Teaching strategies to support creative thinking across the curriculumAny lesson can develop creative thinking if it involves pupils generating and extending ideas,suggesting hypotheses, applying imagination and finding new or innovative outcomes. Try to includeopportunities for creativity in the lessons you teach. Look for evidence of pupils’: using imagination generating questions, ideas and outcomes experimenting with alternatives being original expanding on what they know or say exercising their judgementThe following are some strategies can be applied to a wide range of curriculum areas:Use imaginationThink of new ideas, speculate on what might be possible and apply imagination to improve outcomes.Question cues: What might happen if … (if not)? Can you imagine… Suggest an improvement on …Generate more ideasGenerate many responses, encourage thinking of alternatives and the asking of questions.Question cues: How many kinds of … can you think of? List all … that could be used for …? What questions could you could ask?Experiment with alternativesBe willing to change one’s initial ideas, see things another way, experiment with alternativeapproaches.Question cues: How else might you …? Think of five ways of/questions to ask about/reasons for …. List ten things you could do with … (a shape, picture, object, photo, story etc.)Be originalThink of novel ideas, unique solutions, and design original plansQuestion cues:
Design a game for … Invent a way to … Think of a way to improve … (an object, game, story, plan etc.)Expand on what you do and knowElaborate on what you know, build on a given situation, make it more interesting.Question cues: What might we add … (eg to a word, phrase, sentence, story, picture, design) What might we change … (eg to make it different, more interesting) What is another way to … (eg solve problem, investigate a mystery)Exercise your judgementAssess what we have thought/done, evaluate the process and judge the outcome.Question cues: What criteria should we use to judge whether …? What is good/could be improved/is interesting about …. What could/should you/we do next …?Creativity cannot be left to chance, it must be valued, encouraged and expected - and seen asessential to all teaching and learning. So get creative – and enjoy it!Types of Learners:VISUAL LEARNERS Visual learners learn primarily through the written word. They tend to be readers who diligently take down every word.AUDITORYÊLEARNERS Auditory learners learn primarily through listening. They focus their ears and attention on your words, listening carefully to everything you say. They like to talk rather than write and relish the opportunity to discuss what theyve heard.KINESTHETICÊLEARNERS Kinesthetic learners learn better by doing. This group learns best when they can practice what theyÕre learning. They want to have their hands on the keyboard, the hammer, or the test tube because they think in terms of physical action
Two ways of defining your mental identity are how you take in information (your learning style) and whatyou do with the knowledge you’ve acquired (your type of intelligence).Acquiring Information: Learning StylesVisual Learners 60–65% of the population. Learn best by seeing information presented in pictures, charts, graphics, illustrations, or diagrams. Remember details in picture form. Are able to create strong visualizations of sizes, shapes, textures, and depth in their minds. Pay close attention to the body language and facial expressions of others. Have a keen awareness of the aesthetics of the physical environment. Read or watch TV to relax. Remember people’s faces better than their names. Need an organized space to concentrate. Solve problems by writing out possible solutions.Auditory Learners 30% of the population. Learn best by hearing information and memorizing sounds. Have strong language skills including a well-developed vocabulary, appreciation for words, and talent for foreign languages. Are interesting and articulate conversationalists. Are musically talented: can hear tones, rhythms, and individual notes. Are easily distracted by noises. Listen to music or the radio to relax. Remember people’s names better than their faces. Learn new ideas from audio tapes. Solve problems by talking through possible solutions.Kinesthetic Learners 5–10% of the population. Learn best by moving their bodies and through physical interaction. Are hands-on learners. Wiggle, tap feet, or move legs when sitting. Were often labeled ―hyperactive‖ as children. Are good at working with tools and their hands. Play sports or do physical activity to relax. Remember people by recalling things they did with them.
Are distracted by moving people when concentrating. Learn about a new idea by going to a seminar. Solve problems through hands-on experience.Applying Information: Types of IntelligenceHoward Gardner, an American developmental psychologist and Harvard University professor, originallyconceptualized his theory on multiple intelligences as a way to merge art with psychology, not as a meansof determining learning styles in an educational setting, which is how this theory is frequently used today.His book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, explains that there is not just one type ofintelligence, but many. He defines intelligence as ―…the human ability to solve problems or to makesomething that is valued in one or more cultures.‖Gardner initially identified seven different kinds of intelligence, but has since identified two others for atotal of nine. Below is a summary of these various intelligences.Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence: Word SmartAbility to express yourself through language. Think in words. Are sensitive to the meaning, sounds, rhythm, and order of words. Have highly developed auditory skills. Play with sound in language. Enjoy storytelling, creative writing, poetry, jokes, humor, puzzles, riddles, and reading. Love seeing, saying, and hearing words.Mathematical/Logical Intelligence: Number SmartAbility to understand the underlying principles of systems and discern logical or numerical patterns. Think conceptually. Are skilled in reasoning, logic, problem solving, mathematics, and other complex logical systems. Explore patterns, categories, and relationships. Question and wonder about natural events. Enjoy number games, problem solving, pattern games, and experimenting. Have strong reasoning skills and ask questions in a logical manner. Like order and step-by-step directions.Spatial/Visual Intelligence: Picture SmartAbility to perceive and present the visual world accurately and recreate or alter it in the mind.
Think in images and pictures. Produce clear visual images in their mind. Know the location of everything. Enjoy creating visual patterns and need visual stimulation. Are daydreamers.Body/Kinesthetic Intelligence: Body SmartAbility to use one’s body and handle objects in a skilled way, for self-expression or towards a goal. Process knowledge through bodily sensation. Have excellent motor skills and coordination. Have gut feelings about things. Need to move around (often labeled as hyperactive). Are athletic and active. Enjoy creative dramatics, role-playing, dancing, and expressing themselves through movement and body actions. Learn through physical movement and from touching and feeling. Use movement, gestures, and physical expression to learn and solve problems. May touch when talking.Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence: Music SmartAbility to understand, appreciate, and create music; ability to hear, recognize, and manipulate patterns. Think in sounds, rhythms, and patterns. Sing, hum, and whistle to themselves. Immediately respond to music. Perform and appreciate music. Are sensitive to environmental sounds: crickets, bells, alarms, ambient music, etc. Have strong opinions on music. Enjoy playing instruments, singing songs, drumming. Like the sounds of the human voice, environmental sounds, and instrumental sounds. Learn easier if things are set to music or to a beat.Interpersonal/Social Intelligence: People SmartAbility to understand other people—their moods, desires, and motivations. Think and process by relating, cooperating, and communicating with others. Are natural leaders. Sense feelings and intentions of others; are intuitive. Understand people; mediate conflicts. Are skilled at organizing, coordinating, and manipulating people. Are street smart. Have many friends. Are very social. Enjoy being part of a group. Can help peers work cooperatively with others.Intrapersonal/Individualistic Intelligence: Self SmartAbility to understanding one’s self, emotions, feelings, strengths, weaknesses, identity, and purpose. Are skilled in inner focusing. Have a deep awareness of inner feelings, dreams, and ideas.
Are reflective, analytical, self-motivated, and individualistic. Prefer individual/solitary activities to group/team activities. Recognize self strengths and weaknesses. Require private space and time. Like to work independently. Understand their own feelings, motivations, and moods.Naturalist/Environmental Intelligence: Nature SmartAbility to recognize and classify plants, minerals, animals, and cultural artifacts; knowledge ofrelationships in nature. Sensitive to nature. Understand environmental systems.Existential/Spiritual Intelligence: Spirit SmartAbility to pose and ponder questions about the meaning of life and the structure of the universe andconsciousness and to understand philosophical and theological issues. Are curious about the universe, consciousness, and the meaning of life. Seek connection/communion with a higher power.