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TCP IP

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an intro to TCP IP

an intro to TCP IP

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO TCP / IP Orlando Moreno omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498
  • 2. Acronym TCP / IP, Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol • Suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts (end servers) on the internet. - TCP and IP are the protocols of the house • TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP.
  • 3. CONCEPTS: TCP / IP • OPEN system, not proprietary, stacks from different vendors INTEROPERATE - Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP. - Novell ipx, Apple appletalk - closed systems • Internet PROTOCOL - Internet - uses TCP/IP protocols
  • 4. TCP/IP LAYERS • TCP - establish a connection AND guarantees delivery of PACKETS • IP - moves packet of data from node to node. • Sockets - subroutines that provide access to TCP/IP on most systems. omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 4
  • 5. TCP • It is responsible for correct data delivery from client to server. • TCP adds support to detect errors or lost data • Trigger retransmission until data is correctly and completely received. • TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. • TCP assist networks to route messages based on the IP address of the destination omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 5
  • 6. TCP Computer Networks: • local-area networks (LANs) • wide-area networks (WANs) Types of networks: • topology : Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. • protocol : Set of rules/signals computers use to communicate. E.g: One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network . • architecture : peer-to-peer or client/server architecture. omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 6
  • 7. Networks omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 7
  • 8. IP Is responsible for moving packet of data from node to node. IP specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers (the IP number) separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 1.160.10.240 could be an IP address. IP forwards each packet based on this four byte (the IP number) destination address. omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 8
  • 9. Dotted Decimal Notation The 32-bit IP addresses are not easy to interpret if they are written in binary, or as e.g. a single decimal number. In dotted decimal notation, each octet in the address is written as a decimal value from 0 to 255, and a period is used to separate the octets. Dotted-decimal values (XXX) assigned to each of the three principle address classes omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 9
  • 10. Formats of the fundamental address classes omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 10
  • 11. IP Addresses of Class A ( /8 Prefixes ) - Large networks Each Class A network address has an 8-bit network-prefix with the highest order bit set to 0 and a seven-bit network number, followed by a 24-bit host- number. Today, it is no longer considered 'modern' to refer to a Class A network. Class A networks are now referred to as "/8s" (pronounced "slash eight" or just "eights") since they have an 8-bit network-prefix. Bitno. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 24 31 +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ ClassA |0| netid (7) | hostid (24) | +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class A addresses are identified by a zero in bit 0 of the address. This means that 50% of all available IP addresses are of this class. The host part is 24 bits long, this gives more than 4 million IP addresses within a single Class A network.
  • 12. Table Of Special Addresses Network part Host part Example Meaning ------------ --------- --------------- -------------------------- All 0s All 0s 0.0.0.0 This host All 0s Host 0.0.0.34 Host on this net All 1s All 1s 255.255.255.255 Broadcast to local net Net All 1s 197.21.12.255 Broadcast to net 127 +nything 127.0.0.0 Loopback, internal in host
  • 13. IP Addresses of Class B ( /16 Prefixes ) - Medium sized networks Each Class B network address has a 16-bit network-prefix with the two highest order bits set to 1-0 and a 14-bit network number, followed by a 16-bit host- number. Class B networks are now referred to as"/16s" since they have a 16-bit network-prefix Bitno. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 24 31 +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class B |1 0| netid (14) | hostid (16) | +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class B addresses are identified by a one in bit 0 and a zero in bit 1 of the address. This means that 25% of all available IP addresses are of this class. The host part is 16 bits long, this gives more than 65000 IP addresses within a single Class B network.
  • 14. IP Addresses of Class C ( /24 Prefixes ) - Small networks Each Class C network address has a 24-bit network-prefix with the three highest order bits set to 1-1-0 and a 21-bit network number, followed by an 8-bit host- number. Class C networks are now referred to as "/24s" since they have a 24-bit network-prefix. Bitno. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 24 31 +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class C |1 1 0| netid (21) | hostid (8) | +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class C addresses are identified by a one in bit 0 and 1, and a zero in bit 2 of the address. This means that 12.5% of all available IP addresses are of this class. The host part is 8 bits long, this gives a maximum of 254 IP addresses within a single Class C network.
  • 15. IP Addresses of Class D - Multicasting Class D addresses are used for multicasting and does not have a network part and hosts part. IP multicasting makes it possible to send IP datagrams to a group of hosts, which may be spread across many networks Bitno. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 24 31 +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class D |1 1 1 0| multicast address (28) | +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class D addresses are identified by a one in bit 0,1 and 2 and a zero in bit 3 of the address. This means that 6.25% of all available IP addresses are of this class.
  • 16. IP Addresses of Class E - Reserved IP addresses of Class E are reserved for future and experimental use. Bitno. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 24 31 +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class E |1 1 1 1 0| reserved (27) | +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ Class E addresses are identified by a one in bit 0,1,2 and 3 and a zero in bit 4 of the address. This means that 3.125% of all available IP addresses are of this class. The range of Class E addresses are in dotted decimal notation from 240.0.0.0 to 247.255.255.255.
  • 17. Subnets or Subnetting In 1985, RFC 950 defined a standard procedure to support the subnetting, or division, of a single Class A, B, or C network number into smaller pieces omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 17
  • 18. The address shortage problem is aggravated by the fact that portions of the IP address space have not been efficiently allocated. Also, the traditional model of classful addressing does not allow the address space to be used to its maximum potential omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 18
  • 19. The second problem is caused by the rapid growth in the size of the Internet routing tables. omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 19
  • 20. Instead of the classful two-level hierarchy, subnetting supports a three- level hierarchy. The basic idea of subnetting is to divide the standard classful host-number field into two parts - the subnet-number and the host-number on that subnet. omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 20
  • 21. In the figure below, a site with several logical networks uses subnet addressing to cover them with a single /16 (Class B) network address. The router accepts all traffic from the Internet addressed to network 130.5.0.0, and forwards traffic to the interior subnetworks based on the third octet of the classful address omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 21
  • 22. The deployment of subnetting within the private network provides several benefits: • The size of the global Internet routing table does not grow because the site administrator does not need to obtain additional address space and the routing advertisements for all of the subnets are combined into a single routing table entry. • The local administrator has the flexibility to deploy additional subnets without obtaining a new network number from the Internet. • Route flapping (i.e., the rapid changing of routes) within the private network does not affect the Internet routing table since Internet routers do not know about the reachability of the individual subnets - they just know about the reachability of the parent network number.
  • 23. Internet routers use only the network-prefix of the destination address to route traffic to a subnetted environment. Routers within the subnetted environment use the extended-network- prefix to route traffic between the individual subnets. The extended-network-prefix is composed of the classful network-prefix and the subnet-number. omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 23
  • 24. Install TCP/IP on a personal computer 1. The IP address assigned to this personal computer 2. The part of the IP address (the subnet mask) that distinguishes other machines on the same LAN (messages can be sent to them directly) from machines in other departments or elsewhere in the world (which are sent to a router machine) 3. The IP address of the router machine that connects this LAN to the rest of the world.
  • 25. ROUTER A device that connects two LANs. Routers are similar to bridges, but provide additional functionality, such as the ability to filter messages and forward them to different places based on various criteria. The Internet uses routers extensively to forward packets from one host to another.
  • 26. Questions ? Orlando Moreno omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 26