svar3pi92 Sarvapsitaphalaprad1. Sarvapsitaphalaprad1 In the human subtle body they are manifestations of Sam1na V1yu within the Manip3ra Cakra as Vahnikal1 (vital fire). The ten functions of Vahnikal1 manifest as J17har1gni-s J17har1gni). ten J17har1gni in the gross body (vide J17har1gni Sarvarak=1svar3pi92 The one in the form of all protections In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of J4mbhaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarvara6ja92 The one pleasing (charming) to all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to P3=1 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvarogahara Cakra Lit. 'the wheel removing all sickness' The eight Red Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripurasiddh1 )akti )akti-s The )akti to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities of mental expressions (V1gdev2 V1gdev2-s) V1gdev2 Va0in2, K1me02, Modin2, Vimal1, Aru91, Jayin2, Sarve02 namely Va0in2 K1me02 Modin2 Vimal1 Aru91 Jayin2 Sarve02 (or Sarve0var2 and Sarve0var2) Kaulin2. Devat1-s Kaulin2 In the human mind they manifest as Devat1 of two sets of polarities i.e. )2ta (calm) and U=9a (ardent), Sukha (delighted) and Du5kha (distressed), Icch1 (wish) and the three Gu9a Gu9a-s namely Sattva (equilibrium), Rajas (activity), Tamas (inertia). At this stage the S1dhaka is able Sarvarogahara, to achieve Sarvarogahara the curing of all ills by overcoming the opposites (DvandvaDvandva-s), the Dvandva Icch1) Icch1 Gu9a-s), the essence of the Self being beyond all. Gu9a individual self as will (Icch1 and the qualities (Gu9a Sarv1rtha Sarv1rtha Lit. 'all accomplishments' Citta) A yogic state when the mind (as Citta becomes pure Thus it allows the combined experience of Dra=7a and D40ya (i.e. the subject and the object of awareness) which Citta is able to reflect. vide also V1san1 Sarv1rthas1dhaka Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Lit. 'the wheel creating all prosperity' The Ten Red Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripura0r2 )akti 148
  • 150. S )akti-s The )akti to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities of accomplishments namely Sarvasiddhiprad1, Sarvasiddhiprad1 Sarvasampatprad1, Sarvasampatprad1 Sarvapriya%kar2 %kar2, Sarvapriya%kar2 Sarvama^gal1kari92, Sarvama^gal1kari92 Sarvak1maprad1, Sarvadu5khavimoci92, Sarvam4tyupra0ama92, Sarvavighaniv1ri92, Sarvak1maprad1 Sarvadu5khavimoci92 Sarvam4tyupra0ama92 Sarvavighaniv1ri92 Sarv1^gasundar2, Sarvasaubh1gyad1yi92. V1yu- Sarv1^gasundar2 Sarvasaubh1gyad1yi92 In the subtle body they correspond to the ten V1yu Pr19a, Ap1na, Vy1na, Ud1na, Sam1na, N1ga, K3rma, K4kara Devadatta, s viz. Pr19a Ap1na Vy1na Ud1na Sam1na N1ga K3rma K4kara, Devadatta Dhana6jay1. Dhana6jay1 vide also V1yu Sarv1rths1dha92 The one who accomplishes all material gains N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Sarasvat2 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarva0aktiprad1 The giver of all powers In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Pacaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarv10a%k=obha9a Cakra Lit. 'the wheel agitating all' The Eight-petals Red Lotus Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripur1sundar2 )akti )akti-s The )akti to be worshipped on the petals are the deities who agitate the mind viz. Ana^gakusum1, Ana^gamekhal1, Ana^gamadan1, Ana^gamadan1tur1, Ana^garekh1, Ana^gakusum1 Ana^gamekhal1 Ana^gamadan1 Ana^gamadan1tur1 Ana^garekh1 Ana^gavegan2, Ana^gam1lin2. Ana^gavegan2 Ana^gamadan1^ku01 and Ana^gam1lin2 They correspond to the human Vacana, Upek=a, !nanda, Gamana, 1na, Visarga, expressions and attitudes of Vacana Upek=a !nanda Gamana H1na Visarga !d1na and Up1d1na. Up1d1na Sarvasa%k=obhi92 The agitator of all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Ala%bus1 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvasa%mohi92 The one who can delude all (everything) N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Hastijihv1 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvasampatprad1 The giver of all material gains In the human subtle body corresponds to Ap1na V1yu. V1yu vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvasampattip3ra92 The one who can fulfil and satisfy all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to I81 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarv101paripuraka Cakra 149
  • 151. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'the wheel fulfilling all desires' +oda02) The Sixteen-petals Blue Lotus Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripure0i (+oda02 )akti +oda02 )akti-s The )akti to be worshipped on the petals are the deities of attraction viz. K1m1kar=i92 Buddhy1kar=i92, Buddhy1kar=i92 Aha%k1r1kar=i92, Aha%k1r1kar=i92 )abd1kar=i92, )abd1kar=i92 Spar01kar=i92, R3p1kar=i92 Spar01kar=i92 R3p1kar=i92, Ras1kar=i92, Gandh1kar=i92, Cittakar=i92, Dhairy1kar=i92, Sm4ty1kar=i92, N1m1kar=i92, Ras1kar=i92 Gandh1kar=i92 Cittakar=i92 Dhairy1kar=i92 Sm4ty1kar=i92 N1m1kar=i92 B2j1kar=i92, !tm1kar=i92, )arir1kar=i92. B2j1kar=i92 !tm1kar=i92 Am4t1kar=i92 and )arir1kar=i92 These attractive powers as M1y1, manifestations of M1y1 veil the consciousness. In the human body they are experienced through Bh3ta-s, J61nendriya-s, Karmendriya-s the five Bh3ta the five J61nendriya the five Karmendriya and Manas Manas. Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Lit. 'the wheel granting every happiness' The Fourteen Blue Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tipurav1sin2 )akti )akti-s The )akti to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities granting all that is auspicious viz. Sarvasa%k=obhi92, Sarvavidr1vi92 Sarvakar=i92, Sarvahl1di92, Sarvasa%mohin2, Sarvasa%k=obhi92 Sarvavidr1vi92, Sarvakar=i92 Sarvahl1di92 Sarvasa%mohin2 Sarvastambhi92, Sarvaj4mbhi92 Sarvastambhi92 Sarvaj4mbhi92, Sarvava0a^kar2 Sarvava0a^kar2, Sarvara6ja92 Sarvara6ja92, Sarvonm1di92 Sarvonm1di92, Sarv1rthas1dha92, Sarvasampattip3ra92, Sarvamantramay2, Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2. Sarv1rthas1dha92 Sarvasampattip3ra92 Sarvamantramay2 Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2 N182-s S3k=ma )ar2ra) They correspond with the fourteen main N182 in the human body (S3k=ma )ar2ra namely Ala%bus1, Kuh3, Vi0vodar1, V1ru92, Hastijihv1, Yo0ovat2, Payasvin2, G1ndh1r2, P3=1, Ala%bus1 Kuh3 Vi0vodar1 V1ru92 Hastijihv1 Yo0ovat2 Payasvin2 G1ndh1r2 P3=1 )a^khin2, Sarasvat2, I81, Pi^gal1, Su=umn1. )a^khin2 Sarasvat2 I81 Pi^gal1 Su=umn1 Sarvasaubh1gyad1yi92 The giver of all good fortunes Dhana6jay1 In the human subtle body corresponds to Dhana6jay1 V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvasiddhiprad1 The giver of all that is perfect In the human subtle body corresponds to Pr19a V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Lit. 'the wheel granting all miraculous powers' The White Central Triangle Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripur1mb1 )akti Cakra, Cakra, Cakra. It is also known as Triko9a Cakra Yonima98ala Cakra M3la Triko9a Cakra At the corners of )akti-s Cakra, Devat1-s the triangle are the )akti to be worshipped in this Cakra the !vara9a Devat1 namely K1me0var2, Vajre0var2 and Bhagam1lin2 presiding over the three principles of existence ( K1me0var2 Avyakta, Mahat). P27ha-s Avyakta Aha%k1ra and Mahat The corners of the triangles are the three P27ha namely K1mar3pa, K1mar3pa P3r9agiri and J1landhara as symbols of creation. Outside the triangle there are the Devat1-s Lalit1. three !yudha Devat1 presiding over the weapons of Dev2 Lalit1 vide also Catu=p27ha Sarvastambhi92 The one who can arrests (restrain) all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Ya0ovat2 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvava0a^kar2 Sarvava0a^kar2 The controller of all 150
  • 152. S N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to G1ndh1r2 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvavidr1vi92 The chaser of all N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to Kuh3 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvavighaniv1ri92 Sarvavighaniv1ri92 The one overcoming all obstacles In the human subtle body corresponds to K4kara V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvavy1dhivin10in2 The destroyer of all diseases In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Pl1vaka. Sarvarak=1kara vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Sarve02 The active one V1gdev2-s One of the V1gdev2 corresponding to the mental quality of Rajas vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Sarve0var2 vide Sarvarogahara Cakra Sarvonm1di92 The intoxicator of all )a^khin2 N182. In the human subtle body corresponds to )a^khin2 N182 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra S1=71^ga Pra91ma Prostration of the six limbs )1stra Scripture vide also Tantra Sat Being; existence; reality Veda-s The Veda say: The Reality is one, the wise speak of It in different ways (Ekem Sat Vipr1 Ekem Vadanti adanti) Bahudh1 Vadanti !nanda, )akti, vide Sat Cit !nanda )iva )akti Svar3pa +a7 Cakra Bheda Cakra-s Nirvana) Piercing the six Cakra as a process towards attaining spiritual liberation (Nirvana Nirvana Sat Cit !nanda 151
  • 153. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The triad Existence-Consciousness-Bliss, a state reached through Dharmamegha Sam1dhi as the experience of united attributes of !tman Veda-s It is a parallel concept with the Indra Agni Soma from the Veda (vide Indra Agni Soma S3rya) J61na, S3rya therefore the Dharmamegha Sam1dhi becomes the J61na in Vedic terms is a S3rya expression. Saccid1nanda, Tad1k1r1patti vide Saccid1nanda Tad1k1r1patti Sat2 A spouse of )iva Dev2, vide Dev2 P27ha +a7karma Lit. 'six actions' Tantra-s; The six magical rites in the Tantra the six yogic processes of purification +a7karma-s )1ntikarma, Stambha9akarma, Va0ikara9akarma, The +a7karma as magical rites are )1ntikarma Stambha9akarma Va0ikara9akarma Vidve=a9akarma, Ucc17anakarma 17anakarmaand M1ra9akarma They are associated with specific deities, Vidve=a9akarma Ucc17anakarma M1ra9akarma. Mantra-s, B2ja Mantra gross elements, colours or compass directions. The S1dhan1 of the five malefic magical rites is considered to be a lower form of spirituality and such practices are not a vehicle of enlightenment. +a7karma-s Dhauti, Basti, Neti, Nauli, As yogic processes of purification, the +a7karma are Dhauti Basti Neti Nauli Tr17aka and Kap1labh1ti. )odhana. Kap1labh1ti Their practice results in acquiring )odhana vide also Nigrahahoma, Yogam1y1 S1dhana Nigrahahoma Satk1ryav1da In S1%khya the concept that every K1rya potentially exists in its K1ra9a Satsa^ga A gathering to discuss spiritual themes Sattva Lit. 'reality; true essence' The quality of purity, equilibrium and rhythm Gu9a-s It is one of the three Gu9a Cakra, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Sarve02 Sattvasa%0uddhi Sattvasa%0uddhi Daiv2sampat-s Purity of the heart as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Sattva Tapas The purification of Sattva Gu9a vide also Tapas Sattya% )iva% Sundara% Truth Bliss Beauty Satya Lit. 'true; pure' Yama-s Daiv2sampat-s The quality of being true as one of the five Yama and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat 152
  • 154. S vide also Bh3ma Vidy1 Satyak1ma Vidy1 The knowledge of Satyak1ma Vidy1-s) A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 describes the knowledge of Satyak1ma J1b1la P1da-s Pr1na, Ak=i, Manas) about the four P1da (namely Pr1na Ak=i )rava9a and Manas leading to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Satyaloka The highest of the fourteen worlds known also as Brahmaloka Brahm1, It is the abode of Brahm1 the heaven of truth and the accomplishment of Viveka Loka, vide Loka Sahasr1ra Cakra Satyaprati=7h1 A state in which Satya is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Satyaprati=7h1 will have the power to accomplish actions by words or thoughts. Satya Yuga An age of the world consisting of 1,728,000 years vide Yuga Saubh1gya Good fortune, success )auca Niyama-s Daiv2sampat-s Physical and mental purity as one of the five Niyama and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Purity is an essential condition before awakening of energies that will amplify the qualities of various planes either positive or negative in colour. vide also )aucaprati=7h1 )aucaprati=7h1 )aucaprati=7h1 A state in which )auca is firmly established A Yog2 possessing )aucaprati=7h1 develops detachment towards one's own body and non- attachment to others. Saumya Homa Homa for the benefit of a certain person Saundaryalahar2 )a^kara vide )a^kara )ava Corpse Savic1r1 Sam1dhi Lit. 'Sam1dhi with Vic1ra' A stage of Sam1dhi in which the consciousness is experienced as reflection of the form as state of Vic1ra 153
  • 155. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Savikalp1 Sam1dhi From Savic1r1 Sam1dhi onwards the Dra=7a is able to experience Pratyabhij61. Savikalp1 Sam1dhi Lit. 'Sam1dhi with Vikalpa' A Sab2ja form of Sam1dhi in which there is still duality between J61t1 (the One who knows) and J6eya (object of knowledge) becoming one only in Nirvikalp1 Sam1dhi Savitark1, Savic1r1, Savikalp1 Sam1dhi is of four kinds namely Savitark1 Savic1r1 !nanda and Asmit1 as Vikalpa. experiences with a form of Vikalpa Savitark1 Sam1dhi Lit. 'Sam1dhi with Vitarka' Sam1dhi, The first stage of Sam1dhi a state when consciousness alternates between )abda (as word), Artha (as object of senses) and J61na (as meaning), as expression of Vitarka state vide also Savikalp1 Sam1dhi Savit4 S3rya, !ditya-s S3rya the Sun God; power as one of the twelve !ditya G1yatr2, vide also G1yatr2 Savit4 Satyaprasava Savit4 Satyaprasava Savit4 of continuous virtue or truth Devas3-s, One of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Savit4 S1vitr2 vide G1yatr2 S1yujya The state in which the devotee realizes identity with the Divine vide also !tma Rati )e=a vide Ananta )e=an1ga vide Ananta Setu Bridge Sev1 Personal service to Guru Sevaka Servant; a person engaged in service to God Siddha Perfect being; saint; one possessing Siddhi-s; a Yog2 established in Dharmamegha Sam1dhi Siddhi Siddh1nt1c1ra 154
  • 156. S The final aim doctrine of Tantra A Tantric path based on meditation performed in an isolated environment. Siddhap27ha A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 denoting perfection; a place where a high spiritual Siddhi-s person attained Siddhi The Catu=p27ha-s (the four P27ha-s) are considered to be Siddhap27ha-s as well. Catu=p27ha P27ha Siddhap27ha Siddh1rtha Lit. 'one who has fulfilled the goal' A name of Buddha Gautama Siddh1sana The perfect !sana Siddhaugha Lit. 'the perfect teachers' Navan1tha- Three aspects of )iva as part of Navan1tha-s represented in the human body by the two eyes Netra) Netra Upastha) Upastha (Netra and the genital organ (Upastha The Siddhaugha are )r2 J61n1nanda, )r2 Saty1nanda and )r2 P3r91nanda. Siddhaugha-s Siddhi Yoga; Power resulting from Yoga power of intellect A=7asiddhi) Siddhi-s There are eight major Siddhi (vide A=7asiddhi and many minor Siddhi viz. Vedha NidhiVedha, Nidhi, A6jana, P1duk1 Bila, Kha8ga, !kar=a9a, Va0ya, A6jana P1duk1, Bila Kha8ga !kar=a9a Va0ya etc. Their acquisition requires Am4t1p3r9a Am4t1p3r9a Siddhi-s (purity of mind). Siddhi are gifts of Ku98alin2 and it is the consciousness itself through A6janat1 which identifies with the object, quality or manifestation by using a specific state known Sa%yama. as Sa%yama Utkr1nti, vide also Utkr1nti Vibh3ti )ilpi Yog2 A Yog2 artist using art for spiritual growth towards Yoga Si%h1sana !sana; The lion !sana the lion's throne )irovrata Lit. 'fire devotion' The rite of carrying fire on the head as symbol of opening the head to higher consciousness Sa%hit1). This is also a kind of )aiva initiation (according to S3ta Sa%hit1 vide also Vrata )i=ya (from the Sanskrit root )1s i.e. to teach) Lit. 'one who is to be taught' Disciple of spiritual teaching vide also Guru 155
  • 157. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality )2ta Lit. 'cold; cool' The mental activity of being calm, unmoved Sarvarogahara vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Va0in2 )2t1 The wife of R1ma (vide) )2tal2 Lit. 'causing coolness' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma )2tk1r2 Lit. 'causing the sound )2t' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma )2tkrama Yogic technique of taking water through the mouth and expelling it through the nostrils as one of Kap1labhati-s the three Kap1labhati )iva Lit. 'in whom all things lie; auspicious' Rudra, Lord )iva one of the Hindu trinity as Rudra the destroyer His various names indicate particular states, qualities and manifestations of the Self in its descent Pura9a-s Agni, Padma, K3rma, )iva, towards the many. Many of His names are given in the Pura9a like Agni Padma K3rma )iva V1mana, )iva). V1mana etc., as well as in )iva Sahasran1ma (one thousand names of )iva His abode is Kail1sa Y1mala, D1mara, Mount Kail1sa (vide). Lord )iva promulgates His teachings in works as Y1mala D1mara )iva Tantra-s. !din1tha). S3tra and Tantra He is the first devotee of )r2 Vidy1 and the original Guru (!din1tha As !din1tha Rudra, Aha%k1ra) Rudra )iva brings about the destruction of the ego (Aha%k1ra and transformation. In His Aha%k1ra )iva's representations )iva third eye is a symbol of spiritual wisdom, the tiger skin represents the slain of the tiger of lust, the snakes are symbol of vital energy. Brahman, Parama0iva, )akti, vide also Brahman Parama0iva )iva )akti Trim3rti )ivad3t2 )iva-s )iva messenger; one of the many names of Dev2 vide also D3t2 )ivali^ga Lit. ' mark of )iva' )iva; An oval-shaped form representing the pure consciousness of )iva the cosmic universal mind (Cid1k10a a symbol of )iva or )iva )akti principle Cid1k10a); Cid1k10a )ivali^ga-s R3pa-s Dh3mrali^ga, )ivali^ga can be of three kinds according to their R3pa viz. Dh3mrali^ga Itarali^ga and Jyotirli^ga. K1la) )iva, Jyotirli^ga At one end of the form is time (K1la representing )iva at the other end is space K1la !k10a) )akti, Bindu, (!k10a representing )akti in the centre is Bindu the place of union. !k10a vise also Brahm198a )ivar1tri )ivar1tri Lit. ')iva's night' 156
  • 158. S )iva. A festival in honour of )iva Esoterically )ivar1tri is the day when J2va realizes own true nature. )iva )akti Dual principal of )iva and )akti Tantra, Brahm198a, vide also Tantra K=udra Brahm198a )aktim1n )akti K1la) )iva )akti is Brahman. From Tantric point of view )iva is time (K1la and pure consciousness, K1la !k10a) )akti is space (!k10a and the kinetic energy of the pure consciousness, i.e. the Absolute as !k10a activity. )ivatattva and )aktitattva are really one as static and kinetic aspects of the same Reality Sat). (Sat This principle pervades the whole universe as dual form of polarity (vide )ivali^ga for Sat Pi98198a), symbol). In the human body (Pi98198a )akti takes the main form as Dev2 Ku98alin2 in Pi98198a M3l1dh1ra Cakra and )iva as Jyotirli^ga in )ahasr1ra Cakra. Tantra, Brahma98a, vide also Tantra K=udra Brahma98a )aktim1n )akti )ivatattva Cit) The Tattva of Pure Consciousness (Cit Cit vide also )iva )akti )ivayog2 A Yog2 follower of )iva )ivayuvat2 Lit. ')iva's young woman' The five downwards-pointed triangles representing the )akti in the )r2 Yantra vide also )r2ka97ha Skanda Lit. 'the jumping one' K1rttikeya, A name for K1rttikeya the God of war, a son of Lord )iva )loka Verse of a sacred text Smara Lit. 'loving recollection; love' One of the names of K1madeva (the God of love) as one who keeps the memory of a love experience Smarana A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as devotional act of remembering the Divine )ma01na Cremation ground, crematorium, a place to bury; an oblation to deceased ancestors; a place of performing certain Tantric practices Smaya Pride vide also Pa6c1gni Sm4ti Cittav4tti-s Memory as one of the five Cittav4tti 157
  • 159. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Sm4ty1kar=i92 The attractive power of Sm4ti vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra +o8a02 Mah1vidy1-s The third of the Mah1vidy1 represents the power of perfection. +o8a02 is also the sixteen-syllables Mantra which has to be learned from a Guru or might be revealed to a devotee in various ways. )odhana +a7karma-s Purification of the body as a result of practicing +a7karma as yogic processes of purification Soham Lit. 'he I am' )iva; A Mantra to identify oneself with )iva the reverse of Ha%sa5 It is also known as Ajap1 G1yatr2. S1ham, vide also S1ham Ajap1 Japa Soma Lit. 'juice' The Soma plant and its juice; the drink of gods Personified as an important Vedic deity Soma is identified with the moon and any form of Am4ta. Esoterically Soma is the state of happiness and divine intoxication, the !nanda of Sat Cit !nanda, !tman. !nanda the three attributes of !tman Indra, Agni, Soma, vide also Indra Agni Soma S3rya Soma Cakra vide Sahasr1ra Cakra Soma Rasa The juice of the Soma plant known also as Am4ta Somasavana Lit. 'that which exudes nectar' vide Parya^ka Vidy1 Soma Vanaspati Soma the lord of loveliness; the essence of happiness Devas3-s, One of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Soma. Sopakrama Karma The active Karma with fruits in the present Apar1taj61na, vide also Apar1taj61na Pr1rabdha Karma )o=aka Do=a-s) The J17har1gni (digestive fire) of removing the humours (Do=a Do=a vide also Sarvai0varyaprad1 158
  • 160. S Spar0a Touch vide Tanm1tra Spar01kar=i92 The attractive power of Spar0a vide Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Spar0a Sa%vit Siddhi) Siddhi Divine touch as a supernormal power (Siddhi Spar0atattva The Tattva of Spar0a Spho7a The subtle sound or vibration out of which the world was created )raddh1 Lit. 'that which holds the truth' Faith; the quality of being faithful vide also Bh3ma Vidy1 )r1va9a ( also )rava9a )rava9a) M1sa); The month corresponding to parts of July/ August (vide also M1sa the sense of supernormal A^ga-s hearing; one of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of listening to Holy Scriptures vide also Pr1tibha )r2 Holy )r2 Cakra Lit. 'holy wheel' vide )r2 Yantra )r2ka97ha Lit. 'holy desire' The four upwards-pointed triangles representing the )iva element in the )r2 Cakra. vide also )ivayuvat2 )r2% Lak=m2 B2ja Mantra )r2man Ny1sa Vidy1 The knowledge of consecration to God VedaVidy1, Vidy1-s A VedaVidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 refers to the path of Sa%ny1sa (renunciation) as Brahman. leading to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 159
  • 161. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality )r2m1t1 The Holy Mother as one of the sacred names of Dev2 )r2 Pura vide )r2 Yantra )r2 Vidy1 Holy Science vide )r2 Yantra )r2 Vidy1 Mantra vide Pa6cada02 )r2 Yantra Yantra-s The most celebrated of all Yantra it is the graphical representation of S4=7ikrama and its reverse Layakrama. the Layakrama Its manifestation is the development and the absorption of the outer universe Brahm198a) Brahm198a Pi98198a) Pi98198a (Brahm198a as well as the inner universe (Pi98198a on nine levels. The graphical representation is subject to meditation of various forms, the object of the )r2 Yantra is to realize Hotra), Arghya) Havi). the unity of J61t1 (who is Hotra of J61na (which is Arghya and of J6eya (which is Havi The Bindu) Lalit1. Cakra, deity worshipped at the centre (Bindu of the )r2 Yantra is Lalit1 It is also known as )r2 Cakra Bindu Pura, Cakra, Vidy1, Cakra-s )r2 Pura Navayoni Cakra )r2 Vidy1 etc. The nine levels of Cakra towards the centre are Trailokyamohana, Sarv101paripuraka, Sarva0a%k=obha9a, Sarvsaubh1gyad1yaka, Trailokyamohana Sarv101paripuraka Sarva0a%k=obha9a Sarvsaubh1gyad1yaka Sarv1rthas1dhaka, Sarv1rthas1dhaka Sarvarak=1kara, Sarvarak=1kara Sarvrogahara, Sarvrogahara Sarvasiddhiprada and Sarv1nandamaya. Sarv1nandamaya )49g1ra Lit. 'love; the erotic sentiment' Rasa-s Love as one of the Rasa (vide) )rotra Organ of hearing, the ear vide also J61nendriya )rotratattva The Tattva of )rotra S4=7i A work of creation Triko9a, Tantra, vide also M3la Triko9a Tantra Sa%h1ra Brahm198a) S4=7i applies also to the creation of the physical universe (Brahm198a as opposed to Pralaya Brahm198a (dissolution) S4=7ikrama Going towards creation The action opposed to Layakrama. In the )r2 Yantra the direction from Bindu to Layakrama Trailokyamohana. Trailokyamohana S4=7i Sthiti Sa%h1ra Creation-preservation-dissolution as manifestation of Trim3rti of )akti expression )ruti 160
  • 162. S Knowledge received by revelation from the Divine Veda-s )ruti-s Veda are considered to be )ruti Stambha9akarma Lit. 'action of stopping or arresting' +a7karma-s, One of the +a7karma which gives the power of preventing or arresting somebody's bodily or mental actions Tantra-s It is one of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra Stana The female breast Stanap27ha Stanap27ha A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Stana form vide also P27ha Stava Hymn Sthairya Sthirat1) Steadiness, firmness, being motionless (same as Sthirat1 Sthirat1 Mudr1-s Steadiness as a result of practicing Mudr1 vide also Sthairya Sthitapraj6a Lit. 'firm in wisdom' Jivanmukta, A spiritual stage synonym to that of a Jivanmukta or a person who is established in it Sthiti A work of preservation vide also M3la Triko9a Sth3la Gross, physical vide also R3pa Sth3ladhy1na The gross form of meditation Sth3la Karma Karma) Gross action produced by thoughts (vide Karma vide also S3k=ma Karma Sth3l1k10a The space pervading the physical (gross) body Sth3la Karma Gross action caused by the S3k=ma Karma 161
  • 163. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Sth3la Mah1bh3ta vide Bh3ta Sth3la R3pa Gross form vide also R3pa Sth3la )ar2ra The gross (physical) body Stotra Prayer; hymn of spiritual nature Str2 Woman, female Str2mantra Sv1h1) A female Mantra (i.e. a Mantra ending with Sv1h1 Sty1na Vik=epa-s The state of dullness as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa )ubh1gama Pa6caka Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatkum1ra, The five authoritative scriptures of Samaya doctrine i.e. Sanaka Sananda Sanatkum1ra )uka and Vasi=7ha Subrahma9ya Lit. 'the one dear to Br1hma9a' Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Udg1t4 priest Sudar0ana Cakra Vi=9u’s Vi=9u discus, as sun’s symbol, and invincible weapon Bhakti )uddha Bhakti The purity of Bhakti as a necessary condition to develop a relationship with God )uddh10uddhatattva Tattva-s Tattva-s The pure-impure Tattva i.e. the seven Tattva from Mah1tattva down to Puru=atattva (vide Tattva) Tattva )uddhatattva Tattva-s Tattva The pure Tattva i.e. the five Tattva-s from )ivatattva down to )uddhavidy1tattva (vide Tattva) Tattva )uddhavidy1tattva The Tattva of Kriy1 )akti (the energy of action) )uddhi Purification; element of purification as opposed to A0uddhi Citta0uddhi, vide also Citta0uddhi Pari0uddhi Sudh1 162
  • 164. S Spiritual nectar as the beverage of the Gods )3dra Var9a-s One of the Var9a in the Vedic tradition consisting of servants )uka vide Samaya Sukha Lit. 'pleasant, joyful, happy' The mental activity of being delighted Cakra, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Modin2 )ukla Karma Karma-s The good Karma as one of the three accumulated Karma )ukra Semen virile vide Dh1tu Navagraha) )ukra is also the name for the planet Venus (vide Navagraha as well as the name for the guru of demonic beings. S3k=ma Subtle S3k=madhy1na The subtle form of meditation S3k=ma Karma Karma) Subtle action caused by thoughts (vide Karma vide also Sth3la Karma S3k=ma R3pa Subtle form vide also R3pa S3k=ma )ar2ra The subtle body known also as Li^ga )ar2ra vide )ar2ra S3k=modaya The awakening of the subtle plane, a state in which the consciousness is active in the Svapna condition S3kta Lit. 'well said' Vedic hymn )3nya Void 163
  • 165. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality )3nya Mudr1 The gesture of the void )3nyaka Emptiness )3ny1ta Void Supta Sleeping Surabhi Mudr1 The gesture of charming S3rya The sun or its deity; the Devat1 of Pi^gal1 N182; the right nostril N182 One of the gods of the Vedic trinity, S3rya presides over the sky, while Agni is on the earth and Navagraha-s Indra in the atmosphere. S3rya is also one of the Navagraha and the source of energy within all creatures on earth. Esoterically is the psycho-cosmic principle of light and the experience and knowledge of consciousness, the immanent Godhead. Savit4, !ditya, Ravi, Veda, vide also Savit4 !ditya Ravi Veda Agni S3rya Indra S3rya Bheda Lit. 'causing sun expansion' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma S3ryadv1ra S3ryadv1ra The passage of the sun S3ry1k10a Pa6caka-s The fifth of the Vyoma Pa6caka described as the space of the sun S3ryakha98a Cakra-s Group containing Ma9ip3ra and An1hata Cakra and Vi=9ugranthi S3rya, The presiding deity is S3rya the Gu9a is Rajas and corresponds in the cosmic planes to Janarloka. Maharloka and Janarloka S3ryama98ala Sun's disc S3rya N182 A synonym for Pi^gal1 N182 )u=ka Basti Basti-s The dry Basti as one of the two Basti Su=umnadv1ra The passage of Su=umn1 Su=umn1 N182 164
  • 166. S The N182 connected to the back of the forehead running along the vertebral column, the passage for Ku98alin2 )akti Padav2, It is the most important N182 in the human subtle body. It is also known as )3nya Padav2 M1rga, Madhya M1rga etc. Cakra, Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2, Agni, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2 Agni Nira6jan1 Su=upti Su=upti V4tti) The Avasth1 of deep sleep associate with a specific V4tti (vide Su=upti V4tti K1ra9a )ar2ra) In this state the J2va consciousness is in the causal body (K1ra9a )ar2ra and the perception of consciousness is undifferentiated therefore beyond the experiences of J2grat and Svapna states. !nanda) This is the state of bliss (!nanda leading to the fourth state called Tur2ya. !nanda Su=upti V4tti The condition of the deep sleep state associated in the mind with the Delta brain waves vide also Avasth1, V4tti Avasth1 Sutalaloka vide Loka S3tra Lit. 'thread' Aphorism, short sentence or a book of aphorisms (i.e. the author's thoughts hang as beads on a thread) Suv2ta (also Suvita Suvita) Veda-s In the Veda the path of prosperity; a happy journey Svadh1 Lit. 'self-nature' A Vedic Mantra as expression of the Self vide also Dhenu Svadharma One's own Dharma Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra Lit. 'own residence Cakra' The Cakra located at the base of the vertebral column where the coccyx bone is situated Jihva, Upastha This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Jihva the Karmendriya of Upastha, the Rasa, Ko0a, Tanm1tra of Rasa it is the centre for Vy1na V1yu and the seat of Pr19amaya Ko0a the level of Bhuvarloka. awareness is Bhuvarloka vide also R1ki92 Sv1dhy1ya Lit. 'own study' )1stra-s Niyama-s Daiv2sampat-s; Study of )1stra as one of the five Niyama and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat the analysis of one's own self; recitation of Mantra-s Mantra vide also Up1sana 165
  • 167. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Sv1dhy1yaprati=7h1 A state in which Sv1dhy1ya is practiced and the observation of one's own self experienced A Yog2 possessing Sv1dhy1yaprati=7h1 will be able to experience the union with a desired Devat1. Sv1h1 Lit. 'self-affirmation' The final word of a Mantra for a goddess Str2mantra, vide also Str2mantra Dhenu Sv1mi (also Sv1min Sv1min) Lit. 'master of one's self' D2k=1) A particular kind of Sanny1sin as result of a specific initiation (D2k=1 D2k=1 Svapna Lit. 'dreaming' V4tti) The Avasth1 of dreaming associated with a specific V4tti (vide Svapna V4tti S3k=ma )ar2ra) In this state the J2va consciousness is in the subtle body (S3k=ma )ar2ra and the perception is mental only. Svapna J61na The state of conscious dreaming V4tti Svapna V4tti The condition of the dreaming state associated in the mind with the Theta brain waves Avasth1, vide also Avasth1 V4tti Svara Sound; air breathed through the nostrils; tone in recitation; a note of the musical scale vide also O% Svara S1dhana Kind of S1dhana (practice) using the seven notes of the musical scale, each note being related to Cakra-s one of the seven major Cakra vide also N1da Yoga Svara Yoga The Yoga of breathing cycle Svarga Leading to heaven Svarloka Indra The region between the sun and polar star as Indra's heaven Svar3pa Lit. 'own form' Sat) Sat Essential nature of a deity; the form of Reality (Sat 166
  • 168. S )v1sa Pra0v1sa Lit. 'inspiration-expiration' The activity of agitated breath Vik=epasahabh3-s Ko0a. As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3 it is connected to the Annamaya Ko0a Svasti Happiness; kind of salutation (like "Hail!") Svastika A kind of cross as symbol of being auspicious and bringing good luck Mudr1, It is considered to be a simplified symbol of the sun. As a Mudr1 it is performed by crossing arms and hands on chest. For example the folded hands of P1rvat2 (vide). Svastik1sana The auspicious !sana Svayambh3 Li^ga (from Svayambh3 i.e. self-created) vide Dh3mra Li^ga )vetabindu Bindu) The point of pure thought (vide Bindu Par1bindu-s )vetabindu is one of the three Par1bindu representing the )iva M1y1 as well as the J61na )akti as manifestations. )vetaketu vide Sad Vidy1 Sy1dv1da The doctrine of probability )y1ma Lit. 'of dark or dark-blue complexion' )iva; A name of )iva the sacred fig-tree at Pray1ga 167
  • 169. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality T T181g2 Mudr1 Bandha-s The tank Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha Tad1k1r1patti Lit. 'accomplishment of own form' Sam1dhi, The supreme awareness, the highest state of Sam1dhi the experience of Sat Cit !nanda or pure awareness Tadupar1ga The reflection of the object in the mind as a cognitive process vide also Citta Tal1talaloka Tal1talaloka vide Loka Tamas Lit. 'darkness, inertia' The quality of ignorance, inertia and stagnation Gu9a-s. It is one of the three Gu9a Cakra, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Kaulin2 Tamas Tapas The purification of Tamas Gu9a vide also Tapas T1mb3la Betel (scientifically known as Piper Betel), an article used in ritual offering Tamogu9a The quality of ignorance Tamas, vide also Tamas Gu9a Tanm1tra Lit. 'element of extension' Subtle element (essence, quality) of the human body; subtle form of matter; senses Bh3ta-s, Tanm1tra-s Known also as S3k=ma Mah1 Bh3ta there are five Tanm1tra namely )abda (sound), Spar0a (touch), R3pa (form, sight), Rasa (taste, flavour), Gandha (smell, odour), produced from Tattva- Tanm1tra-s the Tamas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the thirty-six Tattva-s. Tanm1tra are considered to A9u-s). A9u have a subatomic structure and be the constituents of atoms (A9u B1na, vide also B1na A9u Tanm1tra Sam1dhi Awareness of the senses as a lower stage of Sam1dhi 168
  • 170. T Tantra Lit. 'liberation through extension' (Tan means to extend, stretch, spread; Tra means threefold and stands for liberation, as the path to Tan liberation is threefold. In other words the meaning of the word Tantra is to expand consciousness Veda-s) and liberate energy, which has the same significance as Brahman in the Veda System, doctrine, teaching, science Veda. )1stra) Some texts equate Tantra with Atharva Veda Tantra is considered to be the scripture ()1stra of )1stra Tantra- !gama-s the Kali Yuga. Many of the Tantra-s called !gama are thought to the world by Lord )iva in the form of dialogues between Him and Dev2 as Durg1 or P1rvat2. When the dialogue is addressed by P1rvat2 to )iva, the form of Tantra is called Nigama. Another form of Tantra is Y1mala. )iva The doctrine of Tantra emphasizes on unity in duality and duality in unity, the ultimate Reality being both static ()iva as Prak10a aspect) and dynamic ()akti as Vimar0a aspect). Tantra treats )iva )akti five subjects: the creation of the world, the absorption of the world, the worship of gods, the attainment of desires, the union with the Divine. The Indian Tantra and other similar practices developed in many parts of the world have evolved from taboos, superstitions and agricultural rituals of the primitive people. Even the $g Veda contains chants to ensure success in agriculture. The symbolism of Tantra is in the form of animal or human figures. Dak=i91c1ra, V1m1c1ra, The five systems of Tantra are: Dak=i91c1ra V1m1c1ra Ved1c1ra, Siddh1nt1c1ra and Yog1c1ra. Ved1c1ra, Vai=9av1c1ra, In Tantra seven ways of spiritual life are distinguished namely Ved1c1ra Vai=9av1c1ra )aiv1c1ra, Dak=i91c1ra V1m1c1ra, )aiv1c1ra Dak=i91c1ra, V1m1c1ra Siddh1nt1c1ra and Kul1c1ra. Tantric symbols are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3000 BCE) on non-Indo-Aryan origin, however many later Tantric practices are based on Vedic practices (including those from Upani=ad-s Pur19a-s). It can be said there is a closed connection between Tantra-s and Upani=ad and Pur19a Tantra Veda-s Veda as parallel concepts. Tantra-s as mentioned by Sa9kara in his work Traditionally there are sixty-four Tantra )aiva-s )iva), Saundaryalahari. The principal sects or branches of Tantra are )aiva (worshippers of )iva Vai=nava-s Vi=9u) )1kta-s Vai=nava (worshippers of Vi=9u and )1kta (worshippers of )akti)akti). Tantra Anu=7h1na The Anu=7h1na related to practices of Tantra Tantra S1dhaka vide S1dhaka Tantra S1dhana The practice of Tantra It covers a very wide range of practices. There are four kinds of initiations in the Tantra S1dhana namely Pa0y1c1ra, V2r1c1ra Mah1vidy1 and Brahmayoga. Pa0y1c1ra V2r1c1ra, Mah1vidy1-s Tantr1sana Tantric posture using the sexual energy in order to unfold and experience higher awareness Cakr1sana, Puhapak1sana, !sana, Padm1sana, Typical Tantric postures are Cakr1sana Puhapak1sana Yoni !sana Padm1sana Siddh1sana, Siddh1sana Viparitarati !sana Rati !sana J1nujugm1sana Bhag1sana. !sana, !sana, J1nujugm1sana, Tantra01stra The doctrine of Tantra 169
  • 171. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Tantra )1str1dhik1ra Competency for Tantra It is fully described in Gandharva Tantra (vide S1dhaka for conditions of competency). vide also Adhik1rin Tantra Tattva The principles of Tantra as awareness, meditation and acceptance Tantr2 The Indian lute or V291 T1ntrika Lit. 'relating to Tantra' A follower of the Tantra doctrine T1pa Lit. 'pain' Karma) Karma Anxiety accompanying an action (Karma Taparloka vide Loka Vair1gin-s, A Loka inhabited by deified Vair1gin the level of awareness before Satyaloka. Tapas (also T1pasya ) (from Tap i.e. to shine, to produce energy) Niyama-s Daiv2sampat- A process of self-purification as one of the five Niyama and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat s Tapas, There are three kinds of Tapas acting on different levels on the human body viz. Sattva Tapas Tapas. Rajas Tapas and Tamas Tapas vide also Loka T1pasa Ascetic as practitioner of various Tapas T1pasprati=7h1 A state acquired by practicing Tapas A Yog2 possessing Tapasprati=7h1 will have own impurities destroyed and a healthy body. T1pasya vide Tapas T1pasya Anu=7h1na T1pasya-s. The Anu=7h1na related to observance of T1pasya T1r1 Mah1vidy1-s The second of the Mah1vidy1 represents the power of spiritual aspiration T1raka Lit. 'that which enables to go over' 170
  • 172. T Pra9ava; The knowledge which liberates; a synonym for Pra9ava a name for Brahman as cause of liberation; a kind of Mudr1 Tarpa9a A kind of ceremony when libations of water are presented to gods or deceased people in order to Mantra-s. satiate them. Tarpa9a employs also the performance of specific Mantra Tat Lit. 'that' The Supreme Reality beyond any identification Tat Sat Lit. 'that which is' Another name for the Supreme Reality Tattva Lit. 'essence, reality' Cosmic principle; true state; essential element Tantra-s Tattva-s )ivatattva, )aktitattva, Sad10ivatattva, In the Tantra there are thirty-six Tattva namely: )ivatattva )aktitattva Sad10ivatattva @0varatattva, )uddhavidy1tattva, M1y1tattva, Kal1tattva, Vidy1tattva, R1gatattva, @0varatattva )uddhavidy1tattva M1y1tattva Kal1tattva Vidy1tattva R1gatattva K1latattva, Niyatitattva, Puru=atattva, Prak4titattva, Buddhitattva, Aha%k1ratattva, K1latattva Niyatitattva Puru=atattva Prak4titattva Buddhitattva Aha%k1ratattva Manastattva, )rotratattva Tvaktattva, Netratattva, Jihvatattva, Ghr19atattva, V1ktattva, otratattva, Manastattva )rotratattva Tvaktattva Netratattva Jihvatattva Ghr19atattva V1ktattva Upasthatattva, P1yutattva, P19itattva, P1datattva, )abdatattva, Spar0atattva, R3patattva, Upasthatattva P1yutattva P19itattva P1datattva )abdatattva Spar0atattva R3patattva Rasatattva, Gandhatattva, !k10atattva, V1yutattva, Tejastattva, Aptattva, P4thiv2tattva. Rasatattva Gandhatattva !k10atattva V1yutattva Tejastattva Aptattva P4thiv2tattva Tattva-s )uddhatattva), The thirty-six Tantric Tattva are divided into three kinds: pure ()uddhatattva pure-impure )uddhatattva )uddh10uddhatattva), )uddh10uddhatattva !0uddhatattva). !0uddhatattva ()uddh10uddhatattva and impure (!0uddhatattva Tattva Cintana Reflection on supreme consciousness as one of the two sides of the Indian philosophy, the other one being Tattva Dar0ana Dar0ana-s Typical forms are the +ad Dar0ana as intellectualised systems to approach the supreme reality through knowledge. Tattva Dar0ana Perception of the supreme consciousness as one of the two sides of the Indian philosophy, the other one being Tattva Cintana It is the experiencing of the supreme reality beyond the intellect, a typical form being Nirb2ja Sam1dhi, Sam1dhi i.e. the experience of Nirgu9a Brahman. Tattvaj61na Knowledge of the reality Tattv1k10a Pa6caka-s The fourth of the Vyoma Pa6caka described as the elemental space Tattvamasi Lit. 'that you are' A celebrated statement from the Ch1ndogya Upani=ad expressing the identity between !tman and J2v1tman or the potentiality of the human being to be able to identify with the Divine Tejas 171
  • 173. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Fire, light; form of Agni vide also Bh3ta The word Tejas has a wide range of significance (related also to the acquisitions from the fire) like vital power, magic power, the heating level of the human body, clearness of the eyes, the brightness of the human body, glow of the body, vitality, brilliance of the mind. Tejas is both the yogic fire Cidagni). Daiv2sampat- which is the same as the celestial fire (Cidagni As vigour is one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Cidagni Agni. s. The esoteric expression of Tejas is the consciousness, in Vedic terms Agni Tejasa Tejasa The Soul in the S3k=ma )ar2ra (subtle body) vide also J2v1tman Tejastattva The Tattva of Tejas Known also as Vahnitattva Tejom1y1 Puru=a The mental consciousness in the state of dream as kind of Puru=a in the subconscious mind Tilaka A ritual mark on the forehead to designate one's sect T2rtha A place of pilgrimage on the banks of a sacred river; a holy place T2rtha-s T2rtha could be in outer as well as the inner forms in the human body. Laghu Yoga Vasi=7ha does mention thirty-six T2rtha-s (holy places) in the body where worship should be performed in T2rtha the form of meditation. T2rtha^kara Kind of teacher Titka Rasa-s) Rasa Bitter, one of the essential tastes (Rasa T2vrasa%vega Intensity of the eagerness towards spiritual realization T2vrasa%vega %vega-s M4du, Adhim1tra. For an aspirant there are three T2vrasa%vega namely M4du Madhya and Adhim1tra vide also Sa%vega Toya Water vide also Bh3ta Toyatattva vide Aptattva Trailokyamohana Cakra Lit. 'the wheel enchanting the three worlds' The Yellow Surround Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripur1 )akti Bh3pura) It consists of a square with four gates (forming the plan of earth named Bh3pura and three 172
  • 174. T Mekhal1), Traillokyamohana. concentric circles, girdles (Mekhal1 the space between forming the Traillokyamohana Mekhal1 Tr17aka Yogic technique of fixing the eyes on one external or internal object or location as one of the +a7karma-s +a7karma vide also Praty1h1ra Tret1 Yuga An age of the world consisting of 1,296,000 years vide Yuga Trigu9a Gu9a-s The three Gu9a (vide) Trigu91ti Gu9a-s Beyond the three Gu9a Trigu91tmik1 Gu9a-s The Dev2 in the form of Prak4ti as composed of the three Gu9a Triko9a Lit. 'triangle' vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Trik37i N182-s The joining point of the three main N182 in the !j6a Cakra vide also Bhr3madhya Trim3rti Lit. 'three forms' The Hindu Trinity consisting of Brahm1 (the Creator), Vi=9u (the preserver) and Rudra or )iva (the destroyer, the one who brings transformation) Viri6ci), Hari) Hara) Brahm1 (Viri6ci Vi=9u (Hari and Rudra (Hara are the names for functions of the one Viri6ci Hari Hara Universal Consciousness operating within ourselves as well as outside the human body. According Brahm1, to Kubjika Tantra there are not Brahm1 Vi=9u and Rudra who create, maintain and destroy, but )akti-s Brahm192, their )akti as manifestations namely Brahm192 Vi=9av2 and Rudr192. These three forms of functions are present in various degrees in any activity. Brahm1 as function should be seen in any activity of creation and multiplication, Vi=9u in any activity which stops creation but maintains the already existing status of things, Rudra in any activity which stops creation and destroys the Rudra's existing things through absorption. In terms of spiritual evolution Rudra function becomes essential as the activity of consciously going back to the source of creation and becoming one is Yoga (union). vide also S4=7i Sthiti Sa%h1ra Tripur1 Lit. 'she who is threefold' Dev2 An aspect of Dev2 The K1lik1 Pur19a says: "She has three angles as well as three circles and her Bh3pura is three- lined. Her Mantra is said to be of three syllables and She has three aspects. Ku98ali92 energy is also threefold in order that She may create the three gods, thus since She is everywhere triple, She is 173
  • 175. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality called Tripur1 Tripur1r9ava work says: "Tripur1 means the three N182 Su=umn1 I81 and Tripur1". Tripur1 N182-s, Su=umn1, Pi9gal1, Manas, Citta. Tripur1". Pi9gal1 it means also Manas Buddhi and Citta As Dev2 dwells in these She is called Tripur1 Bindu-s Yantra. Tripur1 refers also to the three Bindu at the centre of )r2 Yantra Cakra, Bindu, vide also Trailokyamohana Cakra Bindu Tripur1ntaka Tripur1 Bhairav2 Mah1vidy1-s The sixth of the ten Mah1vidy1 represents the power of destruction as the annihilated power of time of all existence Tripuram1lin2 The Garlanded Tripur1 vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Tripur1mb1 The Mother Tripur1 vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Tripurasiddh1 The Perfect Tripur1 vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Tripura0r2 The Holy Tripur1 vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Tripur1sundar2 The Beautiful Tripur1 Cakra, vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Bindu Tripurav1sin2 The Dwelling Tripur1 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Tripur1ntaka Lit. 'the one destroying the three cities' A name of )iva Lobha, Krodha, Pa6c1gni-s The three cities are Lobha K1ma and Krodha which are the Pa6c1gni (fires) associated with Cakra-s. the three lower Cakra Their destruction means the overcoming of these fires and the raise of the level of consciousness above them. Tripure0i The Sovereign Tripur1 vide also Sarv1s1paripuraka Cakra Tri=tubh Eleven syllables as Vedic meter used in addressing the Divine Trive92 (vide Pray1ga for the place of pilgrimage) The conjunction of the three main N182-s between the eyebrows N182 174
  • 176. T Jamun1, Ga^g1, In the I81 N182 dwells Dev2 Jamun1 in the Pi^gal1 N182 dwells Dev2 Ga^g1 in the Sarasvat2. Su=umn1 N182 dwells Dev2 Sarasvat2 Tulas2 Basil; the goddess having this name as an aspect of Dev2 Vai=9ava-s. Commonly known as Tuls2, it is a small shrub, a sacred plant venerated mainly by Vai=9ava It Tuls2, is said the plant Tuls2 was produced from the hair of the goddess Tuls2, a primal expression of Lak=m2. goddess Lak=m2 Tuls2 vide Tulas2 Tur2ya (also Turya Turya) Avasth1-s Ecstatic state, the fourth state of Soul beyond the Avasth1 Brahman. It is the highest level of consciousness, the knowledge of and union with Brahman vide also Mah1 K1ra9a )ar2ra Tur2y1t2ta One who has realised the state of Tur2ya Turya vide Tur2ya Tu=7i Contentment, fulfilment Tvak Organ of touch, the skin Dh1tu, vide also Dh1tu J61nendriya Tvaktattva The Tattva of Tvak Tvarit1 )akti-s One of the Nitya )akti Tva=74 !ditya-s Proficiency in making good things as one of the twelve !ditya Ty1ga (from Tyaj i.e. to renounce) Daiv2sampat-s Renunciation as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Ty1gin One on the path of Tyaga 175
  • 177. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality U Ucc17anakarma Lit. 'action of ruining an enemy' One of the +a7karma-s which gives the power to ruin and torment an enemy by creating material +a7karma discomfort, pain, shame, etc. Tantra-s. It is one of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra Ud1na The V1yu which controls circulation into the body Cakra, Sarvama^gal1k1ri92, Devasu=i =i, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvama^gal1k1ri92 Devasu=i Utkr1nti Udd1laka Vidy1, vide Sad Vidy1 Udd1laka !ru9i Vidy1 Udd1laka !ru9i Vidy1 The knowledge of Udd1laka !ru9i Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 Udd1laka !ru9i was a renowned Br1hma9a teacher who had the knowledge of !tm1 as being latent in everything. It is given the example of V1yu as being like a thread binding everything in the world and Pr19a like a thread in the human body. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 U882 Lit. 'to fly up; to cause to fly up' The action or feeling of flying U882y1na Bandha Lit. 'upwards lock' Bandha-s The flying up Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha vide also Bandhatraya U882y1na P27ha The symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the middle of the Sarv1nandamaya Cakra P27ha) Cakra. Known also as O882y1na P27ha (or Au882y1na P27ha it is equated with Sahasr1ra Cakra U882, vide also U882 Catu=p27ha Udg1t4 $tvija-s), the one who chants the hymns of the S1ma Veda $tvija One of the four Vedic priests ($tvija Prastot4, Subrahma9ya. An Udg1t4 is assisted by three other helper priests, viz. Prastot4 Pratihart4 and Subrahma9ya Udg1raka The J17har1gni (digestive fire) of belching (vomiting) vide also Sarvap1pahar1 176
  • 178. U Udg2tha Lit. 'to chant aloud' Mantra; The chanting of S1ma Veda by the Udg1t4 priest; the chanting of O% Mantra a general name for the S1ma Veda. Udg2tha Vidy1 The knowledge of Pra9ava O% Vidy1, Vidy1-s, A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 which deals with the chanting of the O% Mantra as expression of the name of God. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Ujj1y2 Lit. 'causing victory' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma Um1 A form of Dev2 Unm1dana One of the five arrows of K1madeva the one causing intoxication with love vide also Sarvonm1di92 Unman2 (also Unman2 Avasth1 Avasth1) Lit. 'to become absent in mind' A kind of state beyond the experience of the mind Unman2 Avasth1 vide Unman2 Unman2bh1va Unman2bh1va Bh1va) Bh1va Absence of mind as attitude (Bh1va vide also Unman2 Unnet4 Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Adhvaryu priest by pouring the Soma Rasa into the recipients Upac1ra Offering used for worship Up1d1na The act of accepting Ana^gam1lin2 in2, vide also Ana^gam1lin2 Up1sana Upade0a Advice Upakosala Vidy1 The knowledge of Upakosala 177
  • 179. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Vidy1, Vidy1-s. Vidy1, Kamal1yana, A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 This Vidy1 named after Upakosala Kamal1yana J1b1la, a disciple of Satyak1ma J1b1la deals with the knowledge of the three kinds of Agni and their Loka-s Loka as levels of awareness. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Upani=ad Lit. 'sitting by the side' A class of philosophical works exposing the secret doctrine Ved1nta, They are regarded as a source of Ved1nta S1%kya and Yoga philosophies, the secret knowledge acquired by sitting near the master. vide also Mah1v1kya Up1saka Worshipper, devotee Up1sana The external worship and contemplation with the aim to integrate in oneself the two polarities as )iva - )akti It has five stages i.e. Abhigamana (approach), Up1d1na (acceptance of offering), Ijy1 (oblation), Mantra-s), and Yoga (devotional feeling of unity). Sv1dhy1ya (recitation of Mantra vide also Sagu9op1sana Upasarga Obstacle in spiritual life Upastha Sexual organs vide also Karmendriya Upasthatattva The Tattva of Upastha Upavas Upavas Lit. 'sitting by the side of God' Fasting Up1ya A means to successfully approach an action; a stratagem Up1ya-s There are various Up1ya depending on purpose. Upek=a Upek=1) The act of ignoring or disregarding (also Upek=1 Pras1dana-s Upek=a is also one of the Citta Pras1dana as an attitude towards people full of vice. vide also Ana^gamekhal1 #rdhvam3la Lit. 'upper origin' Brahman as the root cause represented by Adha501kha 178
  • 180. U #rdhvaretas Lit. 'raising the semen upwards' A certain condition of a Yog2 when the sexual energy is sublimated Bandha-s For this purpose Mudra Bandha techniques are recommended. #rdhva0akti )akti-s The upper one of the Ku98alin2 )akti Uruloka Lit. 'great world' The wide space; awareness of the vast space U=as Veda-s In the Veda represents the dawn, awakening, blossoming, full-moon night; the Dawn Goddess as symbol of awakening U=asta Kohala Vidy1 Vidy1, Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 that deals with the knowledge of U=asta C1kr1ya9a and Kohala Kau=2taka about the bondage of the Soul. Only through renunciation will come the Devaloka. knowledge leading one to Devaloka vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 U=9a Lit. 'hot; passionate' The mental activity of being ardent, passionate Cakra, vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra K1me02 U=7r1sana The camel !sana Utka71sana The hazardous !sana Utkr1nti Levitation as a result of possessing Laghim1 Siddhi V1yu. It is considered that levitation can be experienced by mastery over Ud1na V1yu Utt1nak3rm1sana The straight tortoise !sana Utt1nama98uk1sana The straight frog !sana Uttar1yana Sun's progress north of the equator (from 22nd Dec. to 21st June) expressing the northwards way to Yama's Yama quarter; the bright path Sa%kr1nti. The passage of the sun is called Uttar1yana Sa%kr1nti or Sa%kr1nti For the departed soul it offers the experience of Agni and Jyotir i.e. the consciousness will not return to the material plane. vide also Dak=i91yana 179
  • 181. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality V Vacana The act of speaking vide also Ana^gakusum1 V1cika Kind of worship of Dev2 by speech; any vocal worship vide also Y1ga V1ditva The ability to speak clearly vide also P198itya Vagbhavak37a One group (section) of Pa6cada0i presided over by Agni V1gdev2 A deity of mental expression V1gdev2-s The V1gdev2 are expressions of some mental activities or qualities, out of which the speech is V1gdev2-s only one. There are eight V1gdev2 (each being the Devat1 of one expression only) namely: Va0in2, K1me0i, Modin2, Vimal1, Aru91, Jayin2, Va0in2 K1me0i Modin2 Vimal1 Aru91 Jayin2 Sarve02 and Kaulin2. vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra V1gmitva The ability of eloquence vide also P198itya Vahni Fire A%0a-s J61nendriya-s The A%0a of Vahni in the Pi98198a are the five J61nendriya vide also Bh3ta Vahnikal1 The essence of fire vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra Vahnis1ra Dhauti Antardhauti-s Agnis1ra) One of the Antardhauti (known also as Agnis1ra a yogic technique to increase Ja7har1gni by fire purification Vahnitattva vide Tejastattva Vahniv1sin2 180
  • 182. V One of the Nity1 )akti )akti-s Vaidika Lit. 'relating to Veda' The name of the Vedic tradition Vaikhar2 The physical (vocal) stage of )abda (vide) Vaiku97ha Vi=9u; A name of Indra or Vi=9u the paradise of Vi=9u Vair1gin Somebody who has accomplished Vair1gya vide also Taparloka Vair1gya Bh1va-s Detachment (i.e. expression of inner freedom) as one of the eight Bh1va The inner freedom as freedom of the mind is seen to giving up R1ga and Dve=a through control by Taparloka. the mind. It is the level of awareness of Taparloka Avair1gya, Pa6c1gni vide also Avair1gya Pa6c1gni Vairaty1ga Cessation of enmity as a result of Ahi%s1prati=7h1 Vai01kha The month corresponding to parts of April/ May vide also M1sa Vai0e=ika Dar0ana-s One of the +ad Dar0ana Vai=9ava Vi=9u; A follower of Vi=9u the Vi=9u tradition Vai=9av2 vide Trim3rti Vai0vadeva Vai0vadeva Lit. 'relating to all the gods' Deva-s All Deva (gods) A Vai0vadeva ceremony consists in homage to all the gods followed by food offering to the gods, particularly to Agni. Practically the act of eating should be seen as an offering to Agni who takes the form of fire of digestion. vide also Vai0v1nara Vai0v1nara Lit. 'relating to all the people' !tm1) Humankind, God as humankind (also Vai0v1nara !tm1 181
  • 183. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Vai0vadeva, Vidy1, vide also Vai0vadeva Vai0v1nara Vidy1 Sa%varga Vidy1 Vai0v1nara !tm1 Vai0v1nara, vide Vai0v1nara Vai0v1nara Vidy1 Vai0v1nara Puru=a The mental consciousness of the humankind as kind of Puru=a of the conscious individual mind vide also Vai0v1nara Vai0v1nara Vidy1 The knowledge Vai0v1nara Vidy1-s) A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 deals with the knowledge of Vai0v1nara !tm1 as humanity and the corresponding relation to the human body. The macro/ micro relation will make some human activities as access gates to the macro world. The act of eating is to be seen as an Vai0v1nara, Vedi, Agni, offering to Vai0v1nara the own heart as Vedi the digestive fire as Agni etc. Vidy1, vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Vai0v1nara Vai0ya Var9a-s One of the Var9a in the Vedic tradition consisting of tradesmen and agricultural people Vajra Indra's Thunderbolt seen as Indra bow representing the power of discrimination Vajra N182 A channel of energy outside the Su=umn1 N182 vide also Vajrol2 Vajr1sana The diamond !sana Vajre0var2 Lit. 'the diamond queen' Devat1-s One of the !vara9a Devat1 presiding over the principle of existence of Aha%k1ra vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Vajrol2 Mudr1 Bandha-s The Vajra N182 Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha Vajsa%hananatv1ni Sampad-s Adamant hardness as one of the four K1ya Sampad V1k Lit. 'speech, vibration; mouth' The primordial sound known also as )abda (vide) vide also Dhenu V1k Dev2 vide )abda V1ktattva 182
  • 184. V The Tattva of V1k V1m1c1ra V1m1c1ra The left-hand division of Tantra as spiritual path with own wife whose place traditionally is to the left of her husband. This path is known also as V1ma M1rga. V1makrama Kap1labh1ti-s Yogic technique of alternative nostril breathing as one of the three Kap1labh1ti V1ma M1rga vide V1m1c1ra V1mana An incarnation of Vi=9u as dwarf, a representation of the dawn of human existence Vamana Dhauti Dhauti-s Do=a-s Cleaning by vomiting as one of the H4d Dhauti in order to cure the diseases coming from Do=a V1naprastha Lit. 'hermit, anchorite' vide !0rama Vandana A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of prostration before the image of the Lord V1r1hi Var1ha) Vi=9u; The )akti of the Boar (Var1ha Avat1ra of Vi=9u the earth Var1ha Vara Mudr1 The gesture of granting boons (favours) Vara9a Vara9a J2v1tman) J2v1tman The obstacle that does not allow the individual consciousness (J2v1tman to manifest There are three Vara9a-s namely M1l1 (impurity of the mind), Vik=epa (distraction), !vara9a Vara9a Vara9abheda abheda. (the covering of the inner reality), their process of removal is called Vara9abheda Vara9abheda Vara9a) Vara9a The process of removal of obstacles (Vara9a Varga Group, family V1ris1ra Dhauti Antardhauti-s, One of the Antardhauti as purification with water Varjana Things to avoid as observance on the Yoga path Varjana-s Upani=ad) Bhaga, There are seven kinds of Varjana (according to Am4tabindu Upani=ad namely Bhaga Krodha, !lasya Atisvapna, Atij1gara, Krodha !lasya, Atisvapna Atij1gara Aty1h1ra and An1h1ra An1h1ra. Var9a 183
  • 185. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Manu's Br1hman-s, K=atriya-s, Vai0ya-s The four main classes (castes) described in Manu code, viz. Br1hman K=atriya Vai0ya )3dra-s; and )3dra the Sa^skrit letter V1rta The sense of supernormal smelling vide also Pr1tibha Vartam1na Dharma Dharma-s The inherent property of present time, one of the three Dharma (as inherent properties of time) Varu9a Lit. 'the one who covers' A Vedic god as personification of space Veda-s In the Veda the god of heaven and earth having many attributes. Later on Varu9a was associated Indra, with the waters of the atmosphere. In the Vedic literature Varu9a is invoked together with Indra Mitra, Agni, Yama, !ditya-s. Mitra Agni Yama etc., as associations of attributes. Varu9a is also one of the twelve !ditya Varu9a Dharmapati Varu9a the lord of right conduct Devas3-s, One of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Varu9a Varu9a Mudr1 The gesture of Varu9a V1ru92 N182 The N182 connected to the right shoulder Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvahl1di92 V1san1 The mental form as impression becoming resident in the form of Sa%sk1ra as latent potentiality; the basic structure of mental consciousness The accumulated impressions are generated by Abhinive0a (will to live) as a process without beginning. V1san1-s stop to accumulate when their cause (i.e. the Kle0a will cease to create V1san1 Kle0a-s) V1san1-s afflictions. The V1san1 will disappear through the elimination of four factors namely Hetu (cause), Phala (effect), !0raya (support of an experience) and !lambana (object of an D40ya. experience) therefore Citta becomes pure and capable to reflect both the Dra=7a and the D40ya vide also Sarv1rtha Va=a7 vide Dhenu Va0ik1ra A high form of Vair1gya Va0ikara9akarma Lit. 'action of subjugating' +a7karma-s One of the +a7karma which gives the power to attract and bring under control gods, men, women and animals and make them to act according to the one's desires Tantra-s. One of the five malefic rites in the Tantra 184
  • 186. V Va0in2 The subduing (mastering) One V1gdev2-s One of the V1gdev2 corresponding to the mental activity of )ita (calm). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Vasi=7ha Name of a $=i an exponent of Vedanta teaching Sapta4=i, Brahm1, Samaya, vide also Sapta4=i Brahm1 Samaya K1madhenu Va0itva Lit. 'fitness for subjection' One of the eight yogic powers of keeping others under control Siddhi, A=7asiddhi vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi V1sodhauti Dhauti-s Cleaning by cloth as one of the H4d Dhauti in order to cure many diseases Vasti vide Basti Va0ya Mantra-s, Yantra-s, The subjecting to one's will by Mantra Yantra etc. Va0ya Siddhi The power of subjugation vide also Siddhi V1ta Do=a-s One of the three Do=a In !yurveda system a deficiency of air as a cause to diseases. V1tas1ra Dhauti Antardhauti-s, One of the Antardhauti as air purification V1tsalya Bh1va-s Yoga, Rasa-s Affection; one of the Bh1va of Bhakti Yoga also one of the Rasa Vau=at A certain Mantra V1yav2 Dh1ra91 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on air as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 V1yu Lit. 'wind, air, breath' Air, vital air; the god of air A%0a-s Ap1na, Sam1na, Pr19a, The A%0a of V1yu in the Pi98198a are the five major vital airs viz. Ap1na Sam1na Pr19a Ud1na, N1ga, K3rma, K4kara, Dhana6jay1. Ud1na Vy1na and the five minor airs viz, N1ga K3rma K4kara Devadatta and Dhana6jay1 Veda, In the $g Veda V1yu is the god of the wind. 185
  • 187. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Bh3ta, Cakra, vide also Bh3ta Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Devasu=i V1yutattva The Tattva of V1yu Veda Lit. 'knowledge, wisdom' A collection of writings structured in four parts Sa%hit1 Br1hma9a !ra9yaka and Upani=ad Sa%hit1, Br1hma9a, !ra9yaka $tvija, Tantra, vide also $tvija Brahma Tantra Sat Cit !nanda Sa%hit1-s $g, Yajur, Atharva. Veda-s The main Sa%hit1 are $g Yajur S1ma and Atharva As religion the Veda are called the !rya Dharma (path of noble people). The gods of Vedic trinity are Indra Agni and S3rya Soma Indra, S3rya. Veda-s Indra, Agni, is also a very important deity, so the fourfold godhead of the Veda are Indra Agni Soma and S3rya. S3rya Ved1c1ra Veda-s The Veda based division of Tantra It involves specific practices of meditation in order to raise Ku98ali92 through the will power. vide Tantra Vedana Vedana The sense of supernormal touching vide also Pr1tibha Ved1nta Lit. 'end of Veda' Dar0ana-s Veda-s One of the +ad Dar0ana teaching the essence of the Veda Veda S1dhana Veda-s A practice from Veda vide S1dhana Veda Vidy1 Veda-s The knowledge of Veda Veda Vidy1-s, S1dhana. There is a wide variety of Veda Vidy1 their practice is called Veda S1dhana An attempt for Vidy1-s their classification is made in the Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 taxonomy, however there are other Veda Vidy1-s Vidy1 outside it. This knowledge that comes from Vedic scriptures is considered to be higher Yoga and a subject to be learned from a qualified person. The most important works on various Vidy1-s Upani=ad-s, Veda Vidy1 are seen to be Ch1ndogya and B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad Ved1nta S3tra S3tra, Br1hma9a, Upani=ad. Vidy1-s Satapatha Br1hma9a Kau=2tak2 Upani=ad The purpose of Veda Vidy1 is the knowledge of Brahman. Brahman Veda, Ved1c1ra, vide also Veda Ved1c1ra Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Vedha Siddhi The power to be pious and faithful vide also Siddhi Vedi (also Ved2 Ved2) Sacrificial ground vide also Vai0v1nara Vidy1 186
  • 188. V Vedyagni The fire on the Vedi Vega Lit. 'agitation, emotion, excitement; effect of poison; flood of water or tears; semen virile' vide Ana^gavegan2 Vibhu The hall in the Brahmaloka standing for Aha%k1ra vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 Vibh3ti The power of an enlightened Soul; the supernatural power known also as Siddhi described in the third chapter of Yoga S3tra Vicak=a9a The throne in the Brahmaloka standing for Mahat vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 Vic1ra The state of consciousness flowing without the basis of )abda (as word) and being able to discriminate Vic1ra is a S3k=ma (subtle) kind of Vi=aya. Vidve=a9akarma Lit. 'action of exciting enmity' +a7karma-s One of the +a7karma which gives the power of creating ill-feelings and separating two parties like friends, lovers, relatives, etc. Tantra-s. One of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra Vidy1 Vidy1 Lit. 'that which expands' Science, knowledge, learning; meditation conducting to knowledge; non-duality Vidy1, Mah1vidy1, J61na, Kaivalya, vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Mah1vidy1 J61na Kaivalya Sahaja Vidy1dhara Him1laya 1laya-s; A kind of being possessing of magical powers attending upon )iva in the Him1laya fairy Vidy1 Ka6cuka Form of )akti limiting the perception of the real knowledge as being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti Tattva, vide also Tattva Vidy1tattva Vidy1p27ha A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the )r2 Vidy1 (i.e. the )r2 Yantra ) vide also Pitha Vidy1r1ja The Royal Science 187
  • 189. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide Pa9cada02 Vidy1tattva The Tattva of Vidy1 Ka6cuka Vighne0vara Lit. 'remover of obstacles' A name of Ga9e=a Vijay1 )akti-s; One of the Nity1 )akti ever victorious Vij61na Brahman) Perception; direct perception of Brahman as manifestation (i.e. Sagu9a Brahman J61na, vide also J61na Bh3ma Vidy1 Vij61namaya Ko0a The body of intellect as sphere of consciousness known also as Buddhimaya Ko0a it is the Vi0uddhi Cakra-s. expression and experience of the intellect and has the seat in the Vi0uddhi and !j61 Cakra Vikalpa Cittav4tti-s A part, aspect or concept as object of meditation; one of the five Cittav4tti vide also Savikalpa Sam1dhi, Nirvikalpa Sam1dhi Sam1dhi Vikara9a Bh1va J61nendriya-s Karmendriya driya-s The state of perception without the instrumentality of J61nendriya and Karmendriya Vik=epa Lit. 'what distracts or diverts' Distraction on the path of Yoga Vik=epa-s V4tti-s There are nine Vik=epa in the form of Citta V4tti (vide). Vik=epa is also one of the two functions of M1y1 as the illusion of believing that Self-realization lies without. Vik=epasahabh3 Associate obstructive distraction on the path of Yoga (vide Yoga S3tra I.31) Vik=epasahabh3-s Du5kha, Daurmanasya, There are four Vik=epasahabh3 namely Du5kha Daurmanasya A^gamejayatva and )v1sa Ko0a-s Pra0v1sa connected to the Ko0a (except !nandamaya Ko0a which transcends distraction). Vik=epasahabh3-s Vik=epa-s The four Vik=epasahabh3 are associated to the nine Citta Vik=epa as obstructive distractions Yoga. in Yoga Vik=ipta Cittabh3mi-s Agitated state as one of the five Cittabh3mi Vimal1 The afflicting One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental activity of Du5kha (distressed) V1gdev2 vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Vim1na The celestial chariot 188
  • 190. V Vimar0a )akti Manifested Power Prak10a. Aspect of )akti inclined towards creation. )iva is the other aspect called Prak10a According to K1makal1vil1sa work, it is the pure mirror in which )iva reflects Himself. )iva, )akti, )akti, vide also )iva )akti )iva )akti !dy10akti V291 The Indian lute usually having seven strings Sarasvat2. Tantra. The most celebrated one is V29a of Sarasvat2 There is also a Tantra called V291 Tantra vide also Tantr2 Vipar2ta Kara92 Lit. 'inverted effect' Bandha-s The reversal polarity as one of the Mudr1 Bandha Viparyaya Cittav4tti-s Incorrect knowledge as a form of Avidy1 and one of the five Cittav4tti vide also Pram19a V2ra Tantra-s; A kind of S1dhaka at a level between Pa0u and Divya in the Tantra heroism as one of the Rasa-s Rasa In a V2ra kind of person the Rajas Gu9a is predominant. vide also S1dhaka V2ra Bh1va Bh1va-s One of the Bh1va as a state of human personality based on activity and motion, therefore of Rajas nature vide also S1dhaka V2r1c1ra The second kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana vide Tantra S1dhana Viraj1 The ageless river in the Brahmaloka whose crossing enable the devotee never to grow old, but to live to the age of Brahm1 i.e. to attain Self-realization V2r1sana The hero !sana Viri6ci Lit. 'he who creates' A name of Brahm1 V2rya Physical and mental energy; courage to overcome obstacles on the path of Yoga It represents the energy accumulated by sublimation of sexual energy in order to stimulate the 189
  • 191. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality unfolding of consciousness. V2ryayojan1 Lit. 'energy union' The process in which the Guru gives to the disciple the power of a Mantra Visarga The symbol of two dots (:) pronounced like H with a distinctly audible aspiration; the act of evacuation of excrement Esoterically is the symbol of )iva )akti as a double Bindu. Bindu, vide also Bindu Ana^gavegan2 Visarjana The act of throwing the image of a deity into holy water as a rite of bidding farewell at the end of a festival or worship It has either practical or symbolical aspects. Vi=aya An object of sense perception , knowledge or meditation Vic1ra, vide also Vic1ra Vitarka Vi=ayak1ra The active state of Citta in which identifies itself with the senses Vi=ayak1ra V4tti The V4tti of Vi=ayak1ra state Vi=ayavat2 Prav4tti Tanm1tra-s The sense experience as kind of Dh1ra91 on Tanm1tra Vi0e=a Lit. 'without difference' Gu9aparva-s One of the four Gu9aparva in which Savitarka Sam1dhi is experienced Prak4ti, The difference has to be seen as the distinction between Puru=a and Prak4ti in Yoga an essential experience. vide also !tmabh1va Vi=9u Trimurti) Lord Vi=nu one of the Hindu trinity (Trimurti protector of the Universe, presiding over the Trimurti Brahm198a; preservation of the Brahm198a the Devat1 of !p Bh3ta Garu8a, Lak=m2. His vehicle is Garu8a the Eagle. Lord Vi=nu is the consort of Lak=m2 There are ten incarnations Avat1ra-s) of Vi=nu namely Fish (Matsya Tortoise (K3rma Boar (Var1ha Man-lion Avat1ra (Avat1ra Matsya), Matsya K3rma), K3rma Var1ha), Var1ha Narasi%ha), V1mana), V1mana Para0ur1ma, R1ma, K4=9a, (Narasi%ha Dwarf (V1mana Para0ur1ma R1ma K4=9a Buddha and Kalki as evolutionary Narasi%ha unfolding of the universe. Vi=nu is also one of the twelve !ditya-s. !ditya Vi=9ugranthi Lit. 'knot of Vi=nu' Located in the S3rya Kha98a represents the attachment to Krodha (anger) and Moha (infatuation) Vi0ok1 190
  • 192. V The process of removal of sorrow vide also Jyoti=mat2 Vi0uddhi Cakra (also Vi0uddha Cakra Cakra) Lit. 'purification Cakra' The Cakra located on the vertebral column behind the throat pit )rotra, V1k, This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of )rotra the Karmendriya of V1k the )abda, Ko0a, Tanm1tra of )abda is the center for Ud1na V1ya and the seat of Vij61namaya Ko0a the level Janarloka. of awareness is Janarloka vide also S1kin2 Vi0va All pervading, universe Vi0vadar1 N182 The N182 connected to the right cheek vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvakar=i92 Cakra Vi0vakarman Lit. 'the one who creates everything' A Vedic god personifying the creative force Vi=van1tha Lit. 'Lord of the universe' A name of )iva Vi0va Puru=a A mental consciousness of the world as kind of Puru=a of the conscious mind Vi0var3pa The cosmic form Vitalaloka vide Loka V2tar1ga R1ga) R1ga A person who has renounced attachment (R1ga Vitarka The state of consciousness flowing with the basis of )abda (as word) and being able to discriminate; intention Vitarka is a Sth3la (gross) kind of Vi=aya. Vivasvat !ditya-s Harmony in nature as one of the twelve !ditya Viveka Discrimination between real and unreal, reality and illusion as a process of J61na Yoga It is the level of awareness of Satyaloka and the expression of freedom from Mada (pride). 191
  • 193. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Pa6c1gni, vide also Pa6c1gni Vajra Viveka J61na Discriminative knowledge vide also Satyaloka Vivekakhy1ti Sat) The knowledge through Viveka as a continuous process of awareness of the reality (Sat and Sat fulfilment of H1na (liberation) Pratiprasava, vide also Pratiprasava Khy1ti Vrata Lit. 'vow; service' A rite of devotion or vow of austerity; a rite of Goddess worship Veda-s In the Veda signifies the milk as the only food after taking the vow of such austerity. V4k=1sana The tree !sana V4nd1vana The village on the river where K4=9a spent his youth, today an important place of pilgrimage V4=abha Veda-s V4=an) In the Veda a name for the bull (known also as V4=an representing the power behind the creation complementing Dhenu (the milk cow). V4=abha has to be seen as the symbol of the male Veda-s, principle in the Veda a parallel concept with Puru=a in Yoga. V4=abha Dhenu In the Veda-s the bull and the milk cow as symbols of two polarities viz. heaven and earth, father Veda Yoga. and mother, male and female, a parallel concept with Puru=a and Prak4ti in Yoga The heaven- Veda-s Varu9a. earth unity is often personified in the Veda as Varu9a V4=an Veda-s In the Veda the bull vide V4=abha V4=1sana The bull !sana V4tra Veda-s In the Veda the dragon as symbol of ignorance Avidy1, vide also Avidy1 Aj61na V4trahan Veda-s In the Veda a name of Indra as destroyer of V4tra V4tti Condition of a mental activity having as background the Citta V4tti-s J1grat), Svapna) The V4tti are of three kinds namely waking (J1grat dreaming (Svapna and dreamless sleep J1grat Svapna Su=upti) Su=upti (Su=upti 192
  • 194. V V4tti-s Cittav4tti), The suppression of V4tti is an essential condition of the state of Yoga (vide Cittav4tti their superimposition on Citta will cease only when the state of Dharmamegha Sam1dhi is reached. vide also Avasth1 V4ttinirodha The non-rise of any kind of V4tti in the Citta as a state of Yoga vide also Cittav4ttinirodha Vy1dhi Vik=epa-s The state of disease as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Vy1kara9a Lit. 'separation, explanation' Revelation; grammar Vy1khy1na Mudr1 The gesture of explanation Vy1khy1t4tva Vy1khy1t4tva The ability of clear explanation vide also Pa98itya Vyakta Gu9a-s The manifested principle of creation made up of the three Gu9a Avyakta, Prasava, Pratiprasava, vide also Avyakta Prasava Pratiprasava Abhivyaktik1ra9a Vy1na The V1yu which distributes and circulates the energy all over the body V1yu, Cakra, Sarvapriya%kar2, vide also V1yu Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvapriya%kar2 Devasu=i Vy1pti Lit. 'attainment' Acquisition of a Tattva Vyoma Ether; space vide also Bh3ta Vyoma Pa6caka !k10a, aram1k10a, The five subtle spaces as intermediate stages of Dh1ra9a viz. Gu9a Rahita !k10a Param1k10a Mah1k10a, Mah1k10a Tattv1k10a and S3ry1k10a S3ry1k10a. Vyomatattva vide !k10atattva Vyutkrama Yogic technique of taking water through both nostrils and expelling it through the mouth as one of Kap1labh1ti-s. the three Kap1labh1ti 193
  • 195. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Y Y1ga Worship as general term in all Indian traditions The Dev2's worship is of three kinds: Antary1ga (or K1yika), Bahiry1ga (B1hyay1ga or Dev2' K1yika B1hyay1ga V1cika) M1nasa). V1cika and Bh1vana (or M1nasa A special kind of worship is Mah1y1ga. Yajm1na A priest presiding over Yaj6a Yaj6a (also Y1j6a Y1j6a) Lit. 'worship, prayer, devotion; oblation, offering, sacrifice' The fire sacrifice as altar of the Vedic fire Daiv2sampat-s. Y1j6a is basically an Y1j6a means also sacrifice as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat expression of consciousness in a Vedic ritual form in order to obtain awareness, therefore a parallel concept to Sam1dhi in Yoga. !tm1rpa9a, $tvija, Vidy1, Agni, Homa, Cidagni, vide also !tm1rpa9a $tvija Puru=a Vidy1 Agni Homa Cidagni Cidagni Ku98a Y1j6avalkya A sage householder in the B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad vide also Maitrey2 Vidy1 Yajur Veda Veda-s One of the four Veda known also as the sacrificial Veda vide Veda Y1kin2 The )akti residing in Sahasr1ra Cakra Yak=a A class of semi-divine beings Yama Veda-s Pit4-s; In the Veda the god who rules the spirits of the dead and presides over the Pit4 in Yoga one of A^ga-s Pata6jali. the eight A^ga of the A=71^gaYoga of Pata6jali It contains five moral codes of conduct viz. Ahi%s1, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacarya, Ahi%s1 Satya Asteya Brahmacarya Aparigraha all as expressions of a balanced state of mind. Y1mala A class of Tantra works )iva, vide )iva Tantra Yamun1 A river in India commonly known as Jumn1 Pray1ga, vide also Pray1ga Trive92 194
  • 196. Y Yantra Lit. 'amulet; mystical diagram' Brahm198a) Brahm198a A form-symbol of a deity; a Tantric symbol of unity of Macrocosm (Brahm198a and Microcosm Pi98198a); Pi98198a (Pi98198a an expression of the supreme consciousness as diagram or symbol Yantra. The most celebrated Yantra is )r2 Yantra A fundamental concept is that the human body as Microcosm is a Yantra therefore subject to meditation of various kinds. Ma98ala, vide also Ma98ala +ada^ga Yantrop1sana Meditation on Yantra Ya0ovat2 N182 The N182 connected to the right thigh Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvastambhi92 Y1tr1 Expedition, pilgrimage, campaign with a spiritual purpose Yoga (from the root Y3j i.e. to connect) Lit. 'joining, yoking' The state of union with the Divine; one of the +a8 Dar0ana-s; disunion between Puru=a and Dar0ana Puru=a Prak4ti Yoga consists of different physiological, mental and spiritual practices of union, knowledge, awareness and understanding leading to self-discovery of the individual nature as well as the higher nature or cosmic Self. Traditionally Lord )iva was the first Yog2 who taught the Yoga Vidy1 as P1rvat2, Yoga. part of Tantra to his wife P1rvat2 the first )i0ya. Any conscious step upwards is Yoga There are Yoga-s many classifications of Yoga depending of kinds of practices. The main paths are considered to Yoga ga, be J61na Yoga Karma Yoga and Bhakti Yoga as described in the Bhagavad G2t1 by K4=9a K4=9a. Pratiprasava, Yog2, Yog1c1ra, Trim3rti, vide also Pratiprasava Yog2 Yog1c1ra Trim3rti Yoga Avasth1 Yoga Anu=7h1na The Anu=7h1na related to practices of Yoga as spiritual union Yoga Avasth1 The Yoga state known also as Bh3mik1 !ra%bha, Gha7a, There are four Yoga states namely !ra%bha Gha7a Paricaya and Ni=patti as gradual !roha9a) experiences of Ku98alin2 ascending (i.e. !roha9a the Su=umn1 N182. Yog1c1ra The Yoga based division of Tantra The Tantric path based of yogic techniques Tantra vide Tantra Yoga Dar0ana The Indian system of philosophy of Yoga vide also +a8 Dar0ana Yogam1y1 S1dhana Tantra-s The magical practices in the Tantra 195
  • 197. A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also +a7karma Yog1^ga The steps of Yoga vide also A=71^ga Yoga Yoga Nidr1 The yogic technique of conscious sleep by rotating the consciousness through the different parts of the body Nidr1, Cid1k10a) Through Yoga Nidr1 the space of knowledge (i.e. Cid1k10a is contacted. In the modern times Yoga Nidr1 was reformulated by Svam2 Saty1nanda Sarasvat2 (of Deoghar) from the Tantric Dhy1na). Dhy1na tradition as an introduction to meditation (Dhy1na vide also Sa%kalpa Yoga S1dhana The practice of Yoga vide S1dhana Yog1sana The union !sana Yoga S3tra The book of Yoga by Pata6jali teaching the eight-fold path towards attaining spiritual liberation Nirv19a Sam1dhi) (Nirv19a or Sam1dhi vide also A=71^ga Yoga Yoga Vidy1 The knowledge of Yoga Yog2 (also Yogi) A male practitioner of Yoga; ascetic; one who has attained Yoga Yoga Prathamakalpika, As levels of spiritual realization there are four kinds of Yog2 namely Prathamakalpika Madhubh3mika, Praj61jyoti, Atikr1ntabh1van2ya. Madhubh3mika Praj61jyoti Atikr1ntabh1van2ya The necessary conditions for a Yog2 to step oti Siddhi-s from one level to another and use Siddhi is to be able to overcome gradually Sa^ga (attachment) Devat1-s Yog2. and Smaya (pride). Then the Devat1 will pay attention to the Yog2 After achieving the !ptak1ma, experience of Dharmamegha Sam1dhi the Yog2 becomes !ptak1ma !ptaj61na and Antasa^kalpa since the veil of knowledge has been removed. T2vrasa%vega, Yogin2, vide also T2vrasa%vega Yogin2 Maithuna Yogin2 Female Yog2 Siddhi-s). A Yogin2 is also a female representing a Tantric female Yog2 having magical powers (Siddhi Siddhi Yogin2-s goddess who is subject to adoration. Traditionally there are sixty-four Yogin2 (i.e. Cau0atti Yogin2-s). Yogin2 Maithuna, vide also Maithuna Tantra Yogyat1 The attitude and quality to be an enjoyer and an object of enjoyment in the same time Yoni 196
  • 198. Y Lit. 'womb; source, origin; place of rest, home; vagina' The matrix of generation as a symbol of cosmic primordial source of the material world Yoniku98a A particular Yantra diagram; a place of oblation and worship in the )akta tradition Li^ga Yoni Li^ga The symbol of divine energy of creation; the clitoris Yonima98ala vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Yoni Mudr1 Bandha-s The foetus Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha vide also Laya Siddhi Yoga Yonimukta A person released from being born again Yonip27ha A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Yoni form P27ha, vide also P27ha K1mar3pa P27ha Yuga Cosmic age of the world Yuga-s, K4ta), Tret1, Kali, There are four Yuga viz. Satya (or K4ta Tret1 Dv1para and Kali comprising an aggregate of Yuga. 4,320,000 years which constitute a Mah1 Yuga From Satya Yuga down to Kali Yuga there is a Yuga-s step-by-step deterioration in the condition of the world. Yuga are in fact the material macrocosmic expression of the age of a human being, i.e. Brahm198a vs. Pi98198a. Pi98198a Yuktatrive92 N182-s A name for !j61 Cakra as a place of upper intersection of the three main N182 vide also Pray1ga 197
  • 199. The author Octavian Sarbatoare was born in Romania in 1952. Since 1987 he has been living in Australia. He completed his BA in Philosophy and Studies in Religion, BA (Honours) in Studies in Religion, Master of Arts with Merit (PACS), all at the University of Sydney. He holds a PhD (Honorary Degree) as well. Octavian is the author of various books of scholarly research and fiction, both in English and Romanian. Sarbatoare Publications