Quality gurus osama 1 3-2010

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  • Walter Shewhart1891: Born in New Canton, Illinois.1917: Receives doctorate in physics from the University of California at Berkeley.1918: Joins the Western Electric Company, telephone hardware manufacturer for Bell Telephone.1924: Suggests that a production process in a state of “statistical control,” where only random-causevariation occurs, is necessary to predict output and to run a process cost-effectively; that is, seriouslynoisy processes are unpredictable—a radical idea in 1924.1930s: Studies basic scientific topics, such as the speed of light.1931: Publishes Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product.1939: Publishes Statistical Methods from the Viewpoint of Quality Control.1925–1956: Continues his research for Bell Telephone Laboratories and continues publishing.1956: Retires from Bell Laboratories.1967: Dies.Statistical Process Control (SPC) standards based on Shewhart’s work (ANSI):• Z1.1-1941• Z1.2-1941• Z1.3-1942Deming popularized and disseminated Shewhart’s concepts of statistical process control and thecontinuous reduction of variation in processes. Deming also had the honesty to refer to the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) circle as the “Shewhart cycle” and not the “Deming cycle,” as others called it.Shewhart’s work is completely fundamental to the control phases of Six Sigma practice.Awards• Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers• Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Statistical Society• Honorary Fellowship of the American Society for QualityShewhart is interesting for a variety of reasons:• He was not a professional quality engineer• He was a physicist• His main disciple was also a physicist• He completely revolutionized quality control with his control charts• He was already proposing his ideas in the 1920s!
  • Walter A. Shewhart II􀂄 Quality from two perspectives:􀂅An objective reality independent of theexistence of the customer􀂅The subjective perspective dependent onindividual thoughts, feelings or senses as aresult of the objective reality.
  • Father of statistical quality control“Shewhart simulated theoretical models by marking numbers on three different sets of metal-rimmed tags. Then he used an ordinary kitchen bowl – the Shewhart bowl – to hold each set of chips as different sized samples were drawn from his three different populations. There was a bowl, and it played a vital role in the development of ideas and formulation of methods culminating in the Shewhart control charts.” – Ellis R. Ott, Tribute to Walter A. Shewhart, 1967The industrial age was easing into its second century when a young engineer named Walter A. Shewhart came along and altered the course of industrial history. Shewhart, ASQ’s first Honorary member, successfully brought together the disciplines of statistics, engineering, and economics and became known as the father of modern quality control. The lasting and tangible evidence of that union for which he is most widely known is the control chart, a simple but highly effective tool that represented an initial step toward what Shewhart called “the formulation of a scientific basis for securing economic control.”Shewhart was concerned that statistical theory serve the needs of industry. He exhibited the restlessness of one looking for a better way. A man of science who patiently developed and tested his ideas and the ideas of others, he was an astute observer of developments in the world of science and technology. While the literature of the day discussed the stochastic nature of both biological and technical systems, and spoke of the possibility of applying statistical methodology to these systems, Shewhart actually showed how it was to be done; in that respect, the field of quality control can claim a genuine pioneer in Shewhart. His monumental work, Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, published in 1931, is regarded as a complete and thorough exposition of the basic principles of quality control.A strong background in the sciences and engineering prepared Shewhart for a life of accomplishments. He graduated from the University of Illinois with bachelor’s and master’s degrees, and he received a doctorate in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1917. He taught at the universities of Illinois and California, and he briefly headed the physics department at the Wisconsin Normal School in LaCrosse. Most of Shewhart’s professional career was spent as an engineer at Western Electric from 1918 to 1924, and at Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he served in several capacities as a member of the technical staff from 1925 until his retirement in 1956. He also lectured on quality control and applied statistics at the University of London, Stevens Institute of Technology, the graduate school of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and in India. He was a member of the visiting committee at Harvard’s Department of Social Relations, an honorary professor at Rutgers, and a member of the advisory committee of the Princeton mathematics department.Called upon frequently as a consultant, Shewhart served the War Department, the United Nations, and the government of India, and he was active with the National Research Council and the International Statistical Institute. He was an honorary member of England’s Royal Statistical Society and the Calcutta Statistical Association. He was a fellow and officer of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Statistical Association, and a fellow of the Econometric Society, the International Statistical Institute, and the New York Academy of Science. He served for more than 20 years as the first editor of the Mathematical Statistics Series published by John Wiley and Sons. Shewhart wrote Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control in 1939 and gained recognition in the statistical community. In addition, he published numerous articles in professional journals, and many of his writings were held internally at Bell Laboratories. One of these was the historic memorandum of May 16, 1924, in which he proposed the control chart to his superiors. An element in Shewhart’s success was his searching out other bright and knowledgeable individuals for their ideas, methodically cultivating these sources and drawing from them information and advice in a way that endeared him to all. In a series of tributes to Shewhart published in Industrial Quality Control in August 1967, the most striking comment from the contributors—many of whom were themselves important figures in the development of the quality control field—was their respect for Shewhart’s gentlemanly approach and sincere interest in the work and concerns of others. His character is summed up in comments made by the chairman of the committee that awarded the first Shewhart Medal:The act of awarding the medal focuses the spotlight of public attention on the recipient, revealing in clear light the qualities that have won for him the esteem of his peers. What are the qualities that lead us to so honor a man as to give him a medal? First of all, he must have intellectual ability, enabling him to clear away a little of the dark cloud of ignorance that always surrounds us. Second, he must have the generosity of spirit that leads him to so express and restate his pioneering ideas that other members of his profession may benefit from them. And finally, he must have that warmth of human feeling that marks the true educator, endearing him to his students or disciples, even those who learn from him only remotely. All of these qualities are eminently personified in Dr. Walter Shewhart. (Industrial Quality Control, May 1949, p.26)Shewhart’s influence on ASQ runs deep. Shortly before his death, he remarked to members that they “extended the field beyond my early visions and saw areas of service that pleased and amazed me. I hope that you continue.”Shewhart’s legacy lives in mementos of him—a simple bowl and some numbered chips, a bronze medal, some books and writings—it lives in the succession of other prominent individuals he influenced, and it lives in the society of professionals who carry on the work he started.
  • Shweart plan do check act pdcaDeming plan do s act pdsa
  • Walter Shewhart1891: Born in New Canton, Illinois.1917: Receives doctorate in physics from the University of California at Berkeley.1918: Joins the Western Electric Company, telephone hardware manufacturer for Bell Telephone.1924: Suggests that a production process in a state of “statistical control,” where only random-causevariation occurs, is necessary to predict output and to run a process cost-effectively; that is, seriouslynoisy processes are unpredictable—a radical idea in 1924.1930s: Studies basic scientific topics, such as the speed of light.1931: Publishes Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product.1939: Publishes Statistical Methods from the Viewpoint of Quality Control.1925–1956: Continues his research for Bell Telephone Laboratories and continues publishing.1956: Retires from Bell Laboratories.1967: Dies.Statistical Process Control (SPC) standards based on Shewhart’s work (ANSI):• Z1.1-1941• Z1.2-1941• Z1.3-1942Deming popularized and disseminated Shewhart’s concepts of statistical process control and thecontinuous reduction of variation in processes. Deming also had the honesty to refer to the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) circle as the “Shewhart cycle” and not the “Deming cycle,” as others called it.Shewhart’s work is completely fundamental to the control phases of Six Sigma practice.Awards• Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers• Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Statistical Society• Honorary Fellowship of the American Society for QualityShewhart is interesting for a variety of reasons:• He was not a professional quality engineer• He was a physicist• His main disciple was also a physicist• He completely revolutionized quality control with his control charts• He was already proposing his ideas in the 1920s!
  • Deming’s ParadigmsIntrinsic & extrinsic motivationManagement needs to improve and innovate processes to create resultsOptimize the system toward its aimCooperation is better than competitionW. Edwards DemingMore on DemingJapanDeming’s message to the Japanese reflected his statistical background. He improved Shewhart’smanufacturing approach with a qualitative approach linked to non-manufacturing and humanvariation. He encouraged managers to focus on process variation—a strong precursor to the currentSix Sigma movement. The 14 points are largely qualitative and involve concerns particular tomanagement in the enterprise.The WestDeming attempted to make major changes in the style of Western management—the fourteen pointsare still radical more than 20 years later. His later work was clearly more management-oriented thanstatistically based. Much of his most recent management philosophy is contained in his book Out ofthe Crisis. Some readers have felt that the ideas in this book are too idealistic and therefore incapable ofimplementation. Regardless, these ideas merit consideration and thought, particularly his commentson human relations— which are consistently in favor of the dignity of the worker.Deming was concerned with delighting, rather than merely satisfying, customers. He produced hisfourteen points for management in order to help people understand and implement the necessarytransformation. Deming said that adoption of and action on the fourteen points is a signal thatmanagement intends to stay in business. The fourteen points apply to small or large organizations,and to service industries as well as to manufacturing.The fourteen points are the upside of Deming’s philosophy of management. The downside isrepresented by the Seven Deadly Diseases of management.Deming’s Seven Deadly Diseases31. Lack of constancy of purpose to plan product and service that will have a market and keep thecompany in business, and provide jobs.2. Emphasis on short-term profits: short-term thinking (just the opposite of constancy of purposeto stay in business), fed by fear of unfriendly takeover, and by push from bankers and ownersfor dividends.3. Personal review systems, or evaluation of performance, merit rating, annual review, or annualappraisal, by whatever name, for people in management, the effects of which are devastating.Management by objective, on a go, no-go basis, without a method for accomplishment of theobjective, is the same thing by another name. Management by fear would still be better.4. Mobility of management; job hopping.5. Use of visible figures only for management, with little or no consideration of figures that areunknown or unknowable.6. Excessive medical costs.7. Excessive costs of liability.Reviewing Deming’s pronouncement may seem to be an exercise in critiquing Pollyanna aphorismsproduced by a physicist. However, if we approach Deming’s comments with an open mind and “lookunder the hood” in our businesses, much of what he says makes a great deal of sense. Deming’sprincipal weakness in this regard was his failure to provide the practical means for achieving hisidealistic proposals.Every company for which the author has worked has maintained some kind of review system. In theauthor’s opinion, these review systems have all failed their stated goal. In some cases, a performancereview would probably serve the employee better in a court of law than it would in the enterprise.Nonetheless, year in and year out, companies persist in using these devices, often for the sole purpose ofproviding a basis for the annual increase. Certainly, the managers are not justifying different increasesfrom one employee to another but, rather, justifying the increase to peers and upper management.William Edwards Deming was an American statistician, college professor, author,lecturer, and consultant. Deming is widely credited with improving production inthe United States during WWII, although he is best known for his work in Japan.There, from 1950 onward he taught top management how to improve design(and thus service), product quality, testing and sales. Deming made a significantcontribution to Japan becoming renowned for producing high-quality products.Deming is famous for his 14 Points for Management. Management's failure toplan for the future brings about loss of market, which brings about loss of jobs."Long-term commitment to new learning and new philosophy is required of anymanagement that seeks transformation. The timid and the fainthearted, and thepeople that expect quick results, are doomed to disappointment."
  • More on DemingJapanDeming’s message to the Japanese reflected his statistical background. He improved Shewhart’smanufacturing approach with a qualitative approach linked to non-manufacturing and humanvariation. He encouraged managers to focus on process variation—a strong precursor to the currentSix Sigma movement. The 14 points are largely qualitative and involve concerns particular tomanagement in the enterprise.The WestDeming attempted to make major changes in the style of Western management—the fourteen pointsare still radical more than 20 years later. His later work was clearly more management-oriented thanstatistically based. Much of his most recent management philosophy is contained in his book Out ofthe Crisis. Some readers have felt that the ideas in this book are too idealistic and therefore incapable ofimplementation. Regardless, these ideas merit consideration and thought, particularly his commentson human relations— which are consistently in favor of the dignity of the worker.Deming was concerned with delighting, rather than merely satisfying, customers. He produced hisfourteen points for management in order to help people understand and implement the necessarytransformation. Deming said that adoption of and action on the fourteen points is a signal thatmanagement intends to stay in business. The fourteen points apply to small or large organizations,and to service industries as well as to manufacturing.The fourteen points are the upside of Deming’s philosophy of management. The downside isrepresented by the Seven Deadly Diseases of management.William Edwards Deming was an American statistician, college professor, author,lecturer, and consultant. Deming is widely credited with improving production inthe United States during WWII, although he is best known for his work in Japan.There, from 1950 onward he taught top management how to improve design(and thus service), product quality, testing and sales. Deming made a significantcontribution to Japan becoming renowned for producing high-quality products.Deming is famous for his 14 Points for Management. Management's failure toplan for the future brings about loss of market, which brings about loss of jobs."Long-term commitment to new learning and new philosophy is required of anymanagement that seeks transformation. The timid and the fainthearted, and thepeople that expect quick results, are doomed to disappointment."
  • Dr. Deming's IdeasDeming suggest 14 steps to approach TQM1) Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and serviceConstancy of purpose requires innovation, investment in research and education, continuous improvement of product and service, maintenance of equipment, furniture and fixtures, and new aids to production.2) Adopt the new philosophyManagement must undergo a transformation and begin to believe in quality products and services.3) Cease dependence on mass inspectionInspect products and services only enough to be able to identify ways to improve the process.4) End the practice of awarding business on price tag aloneThe lowest priced goods are not always the highest quality; choose a supplier based on its record of improvement and then make a long-term commitment to it.5) Improve constantly and forever the system of product and service Improvement is not a one-time effort; management is responsible for leading the organization into the practice of continual improvement in quality and productivity.6) Institute training and retrainingWorkers need to know how to do their jobs correctly even if they need to learn new skills.7) Institute leadershipLeadership is the job of management. Managers have the responsibility to discover the barriers that prevent staff from taking pride in what they do. The staff will know what those barriers are.8) Drive out fearPeople often fear reprisal if they "make waves" at work. Managers need to create an environment where workers can express concerns with confidence.9) Break down barriers between staff areasManagers should promote teamwork by helping staff in different areas/departments work together. Fostering interrelationships among departments encourages higher quality decision-making.10) Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforceUsing slogans alone, without an investigation into the processes of the workplace, can be offensive to workers because they imply that a better job could be done. Managers need to learn real ways of motivating people in their organizations.11) Eliminate numerical quotasQuotas impede quality more than any other working condition; they leave no room for improvement. Workers need the flexibility to give customers the level of service they need.12) Remove barriers to pride of workmanshipGive workers respect and feedback about how they are doing their jobs  13) Institute a vigorous program of education and retrainingWith continuous improvement, job descriptions will change. As a result, employees need to be educated and retrained so they will be successful at new job responsibilities.14) Take action to accomplish the transformationManagement must work as a team to carry out the previous 13 steps.Comments on some of Dr. Deming's points:The first of the 14 Points charges management with establishing continual improvement through the redefinition of the company's purposes. Quite simply, the company must survive, compete well, and constantly replenish its resources for growth and improvement through innovation and research. In the fifth point, Dr. Deming states that only a commitment to a process of continual improvement truly rewards. A company cannot expect to ignite and feed a quality revolution from which it will prosper for all time. Instead, it must adopt an evolutionary philosophy; such a philosophy prevents stagnation and arms the company for the uncertain future. Part of the evolutionary mentality is to abandon practices that, despite their obvious short term benefits, ultimately detract from the company's effectiveness.Point number four specifically warns against this scenario: the purchasing department of a company consistently patronizes those vendors who offer the lowest prices.  As a result, the company often purchases low quality equipment.   Dr. Deming urges companies to establish loyal ties with suppliers of quality equipment.Point five condemns mass inspection procedures as inefficient; a product should be monitored by the workers, throughout the assembly process, to meet a series of quality standards.  In the long term, the use of better equipment and a more intense worker-oriented method of inspection will markedly improve productivity and lower costs.   In order to accomplish these goals, a company must develop a consistent, active plan that involves its entire labor force in the drive toward total quality.
  • Joseph M. Juran1904: Born in the Balkans.1924: Begins career as engineer.1951: First version of Quality Control Handbook published.1954: Invited to Japan by Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE); provides seminars totop- and middle-level executives.1964: Managerial Breakthrough published.1979: Founds Juran Institute.1980–present: Continues to write books on quality and serve as a consultant to manufacturingcompanies worldwide.2008: dies.Major books by Juran are the Quality Control Handbook, Juran on Quality by Design, ManagerialBreakthrough, and Juran on Leadership for Quality. His 12 books have collectively been translated into13 languages. He has received more than 30 medals, honorary fellowships, and other honors. LikeDeming, he received the highest decoration presented to a non-Japanese citizen, the Second Order ofthe Sacred Treasure.The Quality Control Handbook is now in its fifth edition; if you can only afford one quality book, this isit. The first chapter contains his analogy to the costs of quality: “there is gold in the mine.”Juran has had a varied career in management; his interest has been wider than just quality and he hasinvolved himself in the fundamental principles common to all managerial activity.Joseph Moses Juran was an American industrial engineer. He is known as aquality guru, making significant contributions to quality management theory. Heworked in Japan at the same time as Deming though they worked separately.He is widely credited for adding the human dimension to quality management. Hepushed for the education and training of managers as apposed to Deming whowas more into statistics.
  • Joseph M. Juran I􀂄 Quality can be:􀂅 Those product features which meet the need ofcustomers and thereby provide product satisfaction.􀂅 Freedom from deficiencies.􀂄 Quality in terms of satisfying customerexpectations or specifications is not usable as itis very hard to achieve.􀂄 Quality is fitness for use
  • Juran’s messageThere are many aspects to Juran’s message on quality. Intrinsic is the belief that quality must beplanned.His last book, Juran on Planning for Quality, is a gold mine of management concepts completelyapplicable to the implementation and deployment of Six Sigma. His earlier Quality Control Handbookis much more technical in nature, generally organized as a one-volume encyclopedia of qualitytechniques.Key elements in implementing company wide strategic quality planning are:• Identifying customers and their needs• Establishing optimal quality goals (define)• Creating measurements of quality (measure)• Planning processes capable of meeting quality goals under operating conditions (analyze,improve, and control)• Producing continuing results in improved market share, premium prices (ongoing control)• Reducing error rates in the office and factory (reduction of variation)Juran’s Quality Process41. Identify the customers.2. Determine the needs of those customers.3. Translate those needs into our language.4. Develop a product that can respond to those needs.5. Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs as well as customer needs.6. Develop a process that is able to produce the product.7. Optimize the process.8. Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions.9. Transfer the process to Operations.Juran began his career right around the same time at Shewhart, but due to his longevity (he died in2008), he has influenced the quality profession for every decade of the twentieth century starting inthe 1920s. His writing style is eminently readable and his thoughts are clear.Regardless of Six Sigma Black Belt certification, the Juran books remain a continuing resource onquality at all levels.Juran’s Formula for Results1. Establish specific goals to be reached.2. Establish plans for reaching the goals.3. Assign clear responsibility for meeting the goals.4. Base the rewards on results achieved.These items are similar to the first portions of DMAIC in Six Sigma. All management by objective(MBO) techniques tie into this simple algorithm as well. While Peter Drucker may have semi-coinedthe term management by objectives, it was Juran who really spelled out what it took to accomplishthe goal in the practical world.
  • The Juran TrilogyPlanning—Create a product, service, or process that meets requirements, especially under operatingconditions. This thought alone is the foundation for Design for Six Sigma.Control—Verify that the process runs optimally, reducing process waste. Chronic waste is a cost ofpoor quality. Control of the process is congruent with lean manufacturing concepts.Improvement—Improve the process continuously. Quality and process improvement lead tobreakthrough.P–C–I—Planning, Control, ImprovementJuran concentrates not just on the end customer, but on other external and internal customers aswell—a concept that has generally taken hold in forward-thinking manufacturing companies. Thisidea affects Juran’s concept of quality because one must also consider the “fitness of use” of theinterim product for the next internal customers.Joseph Juran’s work emphasizes the need for specialist knowledge and tools for successful conductof the Quality Function. He emphasizes the need for continuous awareness of the customer in allfunctions.According to Juran5, the mission of his work is:• Creating an awareness of the quality crisis of the 1980s and going forward• Establishing a new approach to quality planning and training• Assisting companies in re-planning existing processes, avoiding quality deficiencies• Establishing mastery within companies over the quality planning process, thus avoiding thecreation of new chronic problemsJuran refers to the widespread move to raise quality awareness in the emerging quality crisis of theearly 1980s as failing to change behavior despite company quality awareness campaigns based onslogans and exhortations. Even though quality awareness increased during this period, Juran writes,the general failure to improve was caused by the crusade’s lack of planning and substance (anapproach congruent with Deming’s disdain for “sloganeering”): “The recipe for action should consistof 90 percent substance and 10 percent exhortation, not the reverse.
  • Born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1929, Bill Smith graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1952 and studied at the University of Minnesota School of Business. In 1987, after working for nearly 35 years in engineering and quality assurance, he joined Motorola, serving as vice president and senior quality assurance manager for the Land Mobile Products Sector. Considered to be the father of Six sigma.
  • Mikel J HarryDr. Harry has been widely recognized and cited in many publications as the principle architect of Six Sigma and the world’s leading authority within this field. His most recent book entitled Six Sigma: The Management Strategy Revolutionizing the World’s Top Corporations has been on the “best seller list” of the Wall Street Journal, Business Week, and Amazon.com. He has consulted to many of the world�s top CEOs and has been a featured guest on such television programs as the NBC show “Power Lunch.” In addition, he has been distinguished by Arizona State University with the 2002 Engineering Excellence Award for superb achievements in the engineering profession and notable contributions to society.At the present time, Dr. Harry is President and COB of the Six Sigma Management Institute. As founder of the Six Sigma Academy in 1994, he served as a board member and chief executive officer. In addition, he has served on the Board-of-Directors for the International Statistics Application Institute and the International Design Institute, Singapore. Dr. Harry was employed by Asea Brown Boveri and served as Corporate Vice President, Quality Systems Deployment. As such, he was directly responsible for the global leadership, implementation, and deployment of Six Sigma at ABB. His activity was fo�cused on the creation of world-class levels of improvement in prod�uct quality, performance, pro�ducibility, and cost.Before this, Dr. Harry founded Motorola’s Six Sigma Research Institute and served as Corporate Director and Senior Member of Technical Staff. In this position, he was responsible for the development of Six Sigma im�plementation strategy, deployment guidelines, and ad�vanced application tools. For his technical leadership, Dr. Harry was appointed as an associate member of Motorola’s prestigious Science Advisory Board (SABA). In recognition of his technical contributions, he was inducted into the Scientific and Technical Society at Motorola’s Government Electronics Group.As one of the original architects and pioneers of Six Sigma at Motorola, he was responsible for the research and development of advanced Six Sigma engineering models and methods. While serving the Motorola Government Electronics Group, Dr. Harry also held the positions of Member of Technical Staff, Group Operations. Before this, he held the position of Manager and Principal Staff Engineer, Advanced Quantitative Research Laboratory. He also served as a Quality and Reliability Engineer when he first joined Motorola.Before joining Motorola, Dr. Harry was a consultant to several Fortune 500 corporations in the areas of statistical engineering, experiment design, statistical process control, and quality management. His industrial experiences also include manufacturing management at General Motors Corporation and industrial engineering with Dayton Walther Corporation. Dr. Harry has also served as an instructor within the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Division of Technology, Arizona State University. In addition, he was a member of the ASU/IBM Joint Engineering Study.Prior to beginning his professional career, he was commissioned into the U.S. Marine Corps as a Second Lieutenant. His tour of duty included serving as an infantry platoon leader and later as an executive officer and company commander. He was also certified as a nuclear-biological-chemical warfare officer and was honorably discharged with the rank of Captain.Significant professional contributions include creation of the Six Sigma Breakthrough Strategy and the Six Sigma Black Belt concept. In addition, Dr. Harry authored the first substantive publication on Six Sigma. This book was designed to articulate the philosophy, theory, and application of Motorola’s Six Sigma Program and was pub�lished under the title The Nature of Six Sigma Quality.” In addition, Dr. Harry was responsi�ble for the research and development of an advanced mechanical design engineering tolerancing system, for which he received a major engineering award from Motorola. The design algorithms have since been trans�lated to functional engineering software. This work was published by Motorola, Inc. under the title Six Sigma Mechanical Design Tolerancing.”Another major contribution was the research and development of an RF/Microwave design analysis and optimization procedure. This work was published by Motorola University Press and used by Motorola, Texas Instruments and other noted corporations. Dr. Harry was directly responsible for the research and development of a process characterization methodol�ogy, as well as the supporting mathematical statistics. This work was published by Addison-Wesley under the title Six Sigma Producibility Analysis and Process Characterization.”Dr. Harry has over 50 major publications to his credit. His work has appeared in such journals as Quality Progress, IEEE Micro and Circuit World, Journal of Circuit Technology. In addition, he has authored a substantial refer�ence book on the application of experiment design, inferential statistics, and statistical process control. The book is entitled Achieving Quality Excellence: The Strategy, Tactics and Tools. Most recently, Dr. Harry has published an eight volume set of books entitled The Six Sigma Series. This extensive work presents the implementation guidelines, deployment strategy and application tools related to Six Sigma. Supporting this series and furthering the power of quality, he published a unified set of articles in Quality Progress entitled New Frontiers.His work is actively used and promoted by such noted institutions as General Electric, Ford Motor Company, Sony, Allied Signal, Stanford University, Motorola, Texas Instruments, Unisys, IBM, Rockwell, Kodak, and the Department of Defense, as well as many others. He is a contributing author to a textbook on the application of SPC methods and experiment design in automated manufacturing, Marcel Decker. In ad�dition, he is a contributing author to a textbook used by the Mathematics Department, U.S. Air Force Academy. He has served as chairman of the Product Design Sub-committee for Producibility Metrics, United States Navy. In addition, he was technical co-chairman of the SPC standards committee for the Interconnecting and Packaging Electronics Circuits Institute (IPC). He received the Presidents Award from IPC at the 1990 Annual Conference for outstanding technical contribution to the industry. In 1993, Dr. Harry was inducted into the “Who’s Who” Registry of Global Business Leaders.He is an active international speaker, seminar leader, and holds numerous technical and management instructor certifications. Dr. Harry has personally trained and worked with such Chief Executive Officers as Jack Welch (General Electric), JacNassar (Ford Motor Company) and Larry Bossidy (Allied Signal), as well as their senior executive teams and technical/scientific communities. In addition, Dr. Harry has worked with several distinguished professional societies around the world. He has personally trained thousands of leaders and practitioners around the globe. He is frequently retained as a keynote speaker and presenter for industry symposiums and prestigious functions such as the Young President’s Organization (YPO). Dr. Harry has also been featured in several documentaries and was the subject of a feature article in “Personal Success” magazine, Quality Progress magazine and the international magazine: The Globe and Mail Report on Business.
  • 1.Total quality control defined. TQC may be defined as.. An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full-customer satisfaction .2.Quality versus quality. "Big ()" or Quality refers to luxurious quality whereas "little q" refers to high quality, not necessarily luxury. Regardless of an organization's niche, little q must closely maintained and improved.3.Control In the phrase "quality control", the word control represents a management tool with four steps'.1-Setting quality standards.2-Appraising conformance to these standards.3-Acting when the standards are exceeded.4-Planning for improvements in the standards .4. Integration. Control requires the integration of often into a framework. This framework should for customer-driven quality efforts across all activities of the enterprise.5.Quality increases profits. Total quality control programs are highly cost effective because of their results in improved levels of customer satisfaction, reduced operating losses and field service costs , and improved utilisation of resources . Without quality, customers will not return. Without return customers, no business will long survive.1- تعريف مراقبة الجودة الشاملة.2- الجودة كنقيض للجودة (حيث الأولى تعبر عن الجودة كرفاهية مطلقة والأخرى تعبر عن الجودة العالمية التى ليس بها أى رفاهية).3- الرقابة.4- التكامل.5- الجودة تزيد من الأرباح.
  • 6.Quality is expected, not desired. Quality begets quality. As one supplier becomes quality oriented, other suppliers must meet or exceed this new standard.7.Humans impact quality. The greatest quality improvements are to come from humans improving the process, not adding machines.8.TQC applies to all products and services. No person or department is exempted from supplying quality services and products to its customer9.Qualityisatotal life-cycleconsideration. Qualitycontrolentersinto all phases of the industrial production process, starting with the customer's specification , throughdesignengineeringandassemblyto shipment of the product and installation, including fieldservicefora customer who remains satisfied with the product.10.Controlling the process. These controls fall into four naturalclassification: new design control, incoming material control, product control, and special process studies .6- الجودة عبارة عن شىء متوقع وليس عبارة عن رغبة.7- يؤثر الأفراد فى الجودة حيث أن أعظم تحسينات للجودة تأتى من تحسين الأفراد للعملية وليس إضافة ماكينات).8- مراقبة الجودة الشاملة لجميع المنتجات والخدمات.9- تعتبر الجودة دورة حياة شاملة.10- التحكم فى العملية.
  • 11.A total quality system may be defined as. The agreed company wide and plant wide operating work structure, documented in effective, integrated technical and managerial procedures, for guiding the coordinated actions of the people, the machines, and the information of the company and plant in the best and most practical ways to assure customer quality satisfaction and economical costs of quality. The quality system provides integrated and continuous control to all key activities, making it truly organization wide in scope.12.Benefits.Benefits often resulting from total quality programs are improvement in product quality and design, reduction in operating costs and losses, improvement in employee morale, and reduction of production-line bottlenecks.13.Cost of quality. Quality costs are a means for measuring and optimising total quality control activities. Operating quality costs are divided into four different classifications.. prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs. four different classifications: prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs.14.Organize for quality control.It is necessary to demonstrate that quality is everybody's job. Every organizational component has a quality-related responsibility. for example, marketing for determining customers' quality preferences, engineering for specifying product quality specifications, and shop supervision for building quality into the product. Make this responsibility explicit and visible.15.Quality facilitators. not quality cops.The quality control organization acts as a touchstone for communicating new results in the company, providing new techniques, acting as a facilitator, and in general resembles an internal consultant, rather than a police force of quality inspectors .يمكن تعريف نظام الجودة الشاملة على أنه نظام العمل المتفق عليه فى كل أنحاء الشركة ، ويوفر هذا النظام مراقبة مستمرة ومتكاملة لكل الأنشطة الرئيسية ويجعل المؤسسة منظمة واسعة المدى).12- الفوائد : وهى التى تنتج من برامج الجودة الشاملة، وهى عبارة عن التحسينات فى جودة المنتج والتصميم والتقليل فى نفقات التشغيل والفاقد وتحسين معنويات العاملين وتعليل الاختناقات فى خطوط الإنتاج.13- تكلفة الجودة : وهى وسائل لقياس أنشطة مراقبة الجودة الشاملة ، وتشمل التكلفة الوقائية وتكاليف التقييم وتكاليف الفشل الداخلى وتكاليف الفشل الداخلى.14- التنظيم لمراقبة الجودة : فالجودة تعتبر وظيفة كل فرد فى المؤسسة.15- تعيين مدربين للتدريب على الجودة ولا يكون عملهم البحث الأخطاء.
  • 16.Continuous commitment.Management must recognise at the outset of its total quality control program that this program is not a temporary quality improvement or quality cost reduction project.17. Use statistical tools. Statistics are used in an overall quality control program whenever and wherever they may be useful, but statistics are only one part of the total quality control pattern .18.Automation is not a panacea.Automation is complex and can become an implementation nightmare. Be sure the best human-oriented activities are implemented before being convinced that automation is the answer.19.Control quality at time source.The creator of the product or the deliverer of the service must be able to control the quality of their product or service. Delegate authority, if necessary. Norton Stores hasthe simple company policy of "Use your own best judgement," and allows its employees the authority and freedom that this policy requires.16- الالتزام المستمر لبرنامج مراقبة الجودة الشاملة وعدم اعتباره تحسين مؤقت أو مشروع لتقليل تكلفة الجودة.17- استخدام الأدوات الإحصائية عندما يكون استخدامهم مفيد.18- الميكنة الآلية ليست العلاج لجميع المشاكل فيجب التأكد من أن أنشطة التوجه بالفرد تم تطبيقها قبل الاقتناع بأن الميكنة الآلية هى الحل حيث أنها تعتبر معقدة جداً ويمكن أن تصبح كابوس حقيقى بالنسبة للتطبيق.19- يجب أن يكون الشخص الذى يخلق المنتج أو يوفر الخدمة أن يكون قادراً على التحكم فى جودة المنتج أو الخدمة ولابد من تفويض السلطة إذا كان ذلك ضرورياً.
  • Genichi Taguchi1924 - Dr Genichi Taguchi bornMid1950’s - was Indian Statistical Institutes visiting professor, where he met Walter Shewhart.1960 Awarded the Deming Application prize1962 - awarded his PhD by Kyushu University1964 - 1982 Professor at Tokyo’s Aoyama Gakuin University1986 - Willard F Rockwell Medal by the International Technologies InsituteThe executive director of the American Supplier Institute, the director of the Japan Industrial Technolgy Institute, and an honorary professor at NanjingInstitue of Technology in China. Taguchi is well known for developing a methodology to improve quality and reduce costs, which, in the United States, is referred to as the Taguchi Methods. he also developed the quality loss function.Taguchi’s methodology is geared towards pushing the concepts of quality and reliability back into the design stage, ie, prior to manufacturing.His method provides an efficient technique for designing product tests prior to beginning manufacturing.Taguchi methodology is fundamentally a prototyping technique that enables engineers/ designers to produce a robust design which can survive repetitive manufacturing in order to deliver the functionality required by the customer.The more traditional “Goalpost” mentality of what is considered good quality says that a product is either good or it isn’t, depending or whether or not it is within the specification range (between the lower and upper spec limits i.e. the goalposts). With this approach, the specification range is more important than the nominal (target) value. But, is the product as good as it can be, or should be, just because it is within specifications? Taguchi says no to this.Taguchi’s Product development three stages:1.System design stageNon statistical stage for engineering, marketing and customer knowledge.2.Parameter stageHow the product should perform against defined parameters. The robust solution of cost effective manufacturing irrespective of the operating parameters.3.Tolerance design stageTolerance round the desired settings. Finding the balance between manufacturing cost and loss.
  • TaiichiOhnoTaiichiOhno was born in Manchuria, China in 1912 and graduated from Nagoya Institute of Technology. He joined Toyota in 1932 and for about twenty years worked his way up in the firm.In the 1940’s and early 1950’s, Ohno was the assembly manager for Toyota and developed many improvements that eventually became the Toyota Production System. Toyota was verging on bankruptcy during much of this period and could not afford major investments in new equipment or massive inventories.The 1950’s also saw the beginning of a long collaboration with Shigeo Shingo and the refinement of their earlier efforts into an integrated Manufacturing Strategy.Ohno’s career accelerated as a result of his success as Assembly Shop Manager and he became an executive Vice President in 1975.In the early 1980’s, Ohno retired from Toyota and was president of Toyota Gosei, a Toyota subsidiary and supplier.The Toyota Production System (TPS) was developed between 1945 and 1970 and it is still evolving today. The 1973 oil crisis hit Japan at least as hard as it hit America and Europe. By 1974, Japan’s economy had collapsed to a state of zero growth. At Toyota Motor Company, although profits suffered, greater earnings were sustained in 1975, 1976 and 1977 than at other Japanese companies. The widening gap between Toyota and other Japanese companies opened the eyes of others in Japan to this thing called the Toyota Production System and it began spreading rapidly in Japan.He identified what are called the seven wastes or seven mudas.TaiichoOhno died in Toyota City in 1990.Taiichi Ohno81912: Born in Port Arthur, Manchuria.1932: Joins Toyoda Spinning and Weaving.1943: Joins Toyota Motor Company.1949: Promoted to machine shop manager at Toyota.1954: Promoted to director at Toyota.1964: Promoted to managing director at Toyota.1970: Promoted to senior managing director at Toyota.1975: Promoted to executive vice-president at Toyota.1978: Retires from Toyota, remaining chairman of Toyoda Spinning and Weaving.1990: Dies.Supposedly, Ohno discovered the manufacturing pull system by watching purchasing and restockingactivity at an American supermarket. He is also responsible for providing the motivation for such leanconcepts as:• Quick change of dies• Just-in-time manufacturing• Kanban systems• Zero or near-zero inventory• Autonomation (automated line stoppage on error)What Womack and Jones called “lean manufacturing” is simply the deployment of Ohno’s ideas forrunning a manufacturing organization—particularly the reduction of waste.Ohno was extremely aggressive in pursuing the reduction of waste as well as the reduction of cycletime. In fact, he felt so strongly about managers keeping in touch with the gemba—the shop flooraction—that he would draw a circle on the shop floor and expect a clueless manager to spend a dayin the circle observing the gemba. This action is known as the Ohno Circle.Ohno’s Contributions1. The “five whys” problem-solving method2. Identification of the seven wastes (with Shingo)• Overproduction• Waiting• Transportation or movement• Time spent in actual processing• Stock on hand (inventory)• Defective products• Rework3. Andon or visual-light warning system4. Kanban• Pickup/transport information• Production information• Prevention of overproduction and transport• Work attached to goods• Identifies process when defectives occur• Maintains inventory control5. Balanced productionWhile it is common to see a great deal of credit given to Ohno for his contributions to leanmanufacturing and unrelenting continuous improvement, we should also remember the tremendouscontinuity and foresight provided by the Toyoda family to a company that started as an automatedloom manufacturer!
  • Shigeo ShingoShigeo Shingo was born in 1909 at Saga City, Japan where he attended the Saga Technical High School. After graduation from Yamanashi Technical College in 1930 he went to work for the Taipei Railway Company.In 1943 shingo was transferred to the Amano Manufacturing Plant in Yokohama.As Manufacturing Section Chief, he raised productivity 100%. Shingo worked for several manufacturers in 1945 and 1946 and also begana long association with the Japanese Management Association (JMA). From 1946-1954 Shingo had many assignments, delivered several important papers and crystallized his ideas on process and plant layout. He also applied Statistical Process Control.In 1955, Dr. Shingo began another long association, this time with Toyota. In addition to his many consulting assignments in other industries. It is during this period that he first startedwork on setups by doubling the output of an engine bed planer at Mitsubishi’s shipyard.In 1959, Dr. Shingo left JMA to start his own consulting company.During the early 1960’s, as an outgrowth of work with Matsushita, he developed his concepts of “ Mistake-Proofing.”In 1969, SMED was originated when he cut the setup time on a 1000 ton press at Toyota from 4.0 hours to 3.0 minutes. During the 1970’s, Shingo traveled in Europe and North America onmany lectures, visits and assignments. He began to see Toyota’s efforts as an integratedsystem and began to assist several U.S. and European firms in implementation.Dr. Shigeo Shingo has written 14 major books and hundreds of important papers onmanufacturing. The Shingo Prize is awarded for excellence in manufacturing as a tribute to Dr. Shingo and his lifelong work. He died in 1990.Shigeo Shingo1909: Born in Saga City, Japan.1930: Graduates with a degree in mechanical engineering from Yamanashi Technical College.1930: Employed by the Taipei Railway Factory in Taiwan. There he introduces scientificmanagement.1945: Becomes a professional management consultant with the Japan Management Association.1955: Takes charge of industrial engineering and factory improvement training at the Toyota MotorCompany for both its employees and its parts suppliers (100 companies).1956–1958: At Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Nagasaki, reduces the time for hull assembly of a 65,000-ton supertanker from four months to two months, a new world record in shipbuilding.1961–1964: Extends the ideas of quality control to develop the poka-yoke, mistake-proofing, or Defects= 0 concept.1968: Originates the pre-automation system at Sata Ironworks, which later spreads throughoutJapan.1969: Originates the single-minute exchange of die (SMED) system at Toyota (part of Just in Timemanufacturing, now called lean manufacturing). As a note, later variations on SMED are known asone-touch exchange of die (OTED).1990: Dies.European influence• Shingo consulted for die casting associations in West Germany and Switzerland.• He consulted for Daimler Benz and Thurner in West Germany and H-Weidman, Bucher-Guyer AG,and Gebr Buhler in Switzerland.• His first consultancy for an overseas firm was for Citroen in France in 1981.U.S. influence• From 1975 to 1979, he conducted training for the American Company Federal Mogul on SMED andnon-stock production.Other companies where Shingo advised include many parts of Daihatsu, Yamaha, Mazda, Sharp,Fuji, Nippon, Hitachi, Sony, and Olympus in Japan, and Peugeot in France. His methods at the U.S.company Omark Industries led to such increased productivity and defect and stock reductions thatthe company started giving an annual Shingo award to the facility that, out of the 17 worldwide,demonstrated the best overall improvement. Shingo wrote more than 14 major books, most of whichare fun to read and amazing in the elegant simplicity of the solutions they propose.Shingo’s concept of mistake-proofing (poka-yoke) was designed to eliminate quality problems ratherthan using the more statistical approach of monitoring them using control charts. Both methods can becomplementary and mistake-proofing should be implemented when feasible. Either way, the actionis a containment; that is, no irreversible corrective action has occurred to eliminate the quality issue.Even mistake-proofing occasionally leads to containment, particularly in cases where “limit switches”are used to detect erroneously sized products.Shingo’s ContributionsShingo predominantly influenced concepts of quality and inventory.Poka-yokeShingo moved beyond statistical quality control after observing how the Shizuoko plant of Matsushita’sWashing Machine Division had succeeded continuously for one month with zero defects on a drainpipe assembly line involving 23 workers. This was achieved through the installation of 1100 pokayokedevices. Together, these techniques constitute Zero Quality Control, which can achieve whatmay be impossible using statistical quality control methods. This concept puts Shingo in alignmentwith Philip Crosby; however, we need to remember that defect statistics are fundamental to Six Sigma.In other words, we can aim at the ideal but that does not mean that we should drop the measurementand study of defect arrival rates.Source inspection (quality at the source) to eliminate inspectorsShingo refined his work by introducing source inspections and improved poka-yoke systems thatprevented the worker from making errors. Statistical sampling could be eliminated and workers wereliberated to concentrate on more valuable activities such as identifying potential error sources.Shingo argued that posting defect statistics is misguided and that the defectives should be hunteddown and eliminated instead.Single-minute exchange of die (SMED)This system was developed to cut setup times, enabling smaller batches to be produced. The setupprocedures were simplified by using common or similar setup elements whenever possible:• External setup is what can be done while the machine runs.• Internal setup is what you must do after stopping the machine.For example, at Toyota a die punch setup time in a cold-forging process was reduced over a threemonthperiod from one hour and 40 minutes to three minutes.
  • Shigeo ShingoShigeo Shingo was born in 1909 at Saga City, Japan where he attended the Saga Technical High School. After graduation from Yamanashi Technical College in 1930 he went to work for the Taipei Railway Company.In 1943 shingo was transferred to the Amano Manufacturing Plant in Yokohama.As Manufacturing Section Chief, he raised productivity 100%. Shingo worked for several manufacturers in 1945 and 1946 and also begana long association with the Japanese Management Association (JMA). From 1946-1954 Shingo had many assignments, delivered several important papers and crystallized his ideas on process and plant layout. He also applied Statistical Process Control.In 1955, Dr. Shingo began another long association, this time with Toyota. In addition to his many consulting assignments in other industries. It is during this period that he first startedwork on setups by doubling the output of an engine bed planer at Mitsubishi’s shipyard.In 1959, Dr. Shingo left JMA to start his own consulting company.During the early 1960’s, as an outgrowth of work with Matsushita, he developed his concepts of “ Mistake-Proofing.”In 1969, SMED was originated when he cut the setup time on a 1000 ton press at Toyota from 4.0 hours to 3.0 minutes. During the 1970’s, Shingo traveled in Europe and North America onmany lectures, visits and assignments. He began to see Toyota’s efforts as an integratedsystem and began to assist several U.S. and European firms in implementation.Dr. Shigeo Shingo has written 14 major books and hundreds of important papers onmanufacturing. The Shingo Prize is awarded for excellence in manufacturing as a tribute to Dr. Shingo and his lifelong work. He died in 1990.Shigeo Shingo1909: Born in Saga City, Japan.1930: Graduates with a degree in mechanical engineering from Yamanashi Technical College.1930: Employed by the Taipei Railway Factory in Taiwan. There he introduces scientificmanagement.1945: Becomes a professional management consultant with the Japan Management Association.1955: Takes charge of industrial engineering and factory improvement training at the Toyota MotorCompany for both its employees and its parts suppliers (100 companies).1956–1958: At Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Nagasaki, reduces the time for hull assembly of a 65,000-ton supertanker from four months to two months, a new world record in shipbuilding.1961–1964: Extends the ideas of quality control to develop the poka-yoke, mistake-proofing, or Defects= 0 concept.1968: Originates the pre-automation system at Sata Ironworks, which later spreads throughoutJapan.1969: Originates the single-minute exchange of die (SMED) system at Toyota (part of Just in Timemanufacturing, now called lean manufacturing). As a note, later variations on SMED are known asone-touch exchange of die (OTED).1990: Dies.European influence• Shingo consulted for die casting associations in West Germany and Switzerland.• He consulted for Daimler Benz and Thurner in West Germany and H-Weidman, Bucher-Guyer AG,and Gebr Buhler in Switzerland.• His first consultancy for an overseas firm was for Citroen in France in 1981.U.S. influence• From 1975 to 1979, he conducted training for the American Company Federal Mogul on SMED andnon-stock production.Other companies where Shingo advised include many parts of Daihatsu, Yamaha, Mazda, Sharp,Fuji, Nippon, Hitachi, Sony, and Olympus in Japan, and Peugeot in France. His methods at the U.S.company Omark Industries led to such increased productivity and defect and stock reductions thatthe company started giving an annual Shingo award to the facility that, out of the 17 worldwide,demonstrated the best overall improvement. Shingo wrote more than 14 major books, most of whichare fun to read and amazing in the elegant simplicity of the solutions they propose.Shingo’s concept of mistake-proofing (poka-yoke) was designed to eliminate quality problems ratherthan using the more statistical approach of monitoring them using control charts. Both methods can becomplementary and mistake-proofing should be implemented when feasible. Either way, the actionis a containment; that is, no irreversible corrective action has occurred to eliminate the quality issue.Even mistake-proofing occasionally leads to containment, particularly in cases where “limit switches”are used to detect erroneously sized products.Shingo’s ContributionsShingo predominantly influenced concepts of quality and inventory.Poka-yokeShingo moved beyond statistical quality control after observing how the Shizuoko plant of Matsushita’sWashing Machine Division had succeeded continuously for one month with zero defects on a drainpipe assembly line involving 23 workers. This was achieved through the installation of 1100 pokayokedevices. Together, these techniques constitute Zero Quality Control, which can achieve whatmay be impossible using statistical quality control methods. This concept puts Shingo in alignmentwith Philip Crosby; however, we need to remember that defect statistics are fundamental to Six Sigma.In other words, we can aim at the ideal but that does not mean that we should drop the measurementand study of defect arrival rates.Source inspection (quality at the source) to eliminate inspectorsShingo refined his work by introducing source inspections and improved poka-yoke systems thatprevented the worker from making errors. Statistical sampling could be eliminated and workers wereliberated to concentrate on more valuable activities such as identifying potential error sources.Shingo argued that posting defect statistics is misguided and that the defectives should be hunteddown and eliminated instead.Single-minute exchange of die (SMED)This system was developed to cut setup times, enabling smaller batches to be produced. The setupprocedures were simplified by using common or similar setup elements whenever possible:• External setup is what can be done while the machine runs.• Internal setup is what you must do after stopping the machine.For example, at Toyota a die punch setup time in a cold-forging process was reduced over a threemonthperiod from one hour and 40 minutes to three minutes.
  • 1924 - Dr Genichi Taguchi bornMid 1950’s - was Indian Statistical Institutes visiting professor, where he met Walter Shewhart.1960 Awarded the Deming Application prize1962 - awarded his PhD by Kyushu University1964 - 1982 Professor at Tokyo’s Aoyama Gakuin University1986 - Willard F Rockwell Medal by the International Technologies InsituteThe executive director of the American Supplier Institute, the director of the Japan Industrial Technolgy Institute, and an honorary professor at NanjingInstitue of Technology in China. Taguchi is well known for developing a methodology to improve quality and reduce costs, which, in the United States, is referred to as the Taguchi Methods. he also developed the quality loss function.Taguchi’s methodology is geared towards pushing the concepts of quality and reliability back into the design stage, ie, prior to manufacturing.His method provides an efficient technique for designing product tests prior to beginning manufacturing. Taguchi methodology is fundamentally a prototyping technique that enables engineers/ designers to produce a robust design which can survive repetitive manufacturing in order to deliver the functionality required by the customer.The more traditional “Goalpost” mentality of what is considered good quality says that a product is either good or it isn’t, depending or whether or not it is within the specification range (between the lower and upper spec limits i.e. the goalposts). With this approach, the specification range is more important than the nominal (target) value. But, is the product as good as it can be, or should be, just because it is within specifications? Taguchi says no to this.Taguchi’s Product development three stages:System design stageNon statistical stage for engineering, marketing and customer knowledge. Parameter stageHow the product should perform against defined parameters. The robust solution of cost effective manufacturing irrespective of the operating parameters. Tolerance design stageTolerance round the desired settings. Finding the balance between manufacturing cost and loss. Photos:Genichi Taguchi71924: Born.1942–45: Serves in the Astronomical Department of the Navigation Institute of the Imperial JapaneseNavy. Also works in the Ministry of Public Health and Welfare and the Institute of StatisticalMathematics, Ministry of Education.1950–1962: Joins the newly founded Electrical Communications Laboratory of the Nippon Telephoneand Telegraph Company with the purpose of increasing the productivity of its R & D activities bytraining engineers in effective techniques.1951 and 1953: Wins Deming awards for literature on quality.1954–1955: Is visiting professor at the Indian Statistical Institute. During this visit, he meets the famousstatisticians R. A. Fisher and Walter A. Shewhart.1957–1958: First version of his two-volume book on Design of Experiments published.1960: Wins the Deming application prize.1962: Pays first visit to the United States, as visiting research associate at Princeton University. Visitsthe AT&T Bell Laboratories. Is awarded his PhD by Kyushu University.1964–1982: Becomes a professor at Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo.1966: Writes, with several co-authors, Management by Total Results, which is translated into Chineseby Yuin Wu.1970s: Develops the concept of the Quality Loss Function. Publishes two other books in the 1970s andthe third (current) edition on Design of Experiments.1980: Serves as director of the Japanese Academy of Quality.1982: Becomes an advisor at the Japanese Standards Association.1984: Again wins the Deming award for literature on quality.1986: Awarded the Willard F. Rockwell Medal by the International Technology Institute.1982–present: Works for the American Supplier Institute.Taguchi’s ContributionsTaguchi uses quality loss rather than quality. The loss includes not only the loss to the companythrough costs of reworking or scrapping, maintenance costs, and downtime due to equipment failureand warranty claims, but also costs to the customer through poor product performance and reliability,leading to further losses to the manufacturer as market share declines.In his quadratic model of loss, a loss will occur even when the product is within the specificationsbut is optimal when the product is on target. (If the quality characteristic or response is required to bemaximized or minimized, then the loss function becomes a half-parabola.)Taguchi breaks off-line quality control into three stages:• Concept design• Parameter design• Tolerance designConcept design is the process of creating a design concept or “up and limping” prototype.In parameter design, the nominal design features or process factor levels selected are tested and thecombination of product parameter levels or process operating levels least sensitive to changes inenvironmental conditions and other uncontrollable (noise) factors is determined.Tolerance design is employed to reduce variation further if required, by tightening the tolerance onthose factors shown to have a large impact on variation. This is the stage at which, by using the lossfunction, more money is spent (if necessary) buying better materials or equipment, emphasizing theJapanese philosophy of investing first, not last.• On-line improvement: made on the production line• Off-line improvement: made during the design and development life cycle
  • In 1906, Italian economist and sociologist, Vilfredo Pareto (sometimes misspelled Wilfredo, Alfredo, or Vilfred) created a mathematical formula to describe the uneven income distribution in Switzerland at that time, observing that eighty percent of the wealth was held by a mere twenty percent of the families.80/20 Rule UniversalityFurther empirical studies for other time periods, for other countries, produced the stunning result that they all followed the same pattern. Later analysis of distributions in industry and nature has demonstrated that 80/20 Pareto distributions were very common in various fields and not exclusive to income distribution.In the late 1940s, in his work, "The Quality Control Handbook," Dr. Joseph M. Juran inaccurately attributed the discovery of this uneven weatlh distribution to Vilfredo Pareto (somtimes spelled Wilfredo, Vilfred, Wilfrido, or Alfredo Pareto). It was actually Joseph Juran's work which first recognized the applicability of the Pareto Principle within the context of inventory management. Recognizing and documenting this universal principle he called the "vital few and trivial many", Joseph Juran credited these findings to Pareto's work and thus it became known as 'The Pareto Principle'.Because Pareto's initial discovery involved a distribution of 80% of wealth to 20% of families and it's inverse, the Pareto Principle is often called "The 80/20 rule". The 80/20 Rule means that in nearly all cases, a few (20 percent) are vital and many (80 percent) are trivial.
  • Quality History in the Industrial World1787 - Concept of Interchangeability introduced.1870 - Concept of tolerance1900 - Concept of standardization1930 - National standardization organizations1901 UK, 1920 Belgium, Canada, France, US…etc.1930s Most of the industrial countries1920s-30s Development of SQC and SPC in Bell Labs and Western Electric1924 Walter Shewhart developed Control Charts Herold Dodge & Harry Romig developed sampling techniques.1940s - Deming applied sampling and control chart techniques in computer operations in US Census.1950s- Deming’s thinking reaches Japan1970-80s - TQM movement takes hold, national Quality Awards established1987 - ISO 9000 family of standards published.1994 - First revision of ISO 9000 standards.1996 - ISO 14001 publishedEarly 1990s Business Process Re-engineering movement became popular1995-2000 - Development of the Internet, e-business2000 - Major revision of ISO 9000 standardsTQM (1970-present)A Global philosophy for long term continuous ImprovementSix Sigma(1980-present) A Systematic approach to minimize defectsLean Production(1990-present) A Systematic approach to minimize time losses (waste in process)Theory of Constraints TOC , (1990-present)A Systematic approach to achieve targets and overcome constraintsLean Six Sigma(1995-present) A Global proactive systematic approach for long term continuous Improvement
  • Quality gurus osama 1 3-2010

    1. 1. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz1 Quality Leaders Walter. A. Shewart Armand V. Feigenbaum Genichi Taguchi Bill Smith Jack welsh Henry Ford Lawrence Bossiedy W. Edwards Deming Philip B. Crosby Shigeo Shingo Mikel J. Harry Frederick W. Taylor Eli Whitney Malcolm Aldridge Improvement Events in TQM Joseph M. Juran Kaoru Ishikawa Taiichi Ohno Bob Galvin Andrew Carnegie Masaaki Imai Pareto Quality Awards
    2. 2. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Carl Frederick Gauss • introduced the concept of the Normal Curve in 1777- 1885 • Also called the Gaussian Distribution after Karl Friedrich Gauss, a German mathematician (1777 – 1855) • Characteristics of any Normal Distribution – Bell-shaped curve – Unimodal – peak is at the mean – Symmetric about the mean – Mean = Median = Mode
    3. 3. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Walter Shewart • 1891: Born in USA, New Canton, Illinois. (town has 2.0 km²). • 1917: Receives doctorate in physics from the University of California at Berkeley. • 1918-1956: Joins the Western Electric Company, Bell telephone hardware manufacturer. • 1924: Suggested a radical idea “statistical control,”. • 1931: Published Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. • 1939: Published Statistical Methods from the Viewpoint of Quality Control. • 1956: Retired from Bell Laboratories. • 1967: Died
    4. 4. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Walter Shewart • Deming popularized and disseminated Shewhart’s concepts of statistical process control and the continuous reduction of variation in processes. Deming also had the honesty to refer to the Plan-Do- Check-Act (PDCA) circle as the “Shewhart cycle” and not the “Deming cycle,” as others called it. • Awards: • • Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. • • Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Statistical Society. • • Honorary Fellowship of the American Society for Quality
    5. 5. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz 0S ub g ro up 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 -5 0 5 SampleMean 6 M e an= 0 .4 4 1 7 UC L = 4 .8 0 2 L C L = -3 .9 1 8 0 5 1 0 1 5 SampleRange R =7 .5 5 9 UC L = 1 5 .9 8 L C L = 0 Walter Shewart  He is the Father of statistical quality control.  Introduced the principals of PDCA cycle.  Quality from two perspectives:  An objective reality independent of the existence of the customer  The subjective perspective dependent on individual thoughts, feelings or senses as a result of the objective reality. Back to Main Menu
    6. 6. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming  1900: Born in the western part of the USA  1928: Awarded doctorate in mathematical physics from Yale.  1928–1950s: Works in the U.S. Government Service, focusing on statistical sampling, Deming used Shewhart‟s concepts in his work .  1943: Published a technical book, Statistical Adjustment of Data.  1946: Worked as a professor of statistics and began to work with the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE).  1950, he taught statistical process control & the importance of quality to the leading CEO‟s of Japanese industry.  1951: Japanese government began offering annual Deming Prize.  1956: Awarded Shewhart Medal by American Society for Quality Control (now ASQ).
    7. 7. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming  1960: Awarded Second Order of the Sacred Treasure by Japanese emperor.  1970s: Deming‟s name becomes better known as the Japanese “invade” the United States with high quality, reliable automobiles, motorcycles, cameras, and other technological devices.  1980: NBC television documentary “If Japan Can, Why Can‟t We?” makes Deming a quality celebrity.  1986: Works as professor of management at Columbia University, defined his 14 points 1987: Awarded the National Medal of Technology (U.S.).  1993: Died.
    8. 8. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming  W.Edward Deming PhD was a protégé (taking over the charge of) of Shewhart.  Deming is the best known quality expert in the world.  Father of Quality Control.  System (not employees) is cause of poor quality, As per him, 94% of quality problems are management related.  His 14 points provided a theory for management to improve quality, productivity & competitive position.  Developed the shweart PDCA cycle.  He had authored a no. of books including out of the “ Crisis & quality, productive & competitive position”.  Deming Prize Instituted 1951 by Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) (for individuals, factories, small companies).
    9. 9. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz11 Deming Prize • Instituted 1951 by Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) • Several categories including prizes for individuals, factories, small companies, and Deming application prize • American company winners include: Florida Power & Light, and AT&T Power Systems Division
    10. 10. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming Identify problem Develop plan for improvement Implement plan on test basis Is the plan working Institutionalize improvement Continue cycle 1. Plan 2. Do 3. Study / Check 4. Act The Deming Wheel (or P-D-C-A Cycle) Improve quality Costs decrease Productivity improves Increase market share with better quality and lower prices Stay in business Provide jobs and more jobs Long-term competitive strength Deming Chain Reaction
    11. 11. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz13 Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge 1- Appreciation for Systems • A system is a set of functions or activities within an organization that work together to achieve organizational goals • Most organizational processes are cross-functional • Parts of a system must work together • Every system must have a purpose • Management must optimize the system as a whole (not parts of system, but the whole!). System requires co-operation. 2- Understanding Variation • Many sources of uncontrollable variation exist in any process • Excessive variation results in product failures, unhappy customers, and unnecessary costs • Statistical methods can be used to identify and quantify variation to help understand it and lead to improvements • Two types of variations- common causes and special causes. Focus on the special causes. • Common causes can be reduced only by change of technology.
    12. 12. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz14 Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge 3-Theory of Knowledge • Knowledge is not possible without theory • Experience alone does not establish a theory, it only describes • Theory shows cause-and-effect relationships that can be used for prediction • decisions should be driven by facts, data and justifiable theories. • Don‟t follow the managements fads! 4-Psychology • The designers and implementers of decisions are people. Hence understanding their psychology is important. • People are motivated intrinsically and extrinsically • Fear is demotivating • Managers should develop pride and joy in work
    13. 13. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Deming's Fourteen Points for Management 1 Create and publish to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company. The management must demonstrate their commitment to this statement. 2 learn and Adopt the new philosophy 3 Cease dependence on mass inspection, Understand the purpose of inspection – to reduce the cost and improve the processes. 4 End the practice of awarding business on price tag alone 5 Constantly and forever improve the systems of production and services 6 Institute modern methods of training on the job 7 Institute modern methods of supervision and leadership 8 Drive out fear , Eliminate fear – encourage two-way communication, encourage employees to work in the organisation‟s interest, Create an environment of innovation.
    14. 14. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Deming's Fourteen Points for Management (cont) 9 Break down barriers between departments , department‟s in an organization are “internal customers” to each other and must work together. Optimize the team efforts towards the aims and purposes of the company 10 Eliminate numerical targets for the work force – management by objectives (targets) encourages low quality. 11 Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas for production. 12 Remove barriers that rob pride of workmanship, Remover barriers to worker satisfaction – including annual appraisals 13 Institute a vigorous programme of education and training for everyone, Encourage self improvement and education for all 14 Take action to accomplish the transformation, Create a structure in top management that will push every day on the above 13 points.
    15. 15. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Deming’s 7 Deadly Sins 1 Lack of constancy of purpose 2 Emphasis on short term profits 3 Evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual review of performance 4 Mobility of management 5 Running a company on visible figures alone 6 Excessive medical costs for employee health care that increase the final costs of goods and services 7 Excessive costs of warranty, fuelled by lawyers who work on the basis of contingency fees.
    16. 16. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Joseph Juran  1904 Born in the Balkans (Romania), Juran began his career right around the same time at Shewhart, but due to his longevity (he died in 2008)  from 1924 to1941 worked at Western electrical, there he was exposed to the concept of Shewhart.  1951: First version of Quality Control Handbook.  1954: Invited to Japan by Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE); provides seminars to top- and middle-level executives.  1964: Managerial Breakthrough published. www.juran.com
    17. 17. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Joseph Juran  1979: Founds Juran Institute.  1980–2008: Continues to write 12 books on quality and serve as a consultant to manufacturing companies worldwide.  2008: died.  His 12 books have collectively been translated into 13 languages. He has received more than 30 medals, honorary fellowships, and other honors. Like Deming, he received the highest decoration presented to a non-Japanese citizen, the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure.  His writing style is eminently readable and his thoughts are clear  He has received more than 30 medals, honorary fellowships, and other honors. Like Deming, he received the highest decoration presented to a non-Japanese citizen, the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure. www.juran.com
    18. 18. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Joseph Juran  He emphasized the necessity for management at all levels to be committed to the quality effort with hand on involvement.  Quality begins by knowing what customers want  80% of defects are controllable through Planning, control,and improvement  He recommended project improvement based on return on investment to achieve breakthrough results.  The Juran trilogy set of three words for managing quality is carried out by the 3 interrelated processes of planning, controlling and improvement.  Juran said that “all quality improvement occurs on a project-by-project basis and in no other way”
    19. 19. Juran’s key steps in implementing company-wide strategic goals Juran’s Key elements in implementing company wide strategic quality planning:  Identify the customers , determine their needs , Establish optimal quality goals (define)  Translate those needs into our language, Creating measurements of quality (measure)  Plan processes that can respond to those needs, capable of meeting quality goals under operating conditions (analyse, improve, and control)  Optimise the product features so as to meet our needs as well as exceed customer needs.  Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions.  Transfer the process to Operations.  Producing continuing results in improved market share, premium prices (ongoing control)  Reducing error rates in the office and factory (reduction of variation)  These items are similar to the DMAIC in Six Sigma
    20. 20. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Juran’s Breakthrough Sequence Breakthrough in attitudes Identify the vital few projects Organize for breakthrough knowledge, Steering group, Diagnostic group Conduct the analysis Determine how to overcome resistance to change Institute the change Institute controls
    21. 21. The Juran Trilogy PCI
    22. 22. The Juran Trilogy PCI • Create a product, service, or process that meets requirements, especially under operating conditions. This thought alone is the foundation for Design for Six Sigma. Planning • Verify that the process runs optimally, reducing process waste. Chronic waste is a cost of poor quality. Control of the process is congruent with lean manufacturing concepts. Control • Improve the process continuously. Quality and process improvement lead tobreakthrough Improvement
    23. 23. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Juran’s Trilogies Juran‟s Financial Trilogy • Budgeting (planning) • Cost Control (expense control) • Cost Reduction (profit improvement) Juran‟s Quality Trilogy •Planning •Process of preparing to meet quality goals. •Involves understanding customer needs and developing product features. •Ensure that process capable of meeting goals •Control •Process of meeting quality goals during operations. •Ensure that operations conducted according to plan. •Measuring the deviation and taking action. •Control parameters •Improvement •Process for breaking through to unprecedented (new) levels of performance. •Identify areas of improvement and get the right people to bring about the change. •Ensure that operations at superior performance. Budgeting Cost Reduction Cost Control Control PlanningImprovement
    24. 24. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Juran’s Trilogy (cont.) Juran‟s Resistances to unity Trilogy: • Multiple functions • marketing, production… • Multiple levels (hierarchy) • A universal thought process for all levels • Multiple product lines (Different markets, technologies… Juran‟s Management Trilogy • Setting goals • Based on competition in the marketplace • Removal of traditional wastes • Infrastructure • Enable corporate review of divisional quality goals, plans and performance • Ensures fit with strategy • Resources • Training • Measurement Resources Infra structure Setting goals Multiple levels (hierarchy) Multiple product lines Multiple functions
    25. 25. Bill Smith • Born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1929 • In 1987, after working for nearly 35 years in engineering and quality assurance, he joined Motorola, serving as vice president and senior quality assurance manager for the Land Mobile Products Sector • Started quality program at Motorola in 1984 • system complexity • process variability and drift • the effect of factory rework on system reliability • In 1990: How do we get a “true” 99% “first-pass” yield of pagers, where each pager has 2000 components ? • Rolled Yield Throughput: • we need = 0.99, therefore, X , the quality yield of each component, can be no worse than 0.9999966 , (The Bandit pager had an unexpected MTBF of 150 years !) • Considered to be the father of Six sigma.
    26. 26. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Jack Welch • CEO of GE in the mid nineties adopted six sigma „Six Sigma is the most challenging and potentially rewarding strategy GE have ever undertaken‟. • Introduced The six sigma approach and develop it at Motorola in early 1990s. • Jack Welch: Six Sigma, the GE Way • He said “The best Six Sigma projects begin not inside the business but outside it, focused on answering the question: How can we make the customer more competitive? What is critical to the customer’s success? Learning the answer to that question and learning how to provide the solution is the only focus we need.
    27. 27. Mikel J. Harry • Dr. Mikel J. Harry, Ph. D. Six Sigma Academy, Inc. • Mikel Harry “the father of Six Sigma at Motorola “ started using Deming‟s focus on process variation as a means of improving performance by statistics at Motorola in 1985. • Developed Six Sigma quality program in Motorola in 1987 • The CEO recognized the success of this approach and applied it to every area of the business to improve performance, • Motorola won the Malcolm Aldridge Quality Award in 1987 • He said “Ignorance is not bliss, it is the food of failure and the breeding ground for loss.” • Later founded Six Sigma academy. • He said “If we can’t express what we know in the form of numbers, we really don’t know much about it. If we don’t know much about it, we can’t control it . If we can’t control it, we are at the mercy of chance”
    28. 28. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Philips. B. Crosby.  1926: Born in Wheeling, West Virginia.  1952–1955: Employed at Crosley.  1955–1957: Employed at Bendix Mishawaka.  1957–1965: Employed at Martin-Marietta.  1965–1979: Employed at ITT, rising to Corporate President of Quality. www.philipcrosby.com  1979: Quality is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain, which became a best-seller, published.  1979–1991: Established Philip Crosby Associates (PCA).  1991 - Retired in.  1997–2001: Purchased assets of PCA and starts PCA II.  2001: Died.
    29. 29. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Philips. B. Crosby.  Philip Bayard "Phil" Crosby is an American businessman who promoted the phrases “zero defects” and “right first time”.  “Zero defects” doesn‟t mean mistakes never happen, rather that there is no allowable number of errors built into a product or process and that you get it right first time www.philipcrosby.com  “Quality is Free” Quality is a subjectively identified differently by each individual and institution.  Management must be firmly behind any quality plans  Do it right the first time  He has authored many books, including Quality is free, Quality without tears, Let‟s talk Quality and Leading: The art of becoming an executive.
    30. 30. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz35 Crosby Four Absolutes of Quality • THE DEFINITION OF QUALITY IS CONFORMANCE TO REQUIREMENTS , NOT AS GOODNESS The First Absolute • THE SYSTEM FOR CAUSING QUALITY IS PREVENTIVE , NOT APPRAISAL. The Second Absolute • THE PERFORMANCE STANDARD MUST BE ZERO DEFECT , NOT “THAT’S CLOSE ENOUGH” The Third Absolute • THE MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY IS THE PRICE OF NONCONFORMANCE , NOT INDEXES. The Fourth Absolute
    31. 31. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Crosby’s “Quality is Free”  “Quality is free. It‟s not a gift, but it is free. What costs money are the unquality things - all the actions that involve not doing jobs right the first time.”  Quality improvement programs  Take time  Must convince people that it is in their best interests  5 stages of quality maturity  DOUBT  REGRESSION  CONSCIOUSNESS/ WAKEFULNESS  ILLUMINATION / KNOWLEDGE.  SURENESS
    32. 32. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement • Management is committed to quality – and this is clear to allManagement commitment • Create quality improvement teams – with (senior) representatives from all departments.Quality improvement team • Measure processes to determine current and potential quality issues.Quality measurement • Calculate the cost of (poor) qualityCost of quality evaluation • Raise quality awareness of all employeesQuality awareness • Take action to correct quality issuesCorrective action • Monitor progress of quality improvement – establish a zero defects committee.Defects program • Train supervisors in quality improvementSupervisor training • Hold “zero defects” days (setting a new standard)Zero defects day • Encourage employees to create their own quality improvement goalsGoal setting • Encourage employee communication with management about obstacles to qualityError cause removal • Recognise participants’ effortRecognition • Create quality councilsQuality councils • Quality improvement does not endDo it over again
    33. 33. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum. 1922 -Armand Vallin Feigenbaum was born. 1944- he was the top quality expert for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. 1951- He received a PhD. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While there he authored his magnum opus “ Total Quality Control “, The book has been translated into many languages. 1958 he was made executive of manufacturing operations for General Electric worldwide. 1968 - founded General Systems in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, where he serves as president.
    34. 34. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum. Argues that total quality control is necessary to achieve productivity, market penetration & competitive advantage. Quality begins by identifying the customer requirement & ends with a product or service in the hands of a satisfied customers. Emphasis on organizational structure 1951 - Feigenbaum originated the concept of total quality control in his book Total Quality Control.
    35. 35. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum. In addition to customer satisfaction some of Feigenbaum’s quality principles are genuine management involvement, employee involvement, first- line- supervision leadership & companywide quality control. Quality is based upon the customer’s actual experience with the product or service, measured against his or her requirements known for his concept of the “hidden plant“. That is that in every factory a certain proportion of its capacity is wasted through not getting it right first time.
    36. 36. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s philosophy/trilogy 3 Steps for Quality . 4 Deadly mistakes 19 Steps to Quality Improvement
    37. 37. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 3 Steps for Quality • There must be continuous management emphasis and leadership in quality. Quality must be thoroughly planned in specific terms. This approach is excellence-driven rather than the traditional failure- driven approach. Attaining quality excellence means keeping a constant focus on maintaining quality. This sort of continuous approach is very Deming on management. The establishment of a quality circle program or a corrective action team is not sufficient for its ongoing success. 1.Quality leadership. • The traditional quality department cannot resolve 80 to 90 percent of quality problems. In a modem setting, all members of the organization must be responsible for quality of their product or service. This means integrating office staff into the process, as well as engineers and shop floor workers. Error-free performance should be the goal. New techniques must be evaluated and implemented as appropriate. What may be an acceptable level of quality to a customer today may not be tomorrow. 2.Modern quality technology. • Continuous motivation is required, and more. Training that is specifically related to the task at hand is of paramount importance. Consideration of quality as a strategic element of business planning needs to occur in the United States . 3.Organizational commitment.
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    39. 39. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum • Quality Leadership, with a strong focus on planning • Modern Quality Technology, involving the entire work force • Organizational Commitment, supported by continuous training and motivation Three Steps to Quality • Prevention • Appraisal • Failure Need to Classify the Cost of Quality
    40. 40. Feigenbaum’s Four deadly mistakes • Quality gets top-level attention in a "fireworks display" manner. These proqams disappear from view when production demands become heavy, or something else captures top level attention. 1.Hothouse quality. • The federal government cannot wave a wand and make imports go away, nor should it engage in protectionist activity. This is complacency that will be costly later. 2.Wishful fitting. • A competitive advantage cannot be gained by having someone else fight our "quality war". The radio, television, auto, and consumer electronics industries have proven this. 3.Producing overseas. • Quality achievement is for everyone in every of the company. 4.Confining quality to the factory.
    41. 41. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • TQC may be defined as.. An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full-customer satisfaction . 1.Total quality control defined. • "Big ()" or Quality refers to luxurious quality whereas "little q" refers to high quality, not necessarily luxury. Regardless of an organization's niche, little q must closely maintained and improved. 2.Quality versus quality. • the word control represents a management tool with four steps'. • 1-Setting quality standards. • 2-Appraising conformance to these standards. • 3-Acting when the standards are exceeded. • 4-Planning for improvements in the standards . 3.Control In the phrase "quality control", • Control requires the integration of often into a framework. This framework should for customer-driven quality efforts across all activities of the enterprise.4. Integration. • Total quality control programs are highly cost effective because of their results in improved levels of customer satisfaction, reduced operating losses and field service costs , and improved utilisation of resources . Without quality, customers will not return. Without return customers, no business will long survive. 5.Quality increases profits.
    42. 42. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • Quality begets quality. As one supplier becomes quality oriented, other suppliers must meet or exceed this new standard. 6.Quality is expected, not desired. • The greatest quality improvements are to come from humans improving the process, not adding machines. 7.Humans impact quality. • No person or department is exempted from supplying quality services and products to its customer 8.TQC applies to all products and services. • Quality control enters into all phases of the industrial production process, starting with the customer's specification , through design engineering and assembly to shipment of the product and installation, including field service for a customer who remains satisfied with the product. 9.Quality is a total life-cycle consideration. • These controls fall into four natural classification: new design control, incoming material control, product control, and special process studies . 10.Controlling the process.
    43. 43. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • The agreed company wide and plant wide operating work structure, documented in effective, integrated technical and managerial procedures, for guiding the coordinated actions of the people, the machines, and the information of the company and plant in the best and most practical ways to assure customer quality satisfaction and economical costs of quality. The quality system provides integrated and continuous control to all key activities, making it truly organization wide in scope. 11.A total quality system may be defined as. • Benefits often resulting from total quality programs are improvement in product quality and design, reduction in operating costs and losses, improvement in employee morale, and reduction of production-line bottlenecks. 12.Benefits. • Quality costs are a means for measuring and optimising total quality control activities. Operating quality costs are divided into four different classifications.. prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs. four different classifications: prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs. 13.Cost of quality. • It is necessary to demonstrate that quality is everybody's job. Every organizational component has a quality-related responsibility. for example, marketing for determining customers' quality preferences, engineering for specifying product quality specifications, and shop supervision for building quality into the product. Make this responsibility explicit and visible. 14.Organize for quality control. • not quality cops. The quality control organization acts as a touchstone for communicating new results in the company, providing new techniques, acting as a facilitator, and in general resembles an internal consultant, rather than a police force of quality inspectors . 15.Quality facilitators.
    44. 44. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • Management must recognise at the outset of its total quality control program that this program is not a temporary quality improvement or quality cost reduction project. 16.Continuous commitment. • Statistics are used in an overall quality control program whenever and wherever they may be useful, but statistics are only one part of the total quality control pattern . 17. Use statistical tools. • Automation is complex and can become an implementation nightmare. Be sure the best human-oriented activities are implemented before being convinced that automation is the answer. 18.Automation is not a panacea. • The creator of the product or the deliverer of the service must be able to control the quality of their product or service. Delegate authority, if necessary. Norton Stores has the simple company policy of "Use your own best judgement," and allows its employees the authority and freedom that this policy requires. 19.Control quality at time source.
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    49. 49. Ishikawa 1915: Born. 1939: Graduates from the Engineering Department of Tokyo University, having majored in applied chemistry. 1947: Hired as an assistant professor at the university. 1960: Earnd his Doctorate of Engineering and promoted to professor. 1989: Died.
    50. 50. Ishikawa’s Contributions 1. Product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced. 2. Reliability of goods is improved. 3. Cost is reduced. 4. Quantity of production is increased, and it becomes possible to make rational production schedules. 5. Wasteful work and rework are reduced. 6. Technique is established and improved. 7. Expenses for inspection and testing are reduced.
    51. 51. Ishikawa’s Contributions 8. Contracts between vendor and vendee are rationalized. 9. The sales market is enlarged. 10. Better relationships are established between departments. 11. False data and reports are reduced. 12. Discussions are carried out more freely and democratically. 13. Meetings are operated more smoothly. 14. Repairs and installation of equipment and facilities are done more rationally. 15. Human relations are improved.
    52. 52. Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa,PhD, studied under Deming, Juran & Feigenbaum.
    53. 53. Ishikawa philosophy 1.Quality begins with education and ends with education. 2.The first step in quality is to know the requirements of customers. 3.The ideal state of quality control is when inspection is no longer necessary. 4.Remove the root cause, and not the symptoms. 5.Quality control is the responsibility of all workers and all divisions.
    54. 54. Ishikawa philosophy 6.Do not confuse the means with the objectives. 7.Put quality first and set your sights on long- term profits. 8.Marketing is the entrance and exit of quality. 9.Top management must not show anger when facts are presented by subordinates. 10.Ninety-five percent of the problems in a company can be solved by the seven tools of quality control. 11.Data without dispersion information is false data-for example, stating an average without supplying the standard deviation .
    55. 55. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Ishikawa He borrowed the total quality control concept & adapted it for Japanese. He authored SPC texts in Japanese & English. Ishikawa is best known for the development of the cause & effect diagram, Which is sometimes called an Ishikawa. He developed the quality circle concept in Japan whereby work groups, including their supervisor were trained in SCP concept. The group then met to identify & solve quality problems in their work environment. Advocated the use of simple visual tools and statistical techniques
    56. 56. Genichi Taguchi • 1924 - Dr Genichi Taguchi bornMid • 1950’s - was Indian Statistical Institutes visiting professor, where he met Walter Shewhart. • 1960 Awarded the Deming Application prize • 1962 - awarded his PhD by Kyushu University • 1964 - 1982 Professor at Tokyo’s Aoyama Gakuin University • 1986 - Willard F Rockwell Medal by the International Technologies Insitute Back to Main Menu
    57. 57. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Henry Ford • Continuous Process Improvement • Advances in metal cutting allowed him to cut pre-hardened steel, produce identical parts • Earned unprecedented profits in 1926 by eliminating waste to gradually reduce the production cycle to 81 hours from iron ore to finished product. • Standardized parts facilitated standardization of jobs, moving assembly line • Model T: 1908 $850 1920’s: $250 • He said “We want to get full value out of labour so that we may be able to pay it full value. It is use – not conservation – that interests us.”
    58. 58. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Frederick W. Taylor – Time and motion studies – Father of “Scientific Management” – Find ways to improve work environment and work processes – Quantify, measure & track everything: Time required to haul wheelbarrow: B p a L 0 51 0 0048 27 1 27. . .distance hauled Back to Main Menu
    59. 59. Taiichi Ohno • 1912 Born in Port Arthur, Manchuria, China • 1932 graduated from Nagoya Institute of Technology • 1932 Joined Toyoda Spinning and Weaving • 1943 Joined Toyota Motor Company • 1949 Promoted to machine shop manager at Toyota • 1954 Promoted to director at Toyota • 1964 Promoted to managing director at Toyota • 1970 Promoted to senior managing director at Toyota • 1975 Promoted to executive vice-president at Toyota • 1980 Retired from Toyota • 1990 Died in Toyota City .
    60. 60. Taiichi Ohno’s Philosophy • Toyota production system TPS • Philosophy of work – Respect for workers. – Full utilization of workers‟ capabilities. – Entrust workers with responsibility & authority. • Approach to production – Build only what is needed. – Stop if something goes wrong. – Eliminate anything which does not add value.
    61. 61. Taiichi Ohno’s Contributions • Ohno Circle, to keep managers in touch with the gemba. • providing the motivation for “lean manufacturing” reduction of cycle time. • Toyota Production System (TPS) was developed between 1945 and 1970 and it is still evolving today • Quick change of dies • Just-in-time manufacturing • Kanban systems • Andon or visual-light warning system • Zero or near-zero inventory • Pull system by watching purchasing and restocking activity at an American supermarket
    62. 62. Taiichi Ohno’s Contributions •The “five whys” problem-solving method •Autonomation (automated line stoppage on error) •Identification of the seven wastes or seven Muda (with Shingo) –Defective products and Rework –Overproduction –Transportation of materials – Time spent in actual processing –Waiting – inventory (Stock on hand ) –Movement of manpower. Back to Main Menu
    63. 63. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • 1909: Born in Saga City, Japan. • 1930: Graduated mechanical engineer from Yamanashi Technical College. • 1930: Employed by the Taipei Railway Factory in Taiwan. • 1943: Transferred to the Amano Manufacturing Plant in Yokohama. • 1945: Becomes a professional management consultant with the Japan Management Association. • 1955: Takes charge of industrial engineering and factory improvement training at the Toyota Motor Company for both its employees and its parts suppliers (100 companies). • 1956–1958: At Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Nagasaki, reduced the time for hull assembly of a 65,000- ton supertanker from four months to two months, a new world record in shipbuilding. • 1961–1964: Extends the ideas of quality control to develop the poka-yoke, mistake- proofing, or zero defects concept. • 1968: Originates the pre-automation system at Sata Ironworks, which later spreads throughout Japan. • 1969: Originates the single-minute exchange of die (SMED or one-touch exchange of die (OTED)) system at Toyota (part of Just in Time manufacturing, now called lean manufacturing). • 1990: Died.
    64. 64. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • As Manufacturing Section Chief, he raised productivity 100%. Shingo worked for several manufacturers in 1945 and 1946 and also began a long association with the Japanese Management Association (JMA). • From 1946-1954 Shingo had many assignments, delivered several important papers and crystallized his ideas on process and plant layout. He also applied Statistical Process Control. • In 1955, Dr. Shingo began another long association, this time with Toyota. In addition to his many consulting assignments in other industries. It is during this period that he first started work on setups by doubling the output of an engine bed planer at Mitsubishi’s shipyard.In 1959, Dr. Shingo left JMA to start his own consulting company. • During the early 1960’s, as an outgrowth of work with Matsushita, he developed his concepts of “Mistake-Proofing.”
    65. 65. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • In 1969, SMED was originated when he cut the setup time on a 1000 ton press at Toyota from 4.0 hours to 3.0 minutes. • During the 1970’s, Shingo traveled in Europe and North America on many lectures, visits and assignments. He began to see Toyota’s efforts as an integrated system and began to assist several U.S. and European firms in implementation. • The Shingo Prize is awarded for excellence in manufacturing as a tribute to Dr. Shingo and his lifelong work. • Shingo wrote more than 14 major books, most of which are fun to read and amazing in the elegant simplicity of the solutions they propose, he also has written hundreds of important papers on manufacturing.
    66. 66. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • Shingo predominantly influenced concepts of quality and inventory. • Poka-yoke • Shingo moved beyond statistical quality control after observing how the Shizuoko plant of Matsushita’s Washing Machine Division had succeeded continuously for one month with zero defects on a drain pipe assembly line involving 23 workers. This was achieved through the installation of 1100 pokayoke devices. Together, these techniques constitute Zero Quality Control, which can achieve what may be impossible using statistical quality control methods. This concept puts Shingo in alignment with Philip Crosby; however, we need to remember that defect statistics are fundamental to Six Sigma. In other words, we can aim at the ideal but that does not mean that we should drop the measurement and study of defect arrival rates. • Shingo’s concept of mistake-proofing (poka-yoke) was designed to eliminate quality problems rather than using the more statistical approach of monitoring them using control charts. Both methods can be complementary and mistake-proofing should be implemented when feasible. Either way, the action is a containment; that is, no irreversible corrective action has occurred to eliminate the quality issue. • Even mistake-proofing occasionally leads to containment, particularly in cases where “limit switches” are used to detect erroneously sized products.
    67. 67. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • Source inspection (quality at the source) to eliminate inspectors • Shingo refined his work by introducing source inspections and improved poka-yoke systems that prevented the worker from making errors. Statistical sampling could be eliminated and workers were liberated to concentrate on more valuable activities such as identifying potential error sources. Shingo argued that posting defect statistics is misguided and that the defectives should be hunted down and eliminated instead.
    68. 68. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • Single-minute exchange of die (SMED) • This system was developed to cut setup times, enabling smaller batches to be produced. The setup procedures were simplified by using common or similar setup elements whenever possible: – External setup is what can be done while the machine runs. – Internal setup is what you must do after stopping the machine. • For example, at Toyota a die punch setup time in a cold- forging process was reduced over a threemonth period from one hour and 40 minutes to three minutes.
    69. 69. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • European influence – Shingo consulted for die casting associations in West Germany and Switzerland. – He consulted for Daimler Benz and Thurner in West Germany and H-Weidman, Bucher-Guyer AG, and Gebr Buhler in Switzerland. – His first consultancy for an overseas firm was for Citroen in France in 1981, and Peugeot.
    70. 70. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • U.S. influence – From 1975 to 1979, he conducted training for the American Company Federal Mogul on SMED and non-stock production. – His methods at the U.S. company Omark Industries led to such increased productivity and defect and stock reductions that the company started giving an annual Shingo award to the facility that, out of the 17 worldwide, demonstrated the best overall improvement. • Other companies – where Shingo advised include many parts of Daihatsu, Yamaha, Mazda, Sharp, Fuji, Nippon, Hitachi, Sony, an d Olympus in Japan,.
    71. 71. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • Dr. Shigeo Shingo , Industrial Engineer, • 1988 Honorary Doctorate Utah State University, January 8, 1909 - November 14, 1990 • Consulted European, U.S. And japans' companies. • written 14 major books and hundreds of important papers • created: – SMED – Poka Yoke “ Mistake-Proofing.” – Expert in non-stock production improvement systems • The Shingo Prize is awarded for excellence in manufacturing • World renown author and teacher: Study of the Toyota Production System • www.ies.ncsu.edu/ncshingo Back to Main Menu
    72. 72. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Eli Whitney – introduced interchangeable parts in large musket contract for U.S. Army – Interchangeable parts the true secret of Ford’s success – Made possible by advances in measurement and tool steel Back to Main Menu
    73. 73. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Andrew Carnegie • The Richest Man in the World • Found out strike organizers, fired before • 1886 “Triumphant Democracy”, Forum magazine- workers’ right to unionize • 1889 “Gospel of Wealth:” rich need to help the poor ($25m annual income) • 1892 Homestead strike: 12 hour gunfight, Pinkerton defeated (12 died), state militia called in, strike breakers hired • 1901 sells out to J.P. Morgan: $480m • Built 2,500 libraries. “The man who dies rich dies disgraced.” • 1919 dies, having given away 90%
    74. 74. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Genichi Taguchi • quality loss function that combines cost, target and variation into one metric. • Pioneered a new perspective on quality based on the economic value of being on target and reducing variation and dispelling the traditional view of conformance to specifications: No Loss LossLoss Tolerance 0.500 0.5200.480
    75. 75. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Bob Galvin • Motorola Chairman and his engineers In the mid-1980s, decided that the traditional quality levels – measuring defects in thousands of opportunities didn‟t provide enough granularity. Instead they wanted to measure the defects per million opportunities.
    76. 76. Vilfredo Pareto • In 1906, Italian economist and sociologist, Vilfredo Pareto (sometimes misspelled Wilfredo, Alfredo, or Vilfred) created a mathematical formula to describe the uneven income distribution in Switzerland at that time, observing that eighty percent of the wealth was held by a mere twenty percent of the families. • In the late 1940s, Dr. Joseph M. Juran inaccurately attributed the discovery of this uneven weatlh distribution to Vilfredo Pareto , It was actually Joseph Juran's work which first recognized the applicability of the Pareto Principle within the context of inventory management. Recognizing and documenting this universal principle he called the "vital few and trivial many", Joseph Juran credited these findings to Pareto's work and thus it became known as 'The Pareto Principle'. • Pareto Principle is often called "The 80/20 rule". The 80/20 Rule means that in nearly all cases, a few (20 percent) are vital and many (80 percent) are trivial.
    77. 77. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Masaaki Imai • Introduced Kaizen for continuous improvement –Constant and gradual improvement in every process
    78. 78. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz86 Malcolm Aldridge National Quality Award • Help improve quality in U.S. companies • Recognize achievements of excellent firms and provide examples to others • Establish criteria for evaluating quality efforts • Provide guidance for other U.S. companies Malcolm Aldridge, former U.S. Secretary of Commerce
    79. 79. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Criteria for Performance Excellence Bldridge Award trophy 1- Leadership (90) 2- Strategic Planning (60) 3- Customer and Market Focus (300) 4- Information and Analysis (80) 5-Human Resource Focus (150) 6-Process Management (140) 7-Business Results (180)
    80. 80. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-88 Baldrige Award • Created in 1987 to stimulate growth of quality management in the United States • Categories – Leadership – Information and analysis – Strategic planning – Human resource – Focus – Process management – Business results – Customer and market focus
    81. 81. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-89 Other Awards for Quality • National individual awards – Armand V. Feigenbaum Medal – Deming Medal – E. Jack Lancaster Medal – Edwards Medal – Shewart Medal – Ishikawa Medal • International awards – European Quality Award – Canadian Quality Award – Australian Business Excellence Award – Deming Prize from Japan
    82. 82. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-90 American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) • Measures customer satisfaction • Established in 1994 • Web site: www.acsi.org – Examples (in 2003) • Amazon.com scored 88 (highest in service) • Dell scored of 78 (highest in computer industry) • Cadillac scored 87 (highest in car industry)
    83. 83. The Aldridge Framework – A Systems Perspective 4 Information and Analysis 5 Human Resource Focus 3 Customer & Market Focus 7 Business Results 2 Strategic Planning 1 Leadership 6 Process Management Organizational Profile: Environment, Relationships, and Challenges
    84. 84. 92 História… Sakichi Toyoda Kiichiroi Toyoda Taiichi Ohno  Fundador do Grupo Toyota  Inventor do tear automático  Dispositivo de parada após quebra dos fios  Jidoka  Adaptou Fordismo ao baixo volume  Agregação de valor  Just-in-Time – Eliminação de desperdícios  Conceito de supermercado – Pull System  Estruturou TPS
    85. 85. 93 História… H. Ford ASSEMBLY LINE •System synchronizatio n •Waste elimination A. Sloan E. Whitney F. Taylor T. Ohno J. Juran E. Deming P. Drucker DIVISION OF LABOR •Time and motion studies INTERCHANGE ABLE PARTS MODEL VARIETY EMPLOYEE PARTNERSHIP QUALITY K. Toyoda / E. Toyoda S. Toyoda JIT JIDOKA AMERICAN SUPERMARKET SYSTEM TPS TPS TPS TPS
    86. 86. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Five characteristics of an“Eternally Successful Organisation” People routinely do things right first time Change is anticipated and used to advantage Growth is consistent and profitable New products and services appear when needed Everyone is happy to work there
    87. 87. IMPORTANT EVENTS IN TQM 1249- 1932 Hawthome demonstrated the importance of the social and psychological climate in work. 1924 Shewart developed statistical process control. 1926 The bell telephone began to apply statistical control methods. Mid-1940s the American army pushed the use of sampling methods during world war II. 1950s A large number of attempts at work improvement were undertaken ( egg job enrichment, work redesign, participative management , quality of work life and worker involvement). 1950 First visit of Deming to Japan. 1951 Creation of "Deming application prize" in Japan. First edition of Juan to Japan. 1954 first visit of Deming to Japan Maslow's theories about human needs. 1960 Liberalisation of economy in Japan with pressure to improve quality to compete with foreign companies. McGregor's X and Y theories. 1961 First edition of Feighbaum's Total Quality Control. 1962 The idea of quality circles appeared in the first issue of the Japanese Journal Quality Control for the Foreman. L1te 1960s and early 1970s The pressure of Japanese companies began to ve felt in American companies. 1972 QFD was developed at Mitsubishi's Kobe shipyard site. 1973 After the 1973 oil crises the JIT system was adopted by a vast number of Japanese companies , a small number of American and European companies began to apply this system in the 1980s.
    88. 88. IMPORTANT EVENTS IN TQM mid-1970s Quality circles began to be widely introduced in the USA, the first quality circle program was launched in Lockheed in 1974 and in the UK it was Rolls-Royce witch introduced the concept in 1979. 1979 First edition of Crosby's Quality is Free. Xerox corp. started to apply the benchmarking concept to processes. Publication of the BS5750 quality management series. 1980 An NBC television documentary about the "Japanese miracle" proposed deming as a key element in the miracle. 1981 Ouchi's Z theory. 1982 first edition of Deming's Quality, Productivity and competitive position. 1983 "Quality on the line" published be Garvin in Harvard business review, analysed the difference between Japanese and American companies, showing some of the reasons for the better performance of the former. A paper about Taguchi's design of experiments is published in Harvard Business Review. 1985 The Naval Air Systems Command named its Japanese-system management approach "Total quality management". 1986 First edition of Deming's Out of the Crises, it become a bestseller. 1987 First edition of ISO 9000 quality management system series. 1987 Publication of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
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