A history of education 1900 - 1950Presentation Transcript
The History of Education
The History of Education 1900- 1950 KATHERINE BURNS , KEISHABRISON, GRETA SAMUELS, PAULA CARRENO AND ERICA ROGERS
1900sChildren in Schools Children at Work
Higher Institutions of Learning Established Association of American Joliet University founded in Universities founded in 1900 1901 in Joliet, Illinois Goal to promote higher Nations 1st Public Community standards for universities College in the U.S. U.S. Universities become equal Founders J. Stanley Brown and partners with European William Rainey Harper Universities
Mary McLeod Bethune• African American educator,• 1904 founded the Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls in Daytona Beach, Florida• 1923 it merges with the Cookman Institute and becomes a coeducational high school, which becomes - Bethune-Cookman College, now Bethune-Cookman University.
Ivan Pavlov 1903 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING INTRODUCED AT THE1 4 TH I N T E R N A T I O N A L M E D I C A L C O N V E N T I O N I N M A D R I D AUTOMATIC OR REFLECTIVE RESPONSES AND NOT VOLUNTARY BEHAVIORBEHAVIORISM- INDIVIDUALS RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI SHAPES OUR BEHAVIORS
The Binet-Simon Scale 1905 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon Created a measurement instrument that would identify students with mental retardation.
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Founded in 1905 by Andrew Carnegie chartered in 1906 by Congress Established a standard system for ―seating time‖ turning time spent into High School credit Responsible for: Flexner Report GRE – Graduate Record Examination Educational Testing Service Motivation Approach builds on the scholarship of teaching and learning, where they: Learn from each other Improve on what they know works Continuously create new knowledge Take what they have learned and make it usable by others
Ella Flagg Young 1909 1st Female Superintendent of Chicago Public Schools
PROGRESSIVE ERA JOHN DEWEY 1859 – 1952 FATHER OF PROGRESSIVISM AUTHOR THE SCHOOL AND SOCIETY 1899 THE CHILD AND THE CURRICULUM 1902 DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION 1916 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY INVESTIGATION PROBLEM SOLVING PERSONAL AND COMMUNITY GROWTHCURRICULUM DEVELOPED BY BOTH STUDENTS AND TEACHERS
John Dewey - INFLUENCESFriedrich Froebel Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi Educating the ―whole Children need an child‖ emotionally secure environment for Father of Kindergarten successful learning Use of practical work Sensory Learning and direct material Children should arrive Engage with the world at answers themselves you gain and use their understanding hands, heart and head.
Progressive Education MovementThe belief that education is based on theidea that humans learn best in real-lifeactivities with people
Montessori SchoolsIn 1911 the first Montessori school in the U.S. opens in Tarrytown, New York.Two years later (1913), Maria Montessori visits the U.S., and Alexander GrahamBell and his wife Mabel found the Montessori Educational Association at theirWashington, DC, home
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 1914 - THE SMITH-LEVER ACT ESTABLISHES A SYSTEM OF COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICES CONNECTED TO LAND GRANT UNIVERSITIES AND PROVIDES FEDERAL FUNDS FOR EXTENSION ACTIVITIES.
Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education1. Health2. Command of fundamental principles3. Worthy home membership4. Vocation5. Civic education6. Worthy use of leisure7. Ethical character
1916Louis M. Terman and his team ofStanford University graduate studentscomplete an American version of theBinet-Simon Scale. The StanfordRevision of the Binet-Simon Scalebecomes a widely-used individualintelligence test, and along with it, theconcept of the intelligence quotient (orIQ) is born. The Fifth Edition of theStanford-Binet Scales is among themost popular individual intelligencetests today.
Working Conditions of TeachersThe American Federation of Teachers addressed manyissues for teachers in 1916. They wanted to improveteaching conditions, increase pay, and provide benefitsfor teachers.
John Dewey & ProgressivismJohn Dewey, considered as one of the greatest thinkers ofthe 20th century, contributed greatly to the field of earlyeducation and changed the structure of classroom. Deweybelieved educators had a duty to move beyond rigid andtraditional instruction to a more progressive approach tolearning. This approach included encouraging students toask questions, work in teams, and engage in dialogue in theclassroom. Dewey also thought this would help childrendevelop socially and encourage their overall participation.Instructors observed the interests of students and assistedthem and essentially the instructors and students learnedtogether. Dewey’s invaluable contribution to learning is thereason he is known as the father of modern education.
Nursery SchoolsThe Bureau of Educational Experiments is founded inNew York City by Lucy Sprague Mitchell with thepurpose of studying child development and childrenslearning. It opens a laboratory nursery school in 1918and in 1950 becomes the Bank Street College ofEducation. Its School for Children is now "anindependent demonstration school for Bank StreetCollege." This same year (1916), Mrs. Frank R. Lilliehelps establish what would become the University ofChicago Nursery School.
1917Implementation ofintelligence testingfor the UnitedStates Army pavedthe way foreducationalstandardizedtesting
1919The Progressive All states have lawsEducation Association is providing funds forfounded with the goal of transporting children toreforming American school.education.
The Progressive Education Association Doctrine Inspired by John Dewey1. The conduct of the pupils shall be governed by themselves, according to thesocial needs of the community.2. Interest shall be the motive for all work.3. Teachers will inspire a desire for knowledge, and will serve as guides in theinvestigations undertaken, rather than as task-masters.4. Scientific study of each pupil’s development, physical, mental, social andspiritual, is absolutely essential to the intelligent direction of his development.5. Greater attention is paid to the child’s physical needs, with greater use of theout-of-doors.6. Cooperation between school and home will fill all needs of the child’sdevelopment such as music, dancing, play and other extra-curricular activities.7. All progressive schools will look upon their work as of the laboratorytype, giving freely to the sum of educational knowledge the results of theirexperiments in child culture.Novack, 2005
Classical Conditioning of ChildrenIN 1920 JOHN B. WATSON AND HISASSISTANT ROSALIE RAYNER CONDUCTTHEIR EXPERIMENTS USING CLASSICALCONDITIONING WITH CHILDREN. OFTENREFERRED TO AS THE LITTLE ALBERTSTUDY, WATSON AND RAYNERS WORKSHOWED THAT CHILDREN COULD BECONDITIONED TO FEAR STIMULI OFWHICH THEY HAD PREVIOUSLY BEENUNAFRAID. THIS STUDY COULD NOT BECONDUCTED TODAY BECAUSE OFETHICAL SAFEGUARDS CURRENTLY INPLACE.
Progressive Education 1921 - 1930
Lewis M. Terman Lewis M. Terman was a psychologist who developed some of the earliest and most successful measures of individual differences. He joined the faculty of Stanford University in 1910, he revised the Binet-Simon intelligence scale and published the Stanford-Binet IQ test (1916), which soon was adopted in the U.S. During World War I. Terman developed group intelligence testing for the U.S. Army, and in 1921 he launched a long-term program of ―intellectually superior‖ which were studies on gifted children. He wrote The Measurement of Intelligence (1916) and coauthored Genetic Studies of Genius.
Lewis M. Terman cont’d ―Intellectually Superior‖ Hermans "Termites" as they are known were chosen to test the early ripe-early rot myth. High IQ children had intellectual success or failure as adults. According to Terman, unusually precocious children were more likely to turn out well than poorly in their later lives. Terman found that the gifted were taller, healthier, physically better developed, superior in leadership and social adaptability, dispelling the often held contrary opinion. Termans points of view regarding gifted youth include: They are the top 1 percent in intelligence They should be identified as early as possible in childhood They should be accelerated through school They should have a differentiated curriculum and instruction They should have specially trained teachers They should be viewed as a national resource for the betterment of society They should be allowed to develop in whatever directions their talents and interests dictate
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Founded at Columbia University’s Teachers College (1922) Elizabeth Farrell was unanimously elected president at that first meeting, and the Council adopted what it called its three "aims": To unite those interested in educational problems of "special children." To emphasize the education of "special children" rather than his/her identification. To establish professional standards for teachers in the field of special education.
Abigail Adams Establishes the Ruggles Street Nursery along with help from Mrs. Henry Greenleaf Pearson. Ruggles nursery is one of the first educational nurseries in the U.S. , which later becomes Eliot-Pearson’s Children’s school and is now affiliated with Eliot- Pearson Department development at Tufts University. Elizabeth Pearson established the Ruggles Street Nursery School in Boston to serve children living in poverty in 1922. Dedication to the study and wellbeing of children, families, and their communities.
Max Wertheimer Gestalt Theory(1924): Emphasis on learning through insight and grasping the whole concept, which becomes important in the 20th century with development of cognitive views of learning and teaching. Gestalt is a psychology term which means "unified whole". It refers to theories of visual perception. These theories describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. These principles are:
Functionalism “Essence or shape of an entitys complete form" The Gestalt Principles Similarity Is when objects look similar to one another. People often perceive them as a group or pattern.
Functionalism Cont’d Continuation Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object. Closure Closure occurs when an object is incomplete or a space is not completely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, people perceive the whole by filling in the missing information. Proximity Proximity occurs when elements are placed close together. They tend to be perceived as a group. Figure and Ground The eye differentiates an object form its surrounding area. a form, silhouette, or shape is naturally perceived as figure (object), while the surrounding area is perceived as ground (background).
Tennessee VS John Scopes(Monkey Trial) In 1925 John Scopes a High school Biology teacher was on trial and charged with the crime of teaching evolution(Darwin). The religious creationists adopted the age-old tactic of ridiculing their opponents position. John Scopes was convicted. Traditionalists worried that everything valuable was ending. Younger modernists no longer asked whether society would approve of their behavior, only whether their behavior met the approval of their intellect. Intellectual experimentation flourished. Americans danced to the sound of the Jazz Age, showed their contempt for alcoholic prohibition, debated abstract art and Freudian theories. In a response to the new social patterns set in motion by modernism, a wave of revivalism developed, becoming especially strong in the American South. Controversy of evolution versus creationism still continue today.
The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) First administered in 1926. Based on Army Alpha test. First called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, then the Scholastic Assessment Test, and now SAT. Test is intended to assess a students readiness for college. SAT assesses how well the test takers analyze and solve problems—skills they learned in school that they will need in college.
Jean Piaget In 1929 Piaget’s book is published ―The Child’s Concept of the word‖ He becomes an important influence in Cognitive Developmental psychology and education. The Childs Conception of the World explores the ways in which the reasoning powers of young children differ from those of adults. He has studies on what conceptions of the world does the child naturally form at the different stages of its development. The extent that the child distinguishes the external world from an internal or subjective world and what limits does he or she draw between the self and objective reality.
Piaget’s Stages of Development and Cognitive theory
The Great Depression Economic depression which followed World War II and is commonly used as an example of how far the worlds economy can decline. The depression originated in the U.S., after the collapse in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the Stock Market Crash of October 29, 1929( Black Tuesday). Economy is down leaving people homeless, hungry, layoffs. Schools are closed, teachers laid off and lower salaries.
The Great Depression cont’d Teachers and the education of children suffered: Children dropped out of school to sell newspapers and shine shoes. Students were also forced to wear worn out, mended clothes and were too embarrassed to go to school. People couldnt pay their property taxes so school districts were lacking funds. Few teachers were hired and there wasnt enough money to buy books and supplies. Students were forced to use worn textbooks which sometimes had pages missing. Students were forced to bring their own supplies to school. Since many parents couldnt afford to buy these supplies, students dropped out. Schools were forced to drop classes like home economics, physical education, art, and foreign languages. Just the basic courses of reading, writing, and arithmetic were taught.
Alvarez vs. The Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove School.• 1931• San Diego, CA• Lemon Grove school creates a segregated building for Mexican students. The building is old and not suitable for these students.• Board of trustees do this because they said Mexican students were slower learners, and needed special education.• Mexican students refused to go this ―new building‖ everyone called ―La Caballeriza‖ (the barnyard)• The Mexican community took the school to court where the judge concluded: ―I understand that you can separate a few children, to improve their education they need special instruction; but to separate all the Mexicans in one group can only be done by infringing the laws of the State of California. And I do not blame the Mexican children because a few of them are behind (in school work) for this segregation. On the contrary, this is a fact in their favor. I believe that this separation denies the Mexican children the presence of the American children, which is so necessary to learn the English language."
Presidential Election 1932 •F R A N K L I N D E L A N O R O O S E V E L T I S E L E C T E D P R E S I D E N T •I N H I S F I R S T “ H U N D R E D D A Y S ” H E P R O P O S E D T H E “ N E WDEAL” DUE TO THE UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS IN THE NATION. •H E W A S R E - E L E C T E D I N 1 9 3 6 B Y GRAND MAJORITY.
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt•C H A N G E S T H E R O L E O F T H E F I R S T L A D Y B Y U S I N G HER KINDNESS TO HELP PEOPLE. •S H E T R A V E L E D A L L O V E R T H E W O R L D T O F E E D HUNGER AND HELP NEEDED FAMILIES. •S H E A L S O W A S V E R Y V O C A L A N D S U P P O R T I V E O F THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND THE AFRICAN AMERICAN RIGHTS.•A F T E R R O O S E V E L T S D E A T H I N 1 9 4 5 , S H E B E C O M E S THE AMERICAN SPOKESPERSON IN THE UNITED NATIONS.
Because of the Great The Work ProgressDepression, millionswere unemployed. AdministrationNumbers wereincreasing until FranklinRoosevelt signed aproject that allowedthose unemployed towork in public sites.The Work ProgressAdministration (WPA)was a relief program thatput Americans to workin order to gain somefinancial balance. Out ofthe 10millionunemployed, 3 millionwere helped .Most work sites werepublic schools andparks.
The Ballpoint Pen 1938 Biro became very frustrated with the smudges and stains caused by fountain pens. Ladislas Biro and his Brother Georg improved the invention of John Loud’s 1888 ballpoint pen in Hungary. They created it more designs and better ink to use in them.
Yellow School Bus •I N 1 9 3 9 , F R A N K W . C Y R , A P R O F E S S O R A T C O L U M B I A UNIVERSITY, ORGANIZED A NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON STUDENT TRANSPORTATION. •H I S I S S U E W A S T H E D I F F E R E N T M E T H O D S O F S C H O O L TRANSPORTATION WERE UNSAFE AND NEEDED TO BE STANDARD. •S T U D E N T S U S E D H O R S E - D R A W N W H E A T WAGONS, TRUCKS AND EVERYDAY VEHICLES TO GET TO SCHOOL. •B E C A U S E O F T H E C O N F E R E N C E , T H E P O P U L A R Y E L L O WSCHOOL BUS WAS AND STILL IS THE STANDARD FORM OF SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION TODAY.
Yellow School Bus (con’t) •T H E C O N F E R E N C E C H O S E T H E C O L O R YELLOW, BECAUSE IT WAS A BRIGHT COLORTHAT COULD BE SEEN CLEARLY AT DAYLIGHT AND NIGHTLIGHT. •A L S O , I T W A S H I G H L Y V I S I B L E F O R O T H E RMOTORISTS WHICH ALLOWED THE STUDENTS TO RIDE IN A SAFE VEHICLE.
Deviation IQ 1939 David Wechsler develops ―The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale‖ Wechsler believed that intelligence could be best measured by assessing an individual’s performance on a wide array of tests. He also introduces the concept of ―Deviation IQ‖ which calculates the scores on how far they differ from another individual’s score in the same age range.
Deviation IQ Graphs
References 1900 -1910 John Dewey http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2336/Progr essive-Education.html Child Labor 1900 http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade00.html Children in schools 1900 http://library.thinkquest.org/J002606/early1900s.html Johan Pestalozzi http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2319/Pestal ozzi-Johann-1746-1827.html
References 1911 - 1920 Novack, G. (2005). John Dewey’s Theories of Education. from http://www.marxists.org/archive/novack/works/1 960/x03.htm
References 1921-1930 Abigail Eliot http://www.concordlibrary.org/scollect/Fin_Aids/O Texts/eliot.html Famous trials in the U.S. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/scopes/scopes.htm The Daily: History Page, Multiple choice page on SAT http://www.thedaily.com/page/2012/04/06/040612-opinions-history-sat-keenan-1-3 Useful charts- Piaget’s stages of development http://www.usefulcharts.com/psychology/piaget-stages-of-cognitive-development.html Max Wertheimer’s Biography http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesmz/p/max-wertheimer.htmcom- Max Wertheimer’s Biography Jean Piaget, NNDP http://www.nndb.com/people/359/000094077/ Jean Piaget: How a child thinks (video) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jw33CBsEmR4
References 1941-1950 Effects of WWII:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_World_War_II Servicemens Readjustment Acthttp://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=76• Kathleen Casey-Kirschlinghttp://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-12-29-first-boomer_x.htm Mendez vs. Westminsterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendez_vs._Westminster:_For_All_the_Children ENIAChttp://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventions/a/Eniac.htm National School Lunch Acthttp://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch Everson V. Board of Educationhttp://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0330_0001_ZS.html McCollum V. Board of Educationhttp://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1947/1947_90 Higher Education for American Democracyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_Education_for_American_Democracy Public Law 81-740https://www.ffa.org/documents/about_publiclaw105225.pdf
Progressive Education 1900-1950 1900-1910 by Greta Samuels 1911-1920 by Keisha Brison 1921-1930 by Erica Rogers 1931-1940 by Paula Carreno 1941-1950 by Katherine Burns