Dnb practicals


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Dnb practicals

  2. 2. Theory exams are a way for you to showwhat you have learned.Unlike an objective test, essays exams arenot checking to see if you have learnedcertain pieces of information.Instead they give you an opportunity toshow how you can apply what you knowand come to conclusions about what youhave studied.
  3. 3. What we hope to see is analysis of thematerial (showing how it breakslogically into parts) and synthesis(how the parts relate to some largerwhole) in your answers.There is more to an exam than sittingdown and writing everything you knowbefore you forget it.
  4. 4. Before the ExamStart preparing for your exams.Plan reviews as part of your regular weeklystudy schedule; consequently, you reviewover the whole quarter rather than just atexam time.
  5. 5. Tips on writing the essay-typeexaminationThe well-organized, neat-appearingindividual will usually get the nod overanother equally capable person who isdisorganized and careless in appearance. Although other factors are involved, theanalogy to examination writing is a skill.This skill can be improved by practice.
  6. 6. Before you write Read all questions before you start to write. As you read the questions, make sure youunderstand what you are being asked. Answers will come to mind immediately for somequestions As ideas and examples come to you, jot them downon scratch paper or on the back of the test so thatyou wont clutter your mind trying to remembereverything
  7. 7. Outline the answer before writing. Whether the teacher realizes it or not, he/she isgreatly influenced by the compactness and clarityof an organized answer. To begin writing in the hope that the right answerwill somehow turn up is time consuming andusually futile. To know a little and to present that little well is,by and large, superior to knowing much andpresenting it poorly--when judged by the mark itreceives.
  8. 8. Set up a time schedule.If questions for 100 mark are to beanswered in 180 minutes, allow yourselfonly 15 minutes for each 10 marks.When the time is up for one question, stopwriting and begin the next one.There will be 30 minutes remaining whenthe last question is completed.
  9. 9. The incomplete answers can becompleted during the time. Six incomplete answers, by the way,will usually receive more credit thanthree completed ones. Of course, if one question is worthmore points than the others you allowmore time to write it.The examiner cant give you anycredit for a question you haventattempted.
  10. 10. Partially answering all questions is better thanfully answering some but not others.Budget your time according to the point valueof each question, allowing time forproofreading and any unexpectedemergencies (such as taking longer than youexpected on a questions or going blank for awhile.)Work on the "easiest" parts first. If yourstrength is essay questions, answer those firstto get the maximum points. Pace yourself to allow time for the moredifficult parts.
  11. 11. •One of the biggest problems students have(other than failing to prepare correctly) isrunning out of time.•Plan a time budget and stick to it.•You can always go back to a question that isgiving you problems after you answer all theones you do know.•By spending too much time on a difficultquestion early in the test, you could lose creditfor questions that you knew the answers to.
  12. 12. you are not penalized for incorrectresponses.Save time at the end of the exam toreview your test and make sure youhavent left out any answers or parts ofanswers.This is difficult to do under the stressof exams, but it often keeps you frommaking needless errors.
  13. 13. While you writeBe sure your answer has a definiteresponse that directly answers thequestion.State this within the first few sentences ofyour answer.Provide specific as well as generalinformation in your response by includingexamples, substantiating facts, andrelevant details
  14. 14. Write legibly.If your mind goes blank or you dont knowmuch about a question, relax and brainstormfor a few moments about the topic.Recall pages from your texts, particularlectures, and class discussions to triggeryour memory about ideas relevant to thequestion.Write these ideas down as coherently as youcan.
  15. 15. If you find yourself out of time on aquestion but with more to say, quicklywrite down in outline form what you wouldwrite if you had time.Make sure you write the correct questionnumber.
  17. 17. Main reasons when casepresentation fails
  18. 18. Main reasons when casepresentation fails1. Not enough preparation2. Not enough knowledge3. Anxiety / nervousness overcomes you4. Not seen a similar case before5. Over-confidence6. Language restraints
  19. 19. Not enough preparationNumber of cases presented is directlyproportional to the status of preparationIn most of PG teaching programs, it isdifficult to find a person to present.Lack of regular PG teaching programs.Not exposed to different methodology ofexamination ( examiners)
  20. 20. Not enough preparationNo schematic protocolPractice makes you perfectSpeaking diseaseSee more number of casesMake a habit of writing the case sheetPresent to your colleagueDon’t look at the x-ray firstThink / write your line of management
  21. 21. SPEAKING DISEASEIt may start night before examinationFear of presentation ( speaking)Fear of examiner and others presentFear of mistakesYou may get obsessed with the greatest fearof all, best expressed by Roscoe Drummond
  22. 22. “ The mind is a wonderful thing – itstarts working the minute you are bornand never stops until you get up tospeak in public”Roscoe Drummond
  23. 23. How do you deal with it?Anxiety is a natural state that exists any timewe are placed under stress.Examination normally will cause some stress.Don’t worry, it is normal.The trick is to make your excess energy workfor you.When you learn to make stress work for you,it can be the fuel for a more enthusiastic anddynamic presentation.
  24. 24. Tips for reducing anxietyOrganize – knowing that your thoughts arewell organized will give you more confidence,which will allow you to focus energy intoyour presentation.Visualize –Practice –BreatheFocus on relaxingRelease tensionMoveEye contact with all examiners
  25. 25. Make a habit of writing case sheetsWriting the IP case sheetsAnd Cases presentedKeep time limit
  26. 26. Think / write your line ofmanagementInvestigations can be writtenCan write management when practicingassuming your diagnosis is correctIn exam don’t write, only thinkYou have written D/DThink of management of those.
  27. 27. Not enough knowledgeTo some extent directly proportional to thetime spent on preparationNobody can help you if you don’t knowbasics.Some times you know , but you forget.Answer is more workRead about management of every (exam)case you see in your ward.
  28. 28. Common Exam casesOsteomyelitisAVNSec OAPerthesTuberculosis osteoarticularCoxa VaraNerve injuriesGenu Varum / Genu Valgum
  29. 29. 10 most human fears in USA1. Speaking beforea group2. Heights3. Insects and Bugs4. Financialproblems5. Deep water6. Sickness7. Death8. Flying9. Loneliness10. Dogs
  30. 30. Not seen a similar case beforePractical problem in some centersTalk to your teachersPrograms like this are little too short andcannot have personal attention to the extentdesiredPG training programs???
  31. 31. Over-confidenceShould be confidentYou can stick to your answer if you are sureof what you say.Don’t argue, you can discuss.Unfortunate, but sometimes, toe(w) the lineof examiner.Any body can be wrong.Realize that you are on the other side of thebench
  32. 32. Language restraintsYOU CAN ASK FOR TRANSLATORShould never be a problem.It should not / will not matter
  33. 33. Examiners faults1. Could be wrong2. Other examiners will bring it out duringdiscussion3. Cannot do it in front of you4. Different views5. No uniformity in some topics
  34. 34. To concludeSteps for a winning presentationQuote relevant points from recent journals – creates an impressionWhatever statement you make, Define yourobjectivesAnalyze your audienceConstruct your presentationPractice, practice, practice, practice,practice ……