Learning to teach__richard_arends_7th_lesson


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Introduction to Educational Sciences, Orkun Canbay, Izmir University

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Learning to teach__richard_arends_7th_lesson

  1. 1. Direct Instruction and Concept Teaching 2012-2013 Fall 7th Session Instructor Orkun CanbayCanbay,O.(2012) 1
  2. 2. Discussion - What does Direct Instruction remind you ? - How do we organize our lesson in Direct Instruction? - What are the theories of learning related to Direct Instruction?Canbay,O.(2012) 2
  3. 3. Direct instruction can be described in terms of three feature: (1) the type of learner outcomes it produces (2) its syntax or over-all flow of instructional activities (3) its learning environment.Canbay,O.(2012) 3
  4. 4. Direct Instruction is a teacher-centered model Steps in Direct Instruction (1) establishing set and goals (2) explanation and /or demonstration (3) guided practice (4) feedback (5) and extended practiceCanbay,O.(2012) 4
  5. 5. Theories behind the Direct Instruction a. Behavioral Theory, B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) b. Social Learning Theory, Bandura (1977) Most human learning is done by selectively observing and placing into the memory the behaviors of others c. Teacher Effectiveness ResearchCanbay,O.(2012) 5
  6. 6. Planning and Conducting Direct Instruction Lessons Planning for Direct Instruction -Prepare Objectives -Perform Task Analysis -Plan for Time and SpaceCanbay,O.(2012) 6
  7. 7. Conducting Direct Instruction Lessons - Provide Objectives - Conduct Demonstrations a. Acquiring Mastery and Understanding b. Attend to Rehearsal - Providing Guided Practice a. Assign Short, Meaningful Amounts of Practice b. Assign Practice to Increase Overlearning c. Advantages and Disadvantages of Massed and Distributed Practice d. Attend to Initial Stages of PracticeCanbay,O.(2012) 7
  8. 8. -Check Understanding and Provide Feedback -Provide Feedback as soon as possible after the practice -Make feedback specific -Concentrate on behaviors and not intent -Keep Feedback Appropriate to Developmental Stage of Learner -Emphasize Praise and Feedback on Correct Performance -When Giving Negative Feedback, Show How to Perform Correctly -Help Students to Focus on Process, Not Outcomes -Teach Students How to Provide Feedback to Themselves and How to Judge Their Own Performance -Providing Independent Practice a. Seatwork b. HomeworkCanbay,O.(2012) 8
  9. 9. Discussion - Why do we have to teach concepts ? - Do we have a steady way of teaching concepts ? - Do you think there are steps to teach concepts?Canbay,O.(2012) 9
  10. 10. - Concepts are the basic building blocks around which people organize their thinking and communication. - Concept Learning is essentially a process of putting things into categories and classes.Canbay,O.(2012) 10
  11. 11. The Nature of Concepts -Concepts can be Placed into Categories a. Conjunctive b. Disjunctive c. Relational -Concepts are Learned Through Examples and Nonexamples -Concepts are Influenced by Social Context -Concepts have Definitions and Labels -Concepts have Critical Attributes (Equaliteral Triangle) -Concepts have Noncritical AttributesCanbay,O.(2012) 11
  12. 12. • 1. Conjunctive Concepts• Conjunctive concepts are categories of things or ideas that share two or more common features simultaneously. For example, if you are shopping for "diet cola", you must choose from only those products featuring both desired qualities: a low-calorie diet formula and a cola flavour. This is a relatively common and simple application of concepts in making everyday choices.Canbay,O.(2012) 12
  13. 13. • Disjunctive Concepts• Disjunctive concepts are categories of things or ideas that share either one or the other of two specified features. For example, a dieter ordering from a restaurant menu may want to choose an item that is either vegetarian or low-calorie. This represents a broader selection than the conjunctive concept of "vegetarian and low- calorie". The disjunctive rule includes all vegetarian items, whatever their caloric content, and all low-calorie items, whether they are vegetarian or not. Given the larger range and unobvious connection, disjunctive concepts are harder to learn.Canbay,O.(2012) 13
  14. 14. • Relational: They classify objects on the basis of their relationship to something else or by the relationship between features of an object. Larger, above, left, north, and upside down are all relational concepts. Another example is sister, which is defined as "a female considered in her relation to another person having the same parents."Canbay,O.(2012) 14
  15. 15. Thank you…Canbay,O.(2012) 15