Project Scope, Requirements
  & Estimates

“Project Management for IT Professionals, By IT
               Professionals”

...
Agenda

    What Are The Facts
    Project Scope
    Requirements & Tools
    Estimates


    408.656.2498   Orlando M...
What Are The Facts
   In 1994 only 16% of                   94% of IT project have at
    software projects were        ...
What Are The Facts

   PMI® estimates the size of the PM profession
    globally at 16 million.
   4.5 million people in...
What Are The Facts

Based on your personal experiences and
 readings of projects, what makes a
 project a success or failu...
What Are The Facts
 Why Are Good Requirements And Scope
  Definition So Important?
• Approximately 56% of software defects...
Scope




408.656.2498   Orlando Moreno   7
Scope

Scope Management includes the processes
  required to ensure that the project includes all
  the work required, and...
Scope

Scope Covers
Two Key Points

  -Vision
  -Expectations



   408.656.2498   Orlando Moreno   9
Scope
Keys To Quality Scope Definition
 What are you trying to do & why?

 Is this a business problem or just a cool
  t...
Requirements




408.656.2498   Orlando Moreno   11
Requirements
Requirements specify
exactly what the
product or service of
the project will do,
how it will do it, and
any a...
Requirements
                          Common Excuses
   We must start producing today
   Developing a product or servic...
Requirements
              Getting Quality Requirements
    Process Diagramming
    Displayed Thinking
    The Work Bre...
Requirements
                                 Tips
    Check for hidden inferences.
    Use words that clearly describe ...
408.656.2498   Orlando Moreno   16
Estimates

         How do you get your estimates?
   A) I use a crystal ball.
   B) My team comes up with them.
   C) ...
Estimates

How often do your estimates reflect reality?
     A)   Always
     B)   Often
     C)   Sometimes
     D)  ...
Estimates
                 Getting Quality Estimates
    Ask subject matter experts for most likely WORK.
    Change you...
Estimates
Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT)

 PERT
 Weighted     = Optimistic + 4X Most Likely + Pessimistic
  ...
The Project Manager’s Success Strategy




408.656.2498     Orlando Moreno          21
Projects Are Like Golf

Golf & Projects are like raising children –You
 keep thinking you will do better next time…


 Pro...
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Scope, Requirements, Estimates

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Scope, Requirements, Estimates

  1. 1. Project Scope, Requirements & Estimates “Project Management for IT Professionals, By IT Professionals” Orlando A. Moreno, PMP omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498
  2. 2. Agenda  What Are The Facts  Project Scope  Requirements & Tools  Estimates 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 2
  3. 3. What Are The Facts  In 1994 only 16% of  94% of IT project have at software projects were least one restart. deemed successful  The average IT budget ends  In 2002 28% of software up being 188% of plan. projects were deemed  The average IT delivery time successful is 222% of original forecast.  2% of IT professionals have  Only 61% of IT projects their PMP maintain their original scope.  34% have “no need” for the  30% of all projects are PMP cancelled.  16% of IT projects finish on  70% of all projects fail to time & budget. deliver expected features 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 3
  4. 4. What Are The Facts  PMI® estimates the size of the PM profession globally at 16 million.  4.5 million people involved in PM within the U.S.  Nearly 25% of the world’s GDP is spent on projects.  $10 trillion spent worldwide on projects annually.  The average U.S. project management initiative costs approximately $570,000  43.3% of all statistics are meaningless 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 4
  5. 5. What Are The Facts Based on your personal experiences and readings of projects, what makes a project a success or failure? 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 5
  6. 6. What Are The Facts Why Are Good Requirements And Scope Definition So Important? • Approximately 56% of software defects can be traced to scope/requirements-related issues. • Approximately 82% of the effort required to fix bugs can be traced to scope/requirements-related issues. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 6
  7. 7. Scope 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 7
  8. 8. Scope Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 8
  9. 9. Scope Scope Covers Two Key Points -Vision -Expectations 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 9
  10. 10. Scope Keys To Quality Scope Definition  What are you trying to do & why?  Is this a business problem or just a cool technical solution?  Is the objective realistic?  What are the constraints & assumptions?  Does your team believe in it?  Do you have clear executive support?  What does your communication look like? 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 10
  11. 11. Requirements 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 11
  12. 12. Requirements Requirements specify exactly what the product or service of the project will do, how it will do it, and any assumptions or constraints with which it must work. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 12
  13. 13. Requirements Common Excuses  We must start producing today  Developing a product or service without clear requirements guarantees rework.  Too much specificity stifles creativity.  You want creativity in achieving objectives not defining them.  Your project entails R & D, and you can’t tell today what needs to be accomplished.  In these projects it is even more important that you clearly define what you want to achieve.  What if interests or needs change?  Objectives are targets based on what you know today. If things change revisit your objectives. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 13
  14. 14. Requirements Getting Quality Requirements  Process Diagramming  Displayed Thinking  The Work Breakdown Structure  Avoid the MS Project “Task” Disaster.  Answer the question, “how will I know when this need is met?”  Which model are you using???? 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 14
  15. 15. Requirements Tips  Check for hidden inferences.  Use words that clearly describe intended activities. For example “implementation” or “deployment” are words often used that are not clear.  Confirm your understanding with the key stakeholders.  Make your objectives controllable. If you can’t influence whether you achieve them you shouldn’t use them.  Identify all your objectives, and only work to achieve defined objectives.  Be sure your sponsor and stakeholders agree with your objectives. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 15
  16. 16. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 16
  17. 17. Estimates How do you get your estimates?  A) I use a crystal ball.  B) My team comes up with them.  C) I ask subject matter experts.  D) They are given to me by the project sponsor.  E) I use numbers from previous projects. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 17
  18. 18. Estimates How often do your estimates reflect reality?  A) Always  B) Often  C) Sometimes  D) Occasionally  E) Never 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 18
  19. 19. Estimates Getting Quality Estimates  Ask subject matter experts for most likely WORK.  Change your software to calculate DURATION.  Confirm this duration with your expert as a reasonable most-likely estimate.  Collect a worst & best case estimate & use PERT.  Continually compare estimates to actual results.  Maintain historical data. 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 19
  20. 20. Estimates Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) PERT Weighted = Optimistic + 4X Most Likely + Pessimistic 6 Average PERT Standard = Pessimistic - Optimistic Deviation 6 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 20
  21. 21. The Project Manager’s Success Strategy 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 21
  22. 22. Projects Are Like Golf Golf & Projects are like raising children –You keep thinking you will do better next time… Project Management Training & Consulting Orlando A. Moreno, PMP omoreno@hotmail.com 408.656.2498 408.656.2498 Orlando Moreno 22

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