Learning Communities and Student Motivation                       2012-2013 Fall                           4th Session    ...
Discussion    - What motivates you while learning ?    - How long can you keep your motivation ?    - To what extent is mo...
Perspectives on Classrooms as Learning                               Communities    -Individual Dimension; needs and motiv...
Theoretical and Emprical Support    Human Motivation;    - Intrinsic Motivation    - Extrinsic Motivation    Many theories...
Reinforcement Theory (Skinner, 1956)    -Positive Reinforcement    -Negative Reinforcement    ○ Punishment    ○ Stimuli   ...
-Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)Canbay,O.(2012)                             6
•    Positive reinforcement•    Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a     stimulus tha...
•    Negative reinforcement•    Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of     an aversiv...
•   Some examples for negative reinforcement•   Scratching an insect bite that itches (reinforces scratching behavior by  ...
•    Positive punishment :•    This type of punishment is also known as "punishment by application." Positive     punishme...
•    Negative punishment :•    This type of punishment is also known as "punishment by removal." Negative     punishment i...
Self-                                  actualiza                                    tion                                  ...
Cognitive Theory  Individuals are arosed to action by their thinking.  Attribution Theory attempts to explain the world an...
Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977)  It is the combination of reinforcement and attribution theory.  Bandura’s Social L...
Features of Learning Communities        Classroom Properties:        -Multidimesionality        -Simultaneity        -Imme...
Features of Learning Communities        Classroom Processes:        -Communication        -Friendship and Cohesiveness    ...
Features of Learning Communities        Classroom Structures:        -Task Structures        -Goal and Reward Structures  ...
Research on Motivation and Learning Communities        -Relationship between Classroom Environments and        Motivation ...
Thank you…Canbay,O.(2012)                19
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Learning to teach__richard_arends_4th_lesson

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Introduction to Educational Sciences, Orkun Canbay, Izmir University

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Learning to teach__richard_arends_4th_lesson

  1. 1. Learning Communities and Student Motivation 2012-2013 Fall 4th Session Instructor Orkun CanbayCanbay,O.(2012) 1
  2. 2. Discussion - What motivates you while learning ? - How long can you keep your motivation ? - To what extent is motivation important in learning?Canbay,O.(2012) 2
  3. 3. Perspectives on Classrooms as Learning Communities -Individual Dimension; needs and motives -Group Dimension; shared expectations Learning community refers to a setting in which individuals with the community have mutual goals, have common relationships, and show concern for one another.Canbay,O.(2012) 3
  4. 4. Theoretical and Emprical Support Human Motivation; - Intrinsic Motivation - Extrinsic Motivation Many theories developed for human motivation; -Reinforcement theory -Needs theory -Cognitive theory -Social Learning TheoryCanbay,O.(2012) 4
  5. 5. Reinforcement Theory (Skinner, 1956) -Positive Reinforcement -Negative Reinforcement ○ Punishment ○ Stimuli -Classical Conditioning -Operant ConditioningCanbay,O.(2012) 5
  6. 6. -Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)Canbay,O.(2012) 6
  7. 7. • Positive reinforcement• Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus that is appetitive or rewarding, increasing the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a stimulus such as food or sugar solution can be delivered when the rat engages in a target behavior, such as pressing a lever.• This is possibly the easiest, most effective consequence for a trainer to control (and easy to understand, too!). Positive reinforcement means starting or adding Something Good, something the animal likes or enjoys. Because the animal wants to gain that Good Thing again, it will repeat the behavior that seems to cause that consequence. Some examples for positive reinforcement• Giving a child a compliment or candy for a job well done.• Getting paid for a completed task.• Watching your favorite TV show after doing all your homework.• Dolphin gets a fish for doing a trick.• Dog gets a treat for sitting, laying, rolling over.• Get a candy bar for putting money in the machine. Canbay,O.(2012) 7
  8. 8. • Negative reinforcement• Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, thereby increasing that behaviors frequency. In the Skinner box experiment, negative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rats cage until it engages in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is removed.• Negative reinforcement increases a behavior by ending or taking away something bad or aversive. By making the animals circumstances better, you are rewarding it and increasing the likelihood that it will repeat the behavior that was occurring when you ended the bad thing. Negative in this sense does not mean "bad", but that something is subtracted or taken away. http://www.wagntrain.com/OC/Part2.htm Canbay,O.(2012) 8
  9. 9. • Some examples for negative reinforcement• Scratching an insect bite that itches (reinforces scratching behavior by removing itch)• Daydreaming or drawing pictures in boring class (reinforces daydreaming behavior by removing boredom)• Studying when you worry about a test (reinforces study behavior by reducing worry)• Watching TV when you worry about a test (procrastination or giving up on it) (reinforces TV watching behavior by removing worry)• Taking a pain reliever to reduce pain (reinforces pill-taking behavior by removing pain)• You decide to clean up your mess in the kitchen in order to avoid getting in a fight with your roommate.• On Monday morning, you leave the house early in order to avoid getting stuck in traffic and being late for class.Canbay,O.(2012) 9
  10. 10. • Positive punishment :• This type of punishment is also known as "punishment by application." Positive punishment involves presenting an aversive stimulus after a behavior as occurred. For example, when a student talks out of turn in the middle of class, the teacher might scold the child for interrupting her. Some examples for positive punishment• Yelling “No!” at a dog jumping up on a person (adds scold to reduce behavior)• Punishing a child• Swatting a dog with a newspaper for peeing on the carpet.• A speeding ticket for speeding.• Squirting a cat for eating the plants.• Burning your hand when you touch a hot stove.• Getting nauseous after eating rotten food. Canbay,O.(2012) 10
  11. 11. • Negative punishment :• This type of punishment is also known as "punishment by removal." Negative punishment involves taking away a desirable stimulus after a behavior as occurred. For example, when the student from the previous example talks out of turn again, the teacher promptly tells the child that he will have to miss recess because of his behavior. Some examples for negative punishment• Child has a toy taken away for fighting with his sister.• Teen is grounded for misbehavior.• Dolphin trainer walks away with fish bucket when the dolphin gets aggressive.• One person in a relationship stops talking to the other in response to a behavior. Canbay,O.(2012) 11
  12. 12. Self- actualiza tion Aesthetic Need to know and understand Self-esteem needs Need for belonging and love Safety Needs Physiological Needs (Food, Shelter)Needs Theory (Maslow’s Needs Hierarch)It emphasized that individuals are aroused to action by innate needs andintrinsic pressures.Canbay,O.(2012) 12
  13. 13. Cognitive Theory Individuals are arosed to action by their thinking. Attribution Theory attempts to explain the world and to determine the cause of an event or behavior (e.g. why people do what they do). Attribution theory is based on the proposition that the ways individuals come to perceive and to interpret the causes of their successes or fail-ures are the major determinants of their motivation, rather than innate needs or fixed earlier experiences. According to Weiner (1986, 1992; Pintrick, 2003; Pintrick & Schunk, 2002), students attribute their successes or failures in terms of four causes: ability, ef-fort, luck, and the difficulty of the learning task. These attributions can be classified as internal or external. Internal attribution occurs when individuals explain success or failure in terms of themselves; external attribution occurs when they give external causes. Attributing success to ability and effort are examples of internal attributions; luck and circumstances are external examples.Canbay,O.(2012) 13
  14. 14. Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) It is the combination of reinforcement and attribution theory. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. The theory has often been considered as a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories since it covers attention, memory, and motivation. A student’s project –an award winning (high expectation) –a big desire for the reward (high value)Canbay,O.(2012) 14
  15. 15. Features of Learning Communities Classroom Properties: -Multidimesionality -Simultaneity -Immediacy -Unpredictability -Publicness -HistoryCanbay,O.(2012) 15
  16. 16. Features of Learning Communities Classroom Processes: -Communication -Friendship and Cohesiveness -Expectations -Norms -Leadership -ConflictCanbay,O.(2012) 16
  17. 17. Features of Learning Communities Classroom Structures: -Task Structures -Goal and Reward Structures - Cooperative Goals - Competitive Goals - Individual Goals - Classroom Participation StructuresCanbay,O.(2012) 17
  18. 18. Research on Motivation and Learning Communities -Relationship between Classroom Environments and Motivation - Relationship between Leadership and Group Life - Effects of Students’ behavior on each other and on their teachersCanbay,O.(2012) 18
  19. 19. Thank you…Canbay,O.(2012) 19
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