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George Yule_The Study of Language

George Yule_The Study of Language






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    George Yule_The Study of Language George Yule_The Study of Language Presentation Transcript

    • The Study of Language - George Yule1The Study of LanguageGeorge Yule
    • The Study of Language - George Yule2UNIT 1THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGEWe simply do not know how language originated. We do not know thatspoken language developed well before written language. Yet we haveno physical evidance relating to the speech of our ancestors andbecause of this absence of evidance speculations about the origins ofhuman speech have been developed.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule3The Divine SourceThe basic idea of the theory is that : “ If infants were allowed to growup without hearing any language, then they would spontaneously beginusing the original God-given language. “The Natural Sound Source“ Primitive words could have been imitations of the naturel soundswhich early men and women heard around them “ Examples : cuckoo,splash, bang, boom. This view has been called “ bow-wow theory “ oflanguage origin and these words echoing naturel sounds are called “onomatopoeic words “A similar suggestion : “ The original sounds of language came fromnaturel cries of emotion such as pain, anger and joy. Examples : Ouch! ,Ah!, Hey!
    • The Study of Language - George Yule4Yo-heave-ho TheoryThe sounds of a person involved in physical effort could be the sourceof our language, especially when that physical effort involved severalpeople and had to be coordinated.The importance of yo-heave-ho theory is that it places thedevelopment of human language in some SOCIAL CONTEXT.The Oral-Gesture SourceThe theory comes from the idea that there is a link between physicalgesture and orally produced sounds. First of all a set of physicalgestures was developed as a means of communication. Then a set oforal gestures specially involving the mouth developed in which themovements of the tongue, lips and so on where recognized accordingto patterns of movement similar to physical gestures.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule5GlossogeneticsThe focus is on the biological basis of the formation. In the evolutionarydevelopment there are certain physical features, best thought of apartical adaptations that appear to be relevant for speech. Bythemselves, such features would not not lead to speech production,but they are good clues that a creature possessing such featuresprobably has the capacity for speech.Physiological AdaptationsHuman teeth, lips, mouth, tongue, larynx, pharynx and brain have beencreated in such a way to coordinate in producing speech sounds. Theirplaces, connections and coordinative functions make humankinddifferent from all the living creatures.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule6Interactions and TransactionsThere are two major functions of language:• Interactional Function : It is related with how human use language tointeract with each other socially or emotionally, how they express theirfeelings or their ideas.• Transactional Function : It is related with how human use theirlinguistic abilities to transfer knowledge from one generation to thenext.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule7UNIT 2ANIMALS AND HUMAN LANGUAGECommunicative vs. InformativeCommunicativeTo convey a message intentionally. e.g. All the things you say forcommunicating.Informative: Unintentional messages.e.g. If you sneeze the person youare talking to can understand that you have a cold. / If you have astrange accent the person you are talking to can understand you arefrom some other part of the country.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule8Unique Properties of A LanguageThese features are uniquely a part of human language.DisplacementTalking about things that happened in the past, happens now or willhappen in the future.There is no displacement in animal communication.Exception: Bee communication has displacement in an extremelylimited form. A bee can show the others the source of the food.ArbitrarinessThe word and object are not related to each other. e.g. dog. Cat
    • The Study of Language - George Yule9ExceptionNo arbitrary examples: Onomatopoeic sounds e.g. cuckoo, crash,squelch or whirr.Majority of animal signals have a clear connection with the conveyedmessage. Animal communication is non-arbitrary.Productivity(Creavity / open-endedness ) Language users create new words as theyneed them. It is an aspect of language which is linked to the fact thatthe potential number of utterances in any human language is infinite.Animal have fixed reference. Each signal refers to sth, but these signalscan not be manipulated.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule10Cultural TransmissionLanguage passes from one generation to another. In animals there is aninstinctively produce process but human infants growing up in isolationproduce no instinctive language. Cultural transmission is only crucial inthe human acquisition process.DiscretenessIndividual sounds can change the meaning. e.g. pack – back , bin – pin.This property is called discreteness.DualityTo use some sounds in different places. e.g. cat – act . Sounds are thesame but the meanings are different.There is no duality in animal communication.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule11Other Propertiesa-) Vocal- auditory channel: Producing sounds by the vocal organs andperceiving them by ears.b-) Reciprocity: Any speaker / reader can also be a listener / receiver.c-) Specialization: Language is used linguistically.d-) Non-directionality: Unseen but heard messages can be picked up byanyone.e-) Rapid fade: Linguistic signals are produced and disappeared quickly.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule12Talking to AnimalsIf these five properties (displacement, arbitrariness, productivity,cultural transmission, and duality) of human language make it such aunique communication system , then it would seem exteremelyunlikely that other creatures would be able to understand it. Riders canWhoa to horses and they stop, we can say Heel to dogs and they willfollow ar heel... Should we treat these examples as evidence that non-humans can understand human language? Probably not. The standardexplanation is that the animal produces a particular behaviour inresponse to a particular sound-stimulus or noise, but does not actuallyunderstand what the words in the noise mean.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule13UNIT 3THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRITINGMuch of the evidance used in the reconstruction of ancient writingsystems comes from inscriptions on stone or tablets found in the rubleof ruined cities.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule14Pictograms and ideogramsA Picture representing a particular image in a consistent way it is calledPicture-writing or Pictogram. There must be a link between thepictogram and its meaning. So, we can easily understand what it refersto when we look at the pictogram.More abstracts forms of pictograms are called Ideograms. Therelationship between the entity and the symbol is not easilyunderstood like pictograms.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule15• A key property of both pictograms and ideograms is that they do notrepresent words or sounds in a particular language.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule16LogogramsA good example of logographic writing is the system used by theSumerians, in the southern part of modern Iraq, around 5,000 yearsago. Because of the particular shapes used in their symbols, theseinscriptions are more generally described as cuneiform writing. Theterm cuneiform means wedge-shaped and the inscriptions used by theSumerians were produced by pressing a wedge- shaped implement intosoft clay tablets,When we consider the relationship between the written form and theobject it represents, it is arbitrary.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule17Rebus WritingIn this process, the symbol for one entity is taken over as the symbolfor the sound of the spoken word used to refer to the entity. Thatsymbol then comes to be used whenever that sound occurs in anywords. One symbol can be used in many different ways, with a range ofmeanings. This brings a sizeable reduction in the number of symbolsneeded in a writing system.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule18Syllabic WritingIn the last example, the symbol that is used for the pronunciation ofparts of a word represents a combination (ba) of a consonant sound (b)and a vowel sound (a). This combination is one type of syllable. When awriting system employs a set of symbols each one representing thepronunciation of a syllable, it is described as syllabic writing.There are no purely syllabic writing systems in use today, but modernJapanese can be written with a single symbols which represent spokensyllables and is consequently often described as having a syllabicwriting or a syllabary.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule19Alphabetic WritingAn alphabet is essentially a set of written symbols which eachrepresent a single type of sound.Written English• The spelling of written English took place in 15 th century, viaprinting, so Latin and French affected the written forms.• Many of the early printers were Dutch, so they were not verysuccessful in English pronounciation .• Since the 15 th century spoken English has undergone a lot ofchanges.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule20UNIT 4THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGEThe sounds of spoken English don’t match up, a lot of time, with lettersof English. The solution to describe the sounds of a language likeEnglish is to produce a seperate alphabet with symbols which representsounds. Such a set of symbols is called the “ PHONETIC ALPHABET “ .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule21PhoneticsThe general study of the characteristics of speech sounds is called “phonetics “ . We have got four areas of study with in phonetics.a-) Articulatory Phonetics: The study of how speech sounds are made,or articulated.b-) Acoustic Phonetics: It deals with the physical properties of speechas sound waves in the air.c-) Auditory Phonetics: It deals with the reception, via the ear, ofspeech sounds.d-) Forensic Phonetics: It deals with the identification of the speakerand the analysis of recorded utterances.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule22Voiced and Voiceless Sounds• Voiceless: When the vocal cords are spread apart, the air from thelungs passes between them unimpeded. Sounds produced in this wayare described as voiceless.• Voiced: When the vocal cords are drawn together, the air from thelungs repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating avibration effect.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule23Place of ArticulationIt is the location, inside the month, at which the constriction takesplace. We use the symbols of the phonetic alphabet to donate specificsounds.These symbols are enclosed within square brackets [ ] .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule24BilabialsThe sounds formed using both upper and lower lips.LabiodentalsThe sounds formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip.DentalsThe sounds formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth.AlveolarsThe sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolarridge.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule25Alveo-palatalsThe sounds produced with the tongue at the very front of the palate,near the alveolar ridge.VelarsThe sounds produced with the back of the tongue, against the velum.GlottalThe sounds produced without the active use of the tongue and otherparts of the mouth.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule26Manner of ArticulationHow the sounds articulated.StopsThe sounds produced by some form of complete “ stopping “ of theairstream and then letting it go abruptly.FricativesThe sounds produced by almost blocking the airstream, and having theair push through the narrow opening. As the air pushed through, a typeof friction is produced.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule27AffricatesThe sounds produced by combining brief stopping of the airstreamwith an obstructured release which causes some friction.NasalThe sounds produced by lowering the velum and the airstream isallowed to flow out through the nose.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule28ApproximantsArticulation of these sounds are strongly influenced by the followingvowel sound.a-) Glides: The sounds produced with the tongue moving to or from theposition of a nearby vowel.b-) Liquids: The sounds formed by letting the airstream flow around thesides of the tongue as it makes contact with the alveolar ridge.Glottal stopsIt occurs when the space between the vocal cords is closed completely,very briefly, and then realized.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule29FlapThe sounds produced by the tongue tip being thrown against thealveolar ridge for an instant.VowelsThey are produced with a relatively free flow of air. They are alltypically voiced. Front versus a back and a high versus a low area.DipthongsCombined vowel sounds which contain two different sounds are calleddiaphanous. They begin with a vowel sound and with a glide.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule30UNIT 5THE SOUND PATTERNS OF LANGUAGE• Physically different individuals would inevitably have physicallydiffernt vocal tracts, in terms of size and shape.• Since every individuals has a physically different vocal tract, everyindividual will pronounce sounds differntly.• Each individual will not pronunce the word “ me” in a physicallyidentical manner on every occasion.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule31PhonologyThe description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in alanguage. It is concerned with the ways in which speech sounds formsystems and patterns inhuman language Phonology permits a speaker.:• To produce sounds that form meaningful utterances.• To recognize a foreign accent.• To make up new words.• To form plurals or past tenses, etc.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule32PhonemesEach meaning – distinguishing sound in a language is described as a “phoneme “. It is the single sound type which came to be representedby a single symbol. Slash marksa re conventionally used to indicate aphoneme, /t/ .• Phoneme functions contrastively. This contrastive property is thebasic operational test for determining the phonemes which exist in alanguage. If we substitucle one sound for another in a word and thereis a change of meaning, then two sounds represent differentphonemes.• Place of articulation, manner of articulation, voiced, voiceless are thedistinguishing faetures of the sounds. If the feature is present, we markit with a plus ( + ) sign: if it isn’t present, we use (- ) minus sign. /p/ –Voice, + Bilabial, + Stop )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule33Phones and AllophonesThey are different versions of a sound type. Phones are represented insquare brackets.When we have a set of phones, all of which are versions of onephoneme, we refer to them as the allophone of that phoneme. e.g.Bean, bead.AspirationWhen we are producing the same sound in different words, sometimesextra puff of air is produced for the same sound. This feature is just forstops ( b, p, t, d, k, g ) e.g. Pit, spit.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule34The basic distinction between phonemes and allophones; substitutingone phoneme for another will result in a word with a differentmeaning, but substituting allophones only result in a differentpronounciation of the same word.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule35Minimal Pairs and SetsWhen two words such as “ pat “ and “ bat “ are identical in formexpect for a contrast in one phoneme, occuring in the same position,the two words are described as a minimal pair. e.g. Feat, fit, fat, fatePhonotacticsThere are definite patterns to the types of sound combinationspermitted in a language. We can form nonsense words which arepermissible forms with no meanings. They represent identical gaps inthe vocabulary of English. E.g. “lig” or “vig” ( not English words butpossible ).But “sing” or “mig” are not obeying same constraints on the sequence.Such constraints are called the “ Phonotactics “ of a language.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule36Syllabus and ClustersA syllable is composed one or more phonemes and it must contain avowel sound. Every syllable has a nucleus, usually a vowel-liquid ornasal. The basic elements of the syllable are the onset ( one or moreconsonants ) and the rhyme. Plus any following consonants treated asthe coda.• The syllabus which hasn’t got a coda are known “ OPEN SYLLABUS “ ,when a coda is present, they are called “ CLOSED SYLLABUS” .Cup => closed syllable no => open syllable• Both onset and coda can consist of more than one consonant knownas a CONSONANT CLUSTER. /s/ + (/p/, /t/,/k/) + ( /r/, /l/, /w/ )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule37Co-articulation EffectsOur talk is fast and spontaneous and it requires our articulators tomove from one sound to the next without stopping. The process ofmaking one sound almost at the same time as the next is called co-articulation. Articulation effects are called “ assimilation” and “ Ellision”.AssimilationWhen two phonemes occur in sequence and some aspect of onephoneme is taken or copied by the other the process is known as “assimilation “ .This process is occasioned by “ ease of articulation ineveryday talk. For example, only vowel becomes nasal whenever itimmediately procedes a nasal. E.g. can => I can go.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule38ElisionOmission of a sound segment which would be present in the deliberatepronounciation of a word in isolation is technically described as “elision “ . In consonants clusters, especially in coda position, /t/ is acommon casualty in this process, as in the typical pronunciation for Hemust be - Aspects
    • The Study of Language - George Yule39UNIT 6WORDS and WORD FORMATION PROCESSESEtymologyThe study of the origin and history of a word is known as its etymology,a term which, like may of our technical words, comes to us throughLatin, but has its origins in Greek....
    • The Study of Language - George Yule40CoinageThe least common processes of word-formation in English is“Coinage”. That is the invention of totally new terms and using it forany version of that product. Ex. Kleenex, Teflon, Xerox, nylon, aspirin,zipper…BorrowingThat is taking over of words from other languages. Ex. Alcohol (Arabic),Croissant (French) , Robot (Czech) , Bass (Dutch) , Piano (Italian) ,Yogurt (Turkish) …• A special type of borrowing is described as “ loan-translation “ or “calque “ . In this process , there is a direct translation of the elementsof a word into the borrowing language. Ex. Un gratteciel ( French ) – It
    • The Study of Language - George Yule41is translated as a “ scrape-sky “ . - It is normally referred to as a “skyscraper “ .CompoundingThe joining of two seperate words to produce a single form is called “Compounding “ . It is very common in German English, but lesscommon in French, Spanish. Ex. Bookcase, fingerprint, sunburn,wallpaper…BlendingBlending is typically accomplished by taking only the beginning of oneword and joining it to the end of the other word.Ex. Gasoline + Alcohol => GasoholSmoke + Fog => Smog
    • The Study of Language - George Yule42Binary + Digit => BitBrakfast + Lunch => BrunchClippingWhen a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form,often in casual speech, is called clipping.Ex. Goasoline => GasAdvertisement => AdSituation comedy => SitcomChemistary => ChemExamination => ExamGymnastics => Gym
    • The Study of Language - George Yule43BackformationA word of one type of ( usually a noun ) is reduced to form anotherword of a different type ( usually a verb ) .Ex. Television => TeleviseDonation => DonateOption => Opt• A longer word is reduced to a single syllable, then “ –y “ or “ -ie “ isadded to the end. And this is known as “ HYPOCORISMS “ .Ex. Moving pictures => MovieTelevision => TellyAustralian => Aussie
    • The Study of Language - George Yule44ConversionA change in the function of a word, as , for example, when a nouncomes to be used as verb ( without any reduction ) , is generally knownas Conversion. This process can also be called as “ category change “and “ functional change “ .Ex. Butter (n) => Have you buttered (v) the toast ?Paper (n) => He is papering (v) the bedroom walls.• Conversion can involve verbs becoming nouns.Ex. Guess (v) => A guessSpy (v) => A spyMust (v) => A mustTo print out (v) => A print outTo take over (v) => A take over
    • The Study of Language - George Yule45AcronymsAcronyms are formed from the initial letters of a set of other words.Ex. Compact Dick : CD , Personal Identification Number : PIN , VideoCassette Recorder : VCR , Automatic Teller Machine : ATM , RadioDetecting and Ranging ( RADAR ) …DerivationIt is accomplished by means of a large number of small bits of English.These small bits are called “ affixes “ and this process is called “Derivation “ .Ex: –un / -less / -ish / mis- / pre- / – full / -ism / -ness …Unhappy , boyish, misrepresent , joyful , careless, sadness, prejudge,terrorism …
    • The Study of Language - George Yule46• Prefixes and Suffixes : Some affixes have to be added to the beginningof a word. These are called PREFIXES. Some affixes have to be added tothe end of the word. They are called SUFFIXES .Ex. Mislead mis => prefixDisrespectful dis => prefix ful => suffix• Infixes : Infix is an affix which is incorporated inside another word.They are not normally to be found in English. Examples are fromKamhmu .Ex. See => To Drill => Srnee => A drillToh => To Chisel => Trnoh => A chiselEx: ( English ) Absogoddamlutely! Hallebloadylujah !
    • The Study of Language - George Yule47UNIT 7MORPHOLOGYMorphology is the study of forms. It has been used to describe thattype of investigating which analyses all those basic elements which areused in a language. What we have been describing as elements in theform of a linguistic message are known as morphemes.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule48MorphemesMorpheme is the minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function.Ex. Tourists contains 3 morphemes. Tour + ist +sFree and Bound MorphemesFree Morphemes can stand by themselves as single words. Ex Tour,open , stay …Bound Morphemes can not normally stand alone but they are typicallyattached to another form. Affixes are bound morphemes. Ex. re- , -ist , -ed , -s …• When free morphemes are used with bound morphemes , the basicword – form involved is technically known as the ” stem ” . Ex. un dressed un=> Prefix ( bound ) , dress => stem ( free ) , ed=> suffix ( bound )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule49Lexical and Functional Morphemes• Free morphemes fall into two categories :Lexical morphemes are the ordinary nouns adjectives and verbs whichwe think of the words which carry the content of messages we convey.They are called open class of words, since we can add new lexicalmorphemes to the language easily .Functional morphemes are the functional words in the language suchas conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns. They are calledclose class of words, since we almost never add new functionalmorphemes to the language.Ex. and, but, on, near, above => functional morphemesSad, long, look => lexical morphemes
    • The Study of Language - George Yule50Derivational and Inflectional MorphemesBound Morphemes can also be divided into two types.Derivational morphemes are used to make new words in the languageand are often used to make words of a different grammatical categoryfrom the stem .Ex. good => adjective good + ness => nounCare => noun care + less => adjectiveInflectional morphemes are not used to produce new words in theEnglish language, but rather to indicate aspects of the grammaticalfunction of a word. Plural markers, possessive markers, tense markers,comparative and superlative markers are inflectional morphemes.Ex. Tim’s two sisters : Tim’s ‘s => inflectional , sisters s => inflectional
    • The Study of Language - George Yule51Derivational Versus Inflectional• An inflectional morpheme never changes the grammatical category ofa word.Ex. old => adj. , Older => adj.• A derivational morpheme can change the grammatical category of aword.Ex. teach => verb , teacher => nounSome morphemes look the same but this does not mean that they dothe same kind of word.Ex. teacher => suffix + inflectionalYounger => suffix + derivational
    • The Study of Language - George Yule52Whenever there is a derivational suffix and inflectional suffix attachedto the same word , they always appear in that order.Ex. teach + er + s => stem + derivational + inflectionalMorphological DescriptionThe girl’s wildness shocked the teachers.The ( functional ) , girl ( lexical ) , ‘s ( inflectional ) , wild ( lexical ) , ness (derivational ) , shock ( lexical ) , -ed ( inflectional ) , the ( functional ) ,teach ( lexical ) , -er ( derivational ) –s ( inflectional ) .* CATEGORIES OF MORPHEMES : FREE ( a- Lexical b- Functional ) andBOUND ( a- Derivational b- Inflectional )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule53Problems in Morphological Description1- The inflectional morpheme –s is added to “ cat “ and we get theplural “ cats “ . What is the inflectional morpheme which makes sheepthe plural of sheep ?Ex. went past tense of go.Legal => Is it he same morpheme as in “ international “ .Solution : A full description of English morphology will have to takeaccount of both historical influences and the effect of borrowedelements.Ex. Law => borrowed into old English from old NorseLegal => borrowed from the Latin form of “ legal is “ ( of the law )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule54Morphs and AllomorphsMorphs : The actual forms used to realize morphemes.Ex. cats => consists of two morphemesAn inflectional morpheme ( -s )A lexical morpheme ( cat )Allomorphs : The actual forms of the morphs which result from thesingle morpheme “ plural “ turn out to be different. They are allallomorphs of the one morpheme.Ex. sheep ( s ) => sheep ( p )Sheep ( zero morpheme )• zero morpheme is one allomorph of plural.Reduplication : Repetition device as a means of inflectional marking.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule55UNIT 8PHRASES and SENTENCES : GRAMMARGrammarWe need a way of describing the structure of phrases which willaccount for all of the grammatical sequences and rule out all theungrammatical sequences providing such an account involves us in thestudy of grammar. The phrases and sentences can be described as ill-formed or well-formed.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule56Types of Grammar1- Each adult speaker of a language clearly has some type of mentalgrammar. This grammar is subconscious and is not the result of anyteaching.2- This can not be considered as “ linguistic etiquette “ which is theidentification of the proper or best structures to be used in a language.3- This is the study and analysis of structures found in a language,usually with the aim of establishing a description of the grammar ofEnglish.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule57Traditional GrammarSince there were well-established grammatical descriptions of theseolder languages, it seemed appropriate to adopt the existing categoriesfrom these descriptions and apply them in the analysis of languages likeEnglish.Parts of the speechThe terms for the parts of speech are nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs,prepositions, pronouns, and conjunctions.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule58Agreement• Agreement on number : That’s whether noun is singular or plural.• Agreement on Person : This covers the distinctions of persons ( He,she, it, we, you, they )• Agreement on tense : For example , the verb ( likes ) is the presenttense , which is distinguished from past tense ( liked ) .• Agreement on Voice : for ex. “ The boy likes his dog. “ The sentence isin the Active Voice , with the boy doing the liking. An alternative is thePassive Voice, in which the liking is done to the boy , as in “ The boy isliked by his dog “ or just “ The boy is liked” .• Agreement on Gender : This helps us to describe the agreementbetween “ boy “ and “ his “ .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule59The Prescriptive ApproachThe view of grammar as a set of rules for the correct or proper use of alanguage may be characterized as the Prescriptive Approach.Grammarians set out rules fort he correct proper use of English.Ex. Never begin a sentence with “ AND “.You mustn’t split an infinitive. ( This rule can be broken it isn’t becauseof the English forms are bad, it is because of the breaking supposedrule of Latin Grammar.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule60The Descriptive ApproachDescribing the regular structures of the language as it is used , notaccording to some view of how it should be used is called theDescriptive Approach. Analysis collect samples of the language they areinterested and they describe the structures of the language. We havegot two different categories under this approach; Structural Analysisand Immediate Constituent Analysis.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule61Structural AnalysisOne type of descriptive approach. The method employed involves theuse of “ test-frames “ which can be sentences with empty slots in them.Ex.The ___________ makes a lot of noice.• “ Donkey, car, radio, etc… “ fit in the same test-frame and they arethe examples of the same grammatical category “ noun “. But “ a dog,the car “ don’t fit the test-frame .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule62Immediate Constituent AnalysisThis approach is designed to show new small constituents(components) in sentences go together to form larger constituents.(Analyzing the sentence by dividing it to different categories such as “noun phrase “ , “ verb phrase “ , and “ prepositional phrase “ .Ex. Her father brought a shotgun to the wedding.Her father => noun phrasebrought a shotgun => verb phraseto the wedding => prepositional phrase .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule63UNIT 9SYNTAXIf we concentrate on the structure and ordering of components withina sentence, we are studying what is technically known as the syntax ofa language. Syntax means “ a setting out together “ or “ arrangement”.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule64Generative GrammarIf the sentences of a language can be seen as a comparable set, thenthere must be a set of explicit rules which yield those sentences. Such aset of explicit rules is a “ generative grammar “.Some properties of grammar :1- The grammar will generate all the well-formed syntactic structuresand fail to generate any ill-formed structures.2- The grammar will have a finite number of rules, but will be capableof generating an infinite number of well-formed structures.3- The rules of this grammar will need the property of recursion.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule65RecursionThe capacity to be applied more than once in generating a structure.4- This grammar also shows how some superficially distinct sentencesare closely related and how some superficially similar sentences are infact distinct.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule66Deep and Surface StructuresCharlie broke the window.The window was broken by Charlie.Their syntactic forms are different. One is an active sentence, the otheris a passive one. So it can be said that they differ in “ surface structure “, however, their deep strucures are identical. They carry the samemeaning . The deep structure is an abstract level of structuralorganisation in which all the elements determining structuralinterpretation are represented.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule67Structural AmbiguityAnnie whecked a man with an umbrella.This sentence is structurally ambigous since it has two underlyinginterpretations which would be represented differently in the deepstructure.Diffrent ApproachesThere continue to be many different approaches among those whoclaim to analyze language in terms of generative grammar, and manymore among those who are critical of the whole system.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule68Tree DiagramsIt is a way of showing all the constituents in a hierarchical order. Referto page 105.Phrase Structure RulesWe can simply treat tree diagram as a static representation of thestructure of the sentence at the bottom of the diagram. The alternativeview is to treat the diagram as a dynamic format, in the sense that itrepresents a way of “ generating “ not only that sntence but a verylarge number of sentences with only a small number of rules. These arecalled “ phrase structure rules “ .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule69Back to RecursionThe phrase structure rules have no recursive elements. However, wehave to be able to repeat some symbols on the right side of the arrow.Mary helped George.In the sentence above there are no recursive elements. But ;Cathy thought Mary helped George or ,John said Cathy thought Mary helped George .Have recursive elements . In these sentences we need to add V and PNto our lexical rules.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule70Transformational Rulesa- George helped Mary yesterday.b- Yesterday George helped Mary.Phrase structure rules will generate all sentences with fixed word orderto the constituents. So sentence “ a “ will be defined by phrasestructure rules easily while sentence “ b “ will not. Here we have totransform some of the elements. Refer to page 108.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule71UNIT 10SEMANTICSIt is the study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences.Linguistic semantics deals with the conventional meaning conveyed bythe use of words and sentences of a language.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule72Conceptual and Associative MeaningConceptual Meaning covers these basic, essential components ofmeaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word. E.g needle :thin , sharp, steel, instrument.Associative Meaning is the idea, connection what that specific wordbrings to you. E.g needle : painfuL
    • The Study of Language - George Yule73Semantic Featurese.g. The hamburger ate the man.This sentence is syntactically perfect : S => NP + VP ( V + NP )But the meaning is not acceptable. The verb and the subject do notrelate each other.We identify the meaning by analyzing some features . (page 116 : table)
    • The Study of Language - George Yule74Semantic RolesAgent, Theme, InstrumentMary wrote the letter with my pen.a- Agent : The entity that performs the action ( Mary ) .b- Theme : The entity that is involved in or affected by the action ( theletter ) .c- Instrument : The entity that is used by the agent to perform theaction ( my pen ) .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule75Experiences , Location, Source, Goala- Experiences : When a noun phrase ( as the person ) performs anaction including a feeling, a perception do not actually perform theaction, it happen by itself and you feel it.e.g Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. saw => experiencesMary cooked the meal last night. cooked => agentb- Location : The direction or the place of an entity.e.g. Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. => on the wallc- Source is where an entity moves from and Goal is where an entitymoves to . e.g Sally borrowed some Money from Tom bought abirthday present and gave it to Sam.Tom => source Sam => goal
    • The Study of Language - George Yule76Lexical Relations- Synonymy : 2 or more forms with very closely related meanings.e.g broad – wide , hide – conceal- Antonyms : 2 forms of with opposite meaning .e.g quick – slow . big – small- Gradable Antonyms : Antonyms that can be used in comparativeconstructions.e.g bigger than – smaller thanthe negative of one member of the pair does not necessarily imply theother
    • The Study of Language - George Yule77e.g. That dog is not old. (It does not have to mean “ that dog is young“).- Non – Gradable Antonyms ( Complementary Pairs ) : Comparativeconstructions are not normally used, and the negative of one memberdoes imply the other.e.g. deader / more dead => not possiblee.g. that person is not dead : that person is alive.ReversiesThey do the opposite of the other action.e.g. tie – untie , enter – exit
    • The Study of Language - George Yule78HyponymyWhen the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another,the relationship is described as hyponymy.e. g . rose – flower , carrot – vegetablerose is a hyponymy of flower - carrot is a hyponymy of vegetableCo – Hyponymy / Super ordinateAnimal ( super ordinate ) => horse / dog / birdHorse, dog , bird => co- hyponymys of animalPrototypesA prototype is the best example of a category.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule79HomophonyWhen two or more different written forms have the samepronounciation they are described as homophones.e.g bear – bare , meet – meat, write - rightHomonymyWe use the term homonymy when one form (written or spoken) hastwo or more unrealted meanings.e.g bank ( bank – of a river ) , (bank – financial institution )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule80Polysemywhen one form ( written and spoken ) has multiple meanings which areall related by extension .e. g . head => top of your body / top of a glass of beer / top of acompany
    • The Study of Language - George Yule81MetonymyA type of relation between words based simply on a close connection ineveryday experience.e.g. bottle – coke ( a container – contents relation )car – wheels ( a whole – part relation )king – crown ( a representative – symbol relation )Collocationthe words that naturally go together.e. g. hammer – nailtable – chairsalt – pepperThey frequently occur together.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule82UNIT 11 :PRAGMATICSThe study of what speakers mean, or speaker meaning, is calledPragmatics.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule83Invisible MeaningPragmatics is the study of invisible meaning or how we recognize whatis meant even when it is not actually said. Speakers depend on a lot ofshared assumptions and expectations. You use the meanings of thewords, in combination, and the context in which they occur, and youtry to arrive at what the writer of the sign intended his message toconvey. E.g. Baby and Toddler sale – Not selling children but sellingclothes for babies.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule84ContextWe have got two kinds of contexts.1- one kind is best described as linguistic context, also known as co-text. The co-text of a word is the set of other words used in the samephrase or sentence.e.g. I get to the bank to cash a cheque.Bank is homonym. By looking at other words in the sentence we knowwhich type of bank is intended.2- another type of context is described as pysical context . Ourunderstanding of what we read and hear is tied to the physical context,particularly the time and place.e.g. The word bank on the wall of a building in a city.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule85DexisThere are some words in the language that can not be interpreted at allunless the physical context is known. “ here, there, this, that, now,then, yesterday, come “ , pronouns, such as “ I , you, him, her, them “ .e.g. You will have to bring that back tomorrow, because they are nothere now. – this sentence is vague. You, that, tomorrow, they, here ,now => these expressions are called deictic.Person deixis : expressions used to point to a person.Place deixis : words used to point to a location.Time deixis : expressions used to point to a time.There is a distinction between what is marked as close to the speaker (this, that, now ) . What is marked as distant ( that, there, then ).
    • The Study of Language - George Yule86ReferenceReference is an act by which a speaker uses language to enable alistener to identify something.e.g. Can I look at your Chomsky ?Chomsky refers to sth. The key process here is called inference. Aninference is any additional information used by the listener to connectwhat is said to what must be meant . The listener has to infer that thename of the writer of a book can be used to identify a book by thatwriter.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule87Anaphora- Can I have your book ?- Yeah, it is on the table.The second underlined referring expression is an example of anaphoraand the first mention is called antecedent. “ Book “ is antecedent, “ it “is the anaphoric expression.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule88PresuppositionSpeakers design their linguistic messages on the basis of assumptionsabout what their hearers already know. What a speaker assumes is trueor known by the hearer can be described as presupposition.e.g. Your brother is waiting for you. – There is a presupposition thatyou have a brother.“ Constancy under negation “ test is applied for presupposition.My car is wreck. / my car is not wreck. => “ I have a car “ remains truein both.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule89Speech ActsThe use of the term “ speech act “ covers actions such as requesting ,commanding, questioning, informing. We use some linguistic formswith some functions.When a speaker does not know sth and asks the hearer to provide theinformation, she typically produce a direct speech act.e.g Can you ride a bike ?Some questions are not about your ability to do sth.You would not treat it as a question at all. Such an expression isdescribed as an indirect speech act.e.g. Can you pass the salt ?
    • The Study of Language - George Yule90PolitenessPoliteness is showing awareness of another person’s face. Your face isyour public self-image. Face – threatening act represents a threat toanother person’s self image. Whenever you say sth that lessons thepossible treat to another’s face . It is called a face – saving act.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule91Negative and positive faceYou have both a negative and a positive face. Your negative face is theneed to be independant and to have freedom from imposition. Yourpositive face is your need to be connected, to belong, to be a memberof the group.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule92UNIT 12DISCOURSE ANALYSISHow language – users interpret what other language users intent toconveny is based discourse.To interpret discourse , we use correct andincorrect form and structure.But that is not enough.Because anungrammatical sentence may convey a message , we make sense of itAs language users , we have more knowledge than that.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule93CohesionCohesion can be described as ties and connections which exist within atext. Pronouns , references , lexical connections , terms which share acommon element of meaning , connectors are cohesive links within atext which give us some insight in our judgements on whethersomething is well-written or not.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule94CoherenceWe need to create meaningful connections which are not actuallyexpressed by the words and sentences. We need to fill in a lot of gapswhich exist in the text. This factor is described as coherence. If thereare no cohesive ties within a fragment of discourse , we can understandthem in terms of the conventional actions performed by the speakers.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule95Speech EventsWe need to specify the roles of speaker and hearer and theirrelationship , whether they were friends , strangers , young , old , ofequal or unequal status and many other factors.All of these factors willhave an influence an what is said and how it is said.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule96Conversational interaction (analysis)Two or more people take turns at speaking. Participants wait until onespeaker indicates that he or she has finished , usually by signaling acompletion point. We have different conventions of turns – taking ;cutting in an another speaker or waiting for an opportunity to take aturn.Turn-takingA turn is the time when a speaker is talking and turn-taking is the skillof knowing when to start and finish a turn in a conversation.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule97The Co-operative PrincibleIn a conversational exchange , the participants are co-operating witheach other.We have four maxims to be obeyed.Quantity : As informative as requiredQuality : Say that which you believe to be true.Relation : Be relevantManner : Be clear , brief and orderlyImplicature is an additional conveyed meaning.To describe theconversational implicature , we have to appeal to some backgroundknowledge that must be shared by the conversational participants.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule98Background KnowledgeWe actually create what the text is about based on our expectations ofwhat normally happens.A Schema is a term for a conventional knowledge. Structure whichexists in memory. One particular schema is a script. A script is dynamicin which a series of conventional actions takes place.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule99UNIT 13LANGUAGE and THE BRAINNeurolinguistics, the study of relationship between language and thebrain.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule100Parts of the brainThe brain has two basic parts : The left hemisphere, and the righthemisphere. We will first concentrate on the left hemisphere.Broca’s Area ( the anterior speech cortex )It deals with producing speech.Wernicke’s Area ( the posterior speech cortex )It deals with comprehension.The Motor CortexIt controls movement of muscles, when speaking face, jaw, tongue, andlarynx.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule101The Arcuate FasciculusIt forms a crucial connection between Wernicke’s area and Broca’sarea.The Localization ViewThe word is heard and comprehended by Wernicke’s area , the signal istransferred via the arcuate fasciculus to Broca’s area wherepreparations are made to produce it. A signal is then sent to the motorcortex to physically articulate the word. But this is an oversimplifiedversion of what may actually takes place. We have neglected tomention the intricate interconnections via the central nervous system,the complex role of the brain’s supply, and the extremelyinterdependent nature of most brain functions. The localization view isone way to say that our linguistic abilities have identifiable locations inthe brain.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule102Tongue Tips and Slips• The Tip of the Tongue : You feel that some word is just eluding you,that you know the word.• Slip of the tongue : Tangled expressions.e.g. long shorty stort (long story short) or word reversals: (spoonerism)e.g. use the door to open the keyAlthough the slips of the tongue are mostly treated as errors ofarticulation, it has been suggested that they many result from “ slips ofthe brain “ as it tries to organize linguistic messages.• Slip of the ear : A type of misunderstanding.e.g. Have you seen the great ape ? But the speaker said “ grey tape “
    • The Study of Language - George Yule103AphasiaAphasia is defined as impairment of language function due to localizedcerebral damage which leads to difficulty in understanding and/orproducing linguistic forms.Broca’s Aphasia ( Motor Aphasia )It is serious language disorder characterized by a substantially reducedamount of speech, distorted articulation and slow often effortfulspeech. They generally use lexical morphemes but not functionalmorphemes. In Broca’s aphasia comprehension is typically much beterthan production.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule104Wernick’s Aphasia ( Sensory Aphasia )The type of language disorder which results in difficulties in auditorycomprehension is sometimes called “ sensory aphasia “ someonesuffering fom this disorder can actually produce very fluent speechwhich is, however, often difficult to make sense of it.Conduction AphasiaIt is identified with damage to the arcuate fasciculus. This time peopledo not have articulation problems but may have disrupted rhythmbecause of pauses and hesitations.Comprehension of spoken words is normally good. But repeating aword or phrase ( spoken by someone else ) will create majordifficulties. What is heard and understood can not be transferred to thespeech production area.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule105Dichotic ListeningAnything experienced on the right-hand side of the body is processedin the left hemisphere of the brain and anything on the left side isprocessed in the right hemisphere. So a signal coming in the right earwill go to the left hemisphere and a signal coming in the left ear will goto the right hemisphere.In Dichotic Listening Test, a subject sits with a set of earphones on andis given two different sound signals simultaneously. When asked to saywhat was heard, the subject more often correctly identifies the soundwhich came via the right ear. This is known as right-ear advantage. Theright hemisphere appears to have primary responsibility for processinga lot of other incoming signals of non linguistic nature. So the right-hemisphere handles non-verbal sounds and the left-hemispherehandles language sounds.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule106UNIT 14FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONThere is some innate disposition in the human infant to acquirelanguage. This can be called as the “ language-faculty” of the humanwith each newborn child is endowed. By itself, this faculty is notenough.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule107Basic Requirements1- Acquiring the first language interaction with other language users inorder to bring the language faculty into operation.2- The child who does not hear or isn’t allowed to use language willlearn no language. Hearing is necessary but not enough.3- The crucial requirement appears to be the opportunity to interactwith others ula language. Since it is not genetically inherited, it isacquired in a particular language using environment.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule108The Acquisition ScheduleLanguage acquisition schedule has the same basis as the biologicallydetermined development of motor skills. This biologically schedule istied to the maturation of the infant’s brain and the lateralizationprocess. This biological program is dependent on an interplay withmany social factors in the child’s environment. Acquisition requiresconstant input from which the basis of the regularities in the particularlanguage can be worked out.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule109Caretaker SpeechThe simplified speech style adopted by someone who spends a lot oftime interacting with a young child is called caretaker speech. (Motherese ) Frequent questions, exaggerated intonation, simplifiedwords and structures and a lot of repetition characterize caretaker’sspeech.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule110Pre-language StagesThe pre-linguistic sounds are called “cooing” and “babbling” ( fromabout 3 months to 10 months ). First recognizable sounds are describedas Cooing with velar consonants such as [k] and [g] as well as highvowels such as [I] and . ( By 3 months )By 6 months, the child can produce a number of different vowels andconsonants such as fricatives and nasals. Babbling stage may containsyllable type sounds such as “mu” and “da”. Around 9 months, thereare recognizable intonation patterns to the consonant and vowelcombinations being produced. Around 10th and 11th months, they arecapable of using their vocalization to express emotions and emphasis.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule111The One Word or Holophrastic StageBetween 12-18 months, they produce single units utterances. ( Milk,Cookie, Cat ) . It is holophrastic because the child can use a single formfunctioning as a phrase or sentence. ( What’s that ? )The Two-Word StageBetween 12 months and 24 months , the child’s vocabulary movesbeyond fifty distinct words. A variety of combinations appear in thisstage ( mummy eat, cat bed ) . The child not only produces speech butreceives feedback which usually confirms that the utterance worked.Children can understand five times as many than they produce.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule112Telegraphic SpeechBetween 2 and 3 years old, the child begins producing a large numberof utterances which could be classified as multiple-word utterances.Word-form variations begin to appear. The child has clearly developedsome sentence-building capacity by this stage and can order the formscorrectly. By the age of two and a half, the child’s vocabulary isexpanding rapidly and the child is initiating more talk. By three, thevocabulary has grown to hundreds of words and pronounciation hasbecome closer to the form of the adult language.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule113The Acquisition ProcessFor the vast majority of children, no one provides any instruction onhow to speak the language, the child is not being taught the language.Children actively construct, from what’s said to them, possible ways ofusing the language and test whether they work or not. It’s impossibleto say that the child is acquiring the language through a process ofconsistently imitating adult speech in parrot-fashion. Adults simplydon’t produce many of the types of expressions which turn up inchildren’s speech.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule114MorphologyBy the time the child is 3 years old, he starts to use some of theinflectional morphemes which indicate the grammatical function of thenouns and verbs used. First, -ing form appears in expressions such as “cat sitting “ . Then plural morpheme –s comes as in “boys” . Acquisitionof this form is often accompanied by a process of overgeneralization (adding –s to form plurals as in foots, mans ). Then possessiveinflectional –‘s occurs as in “ Mummy’s book “. Irregular past-tenseforms appear before –ed inflection in child’s speech. Finally the regular–s marker on third person singular present tense verbs appears. –soccurs with full verbs first ( comes,looks ) and then with auxiliaries (does, has ) .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule115SyntaxIn the formation of questions and the use of negatives there appear tobe three identifiable stages. Stage 1 occurs between 18 and 26 months,Stage 2 between 22 and 30 months and Stage 3 between 24 and 40months. ( Different children proceed at different paces ) .QuestionsStage 1 : Simply add a WH- form to the beginning or utter theexpression with a rising intonation.Where kitty?Sit chair ?Stage 2 : More complex expressions can be formed but raisingintonation strategy continues to be used.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule116Why you smiling ?You want eat ?Stage 3 : Inversion appears but the WH- forms don’t always undergothe required inversion.Can I have a piece ?Will you help me ?Why kitty can’t stand up?
    • The Study of Language - George Yule117NegativesStage 1 : “No” or “Not” should be at the beginning of any expression.No fallNo sit thereStage 2 : “Don’t” and “ can’t” appear but “no” and “not” are stil usedbut in front of the verb.He no bite you.I don!t know.You can’t dance.Stage 3 : “Didn’t” and “ won’t” appear. Acquisition of the form “isn’t” isthe latest.I didn’t caught it.She won’t let go.He not taking it.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule118SemanticDuring the holophrastic stage, many children use their limitedvocabulary to refer to a large number of unrelated objects ( bow-wowto refer to a dog ). Sometimes children use bow-wow ot refer to catsand horses. This is called “ overextension “ which is done on the basisof similarities of shape, sound and size. The semantic development inchild is use of words is usually a process of overextension initially,followed by a gradual process of narrowing down the application ofeach term as more words are learned. In terms of hyponomy, the childwill almost always use the middle level term in a hyponymous set suchas animal – dog –poodle. It also seems that antonymous relations areacquired fairly late. By the age of 5, the child has completed the greaterpart of basic language acquisition process. According to some, the childis then in a good position to start learning a second language.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule119UNIT 15SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION/LEARNINGAcquisition Barriers1- Most people attempt to learn another language during their teenageor adult years.2- In a few hours each week of school time.3- With a lot of other occupations.4- With an already known language available for most of their dailycommunicative requirements.5- Adults’ tongues get stiff from pronouncing one type of long and justcan not cope with the new sounds of another language. ( There is nophysical evidance to support it. )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule120Acquisition and LearningAcquisition refers to the gradual development of ability in a languageby using it naturally in communicative situations.Learning refers to conscious process of accumulating knowledge of thevocabulary and grammar of a language.• Even in ideal acquisition situations, very few adults seem to reachnative-like proficiency in using a second language. There oneindividuals who can achieve great expertise in writing, but not inspeaking. This might suggest that some features (vocabulary, grammar)of a second language are easier to acquire than others ( phonology ) .
    • The Study of Language - George Yule121• After the Critical Period ( around puberty ) , it becomes very difficultto acquire another language fully. Because long faculty being stronglytaken over by the features of the L1 loses its flexibility or openness toreceive the features of another language. For the second language, theoptimum age may be during the years from ten to sixteen when theflexibility of the language acquisition faculty hasn’t been completelylast and the maturation of cognitive skills allows a more effective “working out “ of the regular features of the L2 encountered.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule122The Affective FilterAffect is a type of emotional reaction. Affective filter is a kind of barrierto acquisition that results from negative feelings or experiences. If youare stressed, uncomfortable, self-conscious or unmotivated, you areunlikely to learn anything.• Children seem to be less constrained by the effective filter.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule123Focus on MethodA variety of educational approaches and methods which are aimed atfostering L2 learning has been led. In 1483, William Caxton used hisnewly established course material for L2 learners. It was in phrase bookformat.Grammar-Translation MethodLong lists of words and a set of grammatical rules have to bememorized and the written language rather than the spoken languageis emphasized. It is inefficient because it is not focused on how thelanguage is used.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule124Audio-Lingual MethodIt emphasizes the spoken language moving the simple to the morecomplex in the form of drills which the student had to repeat. FLL is amechanical process of habit formation. Its critics pointed out thatisolated practise in drilling language patterns bears no resemblance tothe interactional nature of actual language use. It can also be boring.Communicative ApproachesAgainst the artificiality, the functions of language should beemphasized rather than the forms of the language. ( Asking for thingsin different social contexts rather than the forms of the past tense indifferent sentences. )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule125Focus on LearnerAn error is not something which hinders a student’s progress, but is aclue to the active learning process being made by a student as he orshe tries out ways of communicating in the new language.Creative ConstructionCreative construction is used by the learner in accordance with tyhemost general way of making forms in English. (Women’s is formed byusing the most general way of making plural forms which is also calledovergeneralization.) Some erors may be due to the transfer ofexpressions or structures from the L1. If the L1 and the L2 have similarfeatures, then the learner may be able to benefit from the PositiveTransfer of L1 knowledge. Tranfering a L1 feture that is really differentfrom L2 results in Negative Transfer which isn’t effective for L2communication. (inference)
    • The Study of Language - George Yule126InterlanguageThere is some in-between system used in L2 acquisition which containsaspects of L1 and L2 but which is an inherently variable system withrules of its own. This system is called an Interlanguage and it is basis ofall L2 production. If a learner’s L2 forms contain many features whichdon’t match the target language, they don’t progress any further andtheir interlanguage is fossilized.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule127MotivationStudents who experience some success are among the most motivatedto learn. And motivation may be as much a result of success as a cause.The learner who is willing to guess, risks making mistakes and tries tocommunicate in the L2 will tend, given the opportunity to be moresuccessful.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule128Input and OutputInput is the language that the learner is exposed. It has to becompressible by using simpler structure and vocabulary in a variety ofspeech known as foreigner talk. It provides the beginning learner withclearer examples of the basic structure of the L2 as input.Negotiated input is the L2 material that the learner can acquire ininteraction through requests for clarification and active attention beingfocused on what’s said.Output is the language which learners produce in meaningfulinteraction. The opportunity to produce it is the most crucial factor inthe learner’s development of L2 abilities. Task-based learning provideslearners opportunities to interact with each other.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule129Communicative CompetenceCommunicative competence is using the L2 accurately, appropriatelyand flexibly. It has got three components. The first component isgrammatical competence which involves the accurate use of words andstructures in the L2. Sociolinguistic competence provides the learnerwith the ability to interpret or produce language appropriately.Strategic competence is the ability to organize message effectively andto compensate for any difficulties. ( using a communicative strategy notto stop talking – defining the word you don’t know )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule130Applied LinguisticsIt is the area which investigates the ralation between language andother fields as Education, Psychology, Sociology.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule131UNIT 16GESTURES AND SIGN LANGUAGESGesturesAlthough both Sign and gestures involve the use of hands, they arerather different.Sign is like speech and is used instead of speaking, whereas gesturesare mostly used while speaking.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule132EmblemsThey are the signals such as "thumbs up" or "shush" that function likefixed phrases and do not depend on speech.Types of gesturesWithin the set of gestures that accompany speech, we can distinguishbetween those that echo, in some way, the content of the spokenmessage and those that indicate something being referred to.Iconics are gestures that seem to be a reflection of meaning of what issaid, as when we trace a square in air with a finger while saying "I amlooking for a small box"
    • The Study of Language - George Yule133DeicticsThe term deictic means pointing and we often use gestures to pointto things or people while talking. We can use deictics in the currentcontext, as when we use a hand to indicate a table (with a cake on it)and ask someone Would you like some cake? We can also use the samegesture and the same table (with cake no longer on it) when we latersay That cake was delicious. In this case, the gesture and the speechcombine to accomplish successful reference to something that onlyexists in joint memory rather than in the current physical space.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule134BeatsBeats are short quick movements of the hand or fingers. These gesturesaccompany the rhythm of talk and are often used to emphasize parts ofwhat is being said or to mark a change from describing events in a storyto commenting on those events.As with other gestures, these hand movements accompany speech, butare not typically used as a way of speaking. When hand movements areused in order to speak, we can describe them as part of a signlanguage.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule135UNIT 17LANGUAGE, HISTORY and CHANGELanguages are believed to be descendants on the basis of similarfeatures existing in records.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule136Family TreeHistorical study of languages is described as philology. These studiesincorporated the notion that this was the original form (proto) of alanguage which was the source of modern languages in the Indian-sub-continent (Indo) and in Europe (European). Pro-Indo-European wasestablished as the great-grandmother of many modern languages.(German,Italian,English). There are about 30 such language familieswhich have produced the more than 4000 languages in the world. Interms of numbers of speakers, Chinese ( 1 billion ), English ( 350 million), Spanish ( 300 million ), Hindi ( 200 million ) and Arabic and Russian (150 million ) are used in the world. But English is more widely used oneof all.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule137Family RelationshipsLanguage groups in a language familya re related. So Indo-Europeanlanguages are related to each other. One way to see the relationshipsmore clearly is by looking at records of an older generation from whichthe modern languages developed. The fact that close similarities occur (especially in the pronounciation of the forms ) is good evidance forproposing a family connection.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule138CognatesWithin groups of related languages, we often find close similarities inparticular sets of terms. A cognate of a word in one language is a wordin another language which has a similar form and is used with a similarmeaning.True Cognates : Radio, Television, EmpathyFalse Cognates : Apartment, Sympathetic
    • The Study of Language - George Yule139Comparative ReconstructionThe aim of this procedure is to reconstruct what must have been theoriginal or proto form in the common ancestral language. In carryingout this procedure, there are some general principles:The Majority Principle: If in a cognate set, 3 forms begin with a [p]sound and one form begins with [b] sound, the majority have retainedthe original sound [p].The Most Natural Development Principle: It’s based on the fact thatcertain types of sound-change are very common, whereas others areextremely unlikely.Types of sound change :1- Final vowels often disappear ( cavallo-caval )2- Voiceless sounds become voice between vowels ( mube-mupe )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule1403- Stops become fricatives ( under certain conditions ) ( cavallo-cheval )4- Consonants become voiceless at the end of the words
    • The Study of Language - George Yule141Language ChangeWritten forms from an older period of a language may not bear anyresemblance to the written English to the written English to be found inour daily newspaper. Languages undergo some substantial changesthrough time. Historical development of English is usually divided intothree periods :
    • The Study of Language - George Yule142Old English ( 7th-11th century ) : The primary sources for Englishlanguages were the Germanic languages spoken by a group of tribesfrom northern Europe who invaded the British Isles in the 5th centuryAD. These tribes were Angles, Saxons and Jutes from the 6th to 8thcentury, there was a period in which these Anglo-Saxons wereconverted to Christianity and a number of terms from the language ofreligion, Latin, came into English at that time. From the 8th centurythrough the 10th century, Vikings and their language, old Norse, cameto setle in, parts of the coastal regions of Britain.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule143Middle English ( 12th-16th century ) : This period starts with the arrivalof the Norman French in English in 1066. These French-speakinginvaded proceeded to take over the whole of England. They becamethe ruling class, so that the language of nobility, the government, thelaw and civilized behaviour in England fort he next 2 hundred years wasFrench. In the late 14th century, it has changed substantially from OldEnglish but several changes were yet to take place before the languagetook on its modern form. Borrowed words, external changes andinternal changes can be noted in the development of English.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule144Sound ChangesOne of the diffrences between the Modern English and the MiddleEnglish is in quality of vowel sounds. ( Long vowels are shortened ) .Some sounds disappeared from the general pronounciation of English (/x/ in (nixt) nichtThe change known as “Metathesis” involves a reversal in position oftwo adjoining or non-adjoining sounds.e.g. acsian-askbridd-birdwaeps-waspfrist-firstAnother change involves three addition of a sound to the middle of aword which is known as “Epenthesis”.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule145e.g. aemtig-emptyspinel-spindleAnother change involves the addition of a sound to the beginning of aword and is called “Prothesis”.e.g. schola-escuelaSpiritus-espiritu
    • The Study of Language - George Yule146Syntactic ChangesIn Old English, we can find a number of different orders which are nolonger possible. For ex. Subject can follow the verb and the object canbe placed before the ver bor at the beginning of a sentence. Doublenegative construction was also possible. We can also the loss of a largenumber of inflectional affixes from many parts of speech.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule147Lexical ChangesModern English differs lexically from Old English in the number ofborrowed words, particularly from Latin and Grek. Some words are nolonger in general use in Modern English since we no longer need thosethings. Broadening is kind of lexical change in which a word whichcarries a specific meaning is used as a general term. ( Holy day- Holiday) Reserve process is called Narrowing. A word which is used as ageneral term become restricted to only some specific things. ( meat –any food meat – a specific food )
    • The Study of Language - George Yule148The Process of ChangeChanges are gradual and difficult to discern while they are in progress.Major social changes, wars,invasions and cultural transmission can belinked to language change. Each new language-user has to recreate forhimself the language of the community. There is also occasional desireto be different.Diachronic and synchronic variationDiachronically, that is, from the historical perspective of changethrough time. The type of variation that can be viewed synchronically,that is, in terms of differences within one language in different placesand among different groups at the same time.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule149
    • The Study of Language - George Yule150UNIT 18LANGUAGE AND REGIONAL VARIATIONThe Standard LanguageStandard English is the variety which forms the basis of printed Englishin newspapers and books, which is used in the mass media and which isthought in schools. It is more easily described in terms of the writtenlanguage than the spoken language.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule151Accent and DialectAccent is the description of aspects of pronounciation which identifywhere an individual speaker is from, regionally or socially.Dialect describes features of grammar and vocabulary, as well asaspects of pronounciation.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule152DialectologyDespite occasional difficulties, there is a general impression of mutualintelligibility among many speakers of different dialects of English. Thisis one of the criteria used in the study of dialects, or dialectology, todistinguish between two different dialects of the same language(whose speakers can usually understand each other) and two differentlanguages (whose speakers can’t usually understand each other).
    • The Study of Language - George Yule153Regional DialectsSome regional dialects clearly have stereotyped pronounciationsassociated with them. The informants in many dialect surveys tendedto be NORMS, or non-mobile, older, rural, male speakers. Suchspeakers were selected because it was believed that they were lesslikely to have influences from outside the region in their speech.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule154Isoglosses and Dialect BoundariesIsogloss is the line which represents a boundary between the areaswith regard to that one particular linguistic item. ( e.g. paper bag /paper sack )Dialect Boundary is a more solid line of a number of isoglosses.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule155The Dialect ContinuumIsoglosses and dialect boundaries don’t have sharp breaks from oneregion to the next, they exist along a continuum.Speakers who move back and forth across tis border, using differentvarieties with some ease, may be described as bilialectal.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule156BilingualismPeople who know two distict languages are called bilinguals.Bilingualism can be resulted from political, social or individual.A rather special situation involving two distinct varieties of a language,called diglossia, exists in some countries. In diglossia, there is a “low”variety, acquired locally and used for everyday affairs, and a “high” orspecial variety, learned in school and used for important matters. Atype of diglossia exists in Arabic-speaking countries where the highvariety (Classical Arabic) is used in formal lectures, serious politicalevents and especially in religious discussions.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule157Language PlanningGovernment, legal and educational bodies in many countries have toplan which varieties of the language spoken in the country are to beused for official business. Language planning has five steps :1- “ Selection “ : Choosing an official language.2- “ Codification “ : Basic grammars, dictionaries and written modelsused to establish the standard variety.3- “ Elaboration “ : The standard variety being developed for use in allaspects of social life and the appearance of a body of literary workwritten in the standard.4- “ Implementation “ : Government encourages use of the standard.5- “ Acceptance “ : When a substantial majority of the population havecome to use the standard as the national language, not only social, butalso national identity.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule158Pidgins and CreolesA pidgin is a variety of a language ( e.g. English ) which developed forsome practical purpose ( e.g. trading ). The English Pidgins arecharacterized by an absense of any complex grammatical morphologyand a limited vocabulary. E.g. : plural – s and possessive – ‘s are veryrare in the English Pidgins.e.g. : Functional morphemes often take the place of inflectionalmorphemes found in the source language.( instead of your they use belong you )Your book = buk bilong yu
    • The Study of Language - George Yule159When a Pidgin develops beyond its role as a trade language andbecomes the first language of a social community, it is described as aCreole. A Creole develops as the first language of the children of Pidginspeakers. Creoles have large numbers of native speakers and are notrestricted at all in their uses.The Past Creole Continuum“ Creolization “ : Development from a Pidgin to a Creole.“ Decreolization “ : Development from a Creole to a variety that iscloser to the external standard models.The more basic variety is called “ basilect “ .The variety closer to the external model is “ Acrolect “ .Between these two there’s a range of different varieties : “ Mesolects “.This is called the Past-Creole Continuum.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule160UNIT 19LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL VARIATIONSociolinguisticsThe term sociolinguistics is used generally for the study of therelationship between language and society. This is a broad area ofinvestigation that developed through the interaction of linguistics witha number of other academic disciplines.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule161Social dialectsWhereas the traditional study of regional dialects tended toconcentrate on the speech of people in rural areas, the study of socialdialects has been mainly concerned with speakers in towns and cities.When we look for other examples of language use that might becharacteristic of a social dialect, we treat class as the social variableandthe pronunciation or word as the linguistic variableEducation and occupationAlthough the unique circumstances of every life result in each of ushaving an individual way of speaking, a personal dialect oridiolect, wegenerally tend to sound like others with whom we share similareducational backgrounds and/or occupations.Social markers
    • The Study of Language - George Yule162The significance of the linguistic variable (r) can be virtually theopposite in terms of social status in two different places, yet in bothplaces the patterns illustrate how the use of this particular speechsound functions as a social marker. That is, having this feature occurfrequently in your speech (or not) marks you as a member of aparticular social group, whether you realize it or not.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule163Speech style and style-shiftingSpeech style is a social feature of language use. The most basicdistinction in speech style is between formal uses and informal uses.Formal style is when we pay more careful attention to how we’respeaking and informal style is when we pay less attention. They aresometimes described as “careful style” and “casual style.”A change from one to the other by an individual is called style-shifting.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule164PrestigeIn discussing style-shifting, we introduced the idea of a “prestige” formas a way of explaining the direction in which certain individuals changetheir speech. When that Language and social variation change is in thedirection of a form that is more frequent in the speech of thoseperceived to have higher social status, we are dealing with overtprestige, or status that is generally recognized as “better” or morepositively valued in the larger community.There is, however, another phenomenon called covert prestige. This“hidden” status of a speech style as having positive value may explainwhy certain groups do not exhibit style-shifting to the same extent asother groups.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule165Speech accommodationAs we look more closely at variation in speech style, we can see that itis not only a function of speakers’ social class and attention to speech,but it is also influenced by their perception of their listeners. This typeof variation is sometimes described in terms of “audience design,” butis more generally known as speech accommodation, defined as ourability to modify our speech style toward or away from the perceivedstyle of the person(s) we’re talking to. We can adopt a speech style thatattempts to reduce social distance, described as convergence, and useforms that are similar to those used by the person we’re talking to.In contrast, when a speech style is used to emphasize social distancebetween speakers, the process is called divergence. We can make our
    • The Study of Language - George Yule166speech style diverge from another’s by using forms that are distinctlydifferent.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule167Register and jargonA register is a conventional way of using language that is appropriate ina specific context, which may be identified as situational (e.g. inchurch), occupational (e.g. among lawyers) or topical (e.g. talking aboutlanguage).One of the defining features of a register is the use of jargon, which isspecial technical vocabulary (e.g. plaintiff, suffix) associated with aspecific area of work or interest. In social terms, jargon helps to createand maintain connections among those who see themselves as“insiders” in some way and to exclude “outsiders.”
    • The Study of Language - George Yule168SlangWhereas jargon is specialized vocabulary used by those insideestablished social groups, often defined by professional status (e.g.legal jargon), slang is more typically used among those who are outsideestablished higher-status groups. Slang, or “colloquial speech,”describes words or phrases that are used instead of more everydayterms among younger speakers and other groups with special interests.Vernacular languageThe term “vernacular” has been used since the Middle Ages, first todescribe local European languages (low prestige) in contrast to Latin(high prestige), then to characterize any non-standard spoken versionof a language used by lower status groups. So, thevernacular is ageneral expression for a kind of social dialect, typically spoken by alower-status group, which is treated as “non-standard” because of
    • The Study of Language - George Yule169marked differences from the “standard” language
    • The Study of Language - George Yule170UNIT 20LANGUAGE and CULTURECultureWe use the term culture to refer to all the ideas and assumptions aboutthe nature of things and people that we learn when we becomemembers of social groups. It can be defined as “socially acquiredknowledge.”
    • The Study of Language - George Yule171CategoriesAlthough there is a lot of variation among all the individual “dogs” inour experience, we can use the word dog to talk about any one of themas a member of the category. A category is a group with certainfeatures in common and we can think of the vocabulary we learn as aninherited set of category labels. These are the words for referring toconcepts that people in our social world have typically needed to talkabout.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule172Kinship termsSome of the clearest examples of lexicalized categories are words usedto refer to people who are members of the same family, or kinshipterms. All languages have kinship terms (e.g. brother, mother,grandmother), but they don’t all put family members into categories inthe same way. In some languages, the equivalent of the word fatherisused not only for “male parent,” but also for “male parent’s brother.”
    • The Study of Language - George Yule173Time conceptsTo take a more abstract example, when we learn a word such as weekor weekend, we are inheriting a conceptual system that operates withamounts of time as common categories. Having words for units of timesuch as “two days” or “seven days” shows that we can think of time(i.e. something abstract) in amounts, using noun phrases, in the sameway as “two people” or “seven books” (i.e. something physical).
    • The Study of Language - George Yule174Linguistic relativityThis is often discussed in terms of linguistic relativity because it seemsthat the structure of our language, with its predetermined categories,must have an influence on how we perceive the world. In its weakversion, this idea simply captures the fact that we not only talk, but to acertain extent probably also think about the world of experience, usingthe categories provided by our language. Our first language seems tohave a definite role in shaping “habitual thought,” that is, the way wethink about things as we go about our daily lives, without analyzinghow we’re thinking.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule175There is a stronger version of this idea, called linguistic determinism,which holds that “language determines thought.” If language doesindeed determine thought, then we will only be able to think in thecategories provided by our language. For example, English speakers useone word for “snow,” and generally see all that white stuff as onething. In contrast, so the argument goes, Eskimos look out at all thewhite stuff and see it as many different things because they have lots ofdifferent words for “snow.” So, the category system inherent in thelanguage determines how the speaker interprets and articulatesexperience.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule176The Sapir–Whorf hypothesisThe general analytic perspective we are considering is part of whatbecame known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis during the middle of thetwentieth century. At a time when American linguistics was still mainlycarried out by scholars with strong backgrounds in anthropology,Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf produced arguments that thelanguages of Native Americans, such as the Hopi, led them to view theworld differently from those who spoke European languages.
    • The Study of Language - George Yule177