www.spirobolos.com
W H AT T H E
I N T E R N E T
IS DOING TO
OUR BRAINS
Spiro Bolos: boloss@newtrier.k12.il.us
Based on the book by Nicholas Carr
THE SHALLOWS
W H AT T H E
I N T E R N E T
IS DOING TO
OUR STUDENTS
THEMEDIUMISTHEMESSAGE
THEBRAINISPLASTIC
Edward Taub’s experiment
Edward Taub’s experiment
Pascual-Leone’s experiment
Norman Doidge, M.D.: The Brain That Changes Itself
“PLASTIC DOES NOT MEAN ELASTIC.”
Norman Doidge, M.D.: The Brain That Changes Itself
“ONCE WE HAVE WIRED NEW CIRCUITRY IN
OUR BRAIN, ‘WE LONG TO KEEP IT ACT...
THETOOLSHAPESTHEMIND
1. Extends STRENGTH
2. Extends SENSES
3. Reshapes NATURE
4. Extends MENTAL POWER
4 Kinds of Technology
Extends Strength
Extends Strength
Extends Senses
Extends Senses
Reshapes Nature
Reshapes Nature
1. Extends STRENGTH
2. Extends SENSES
3. Reshapes NATURE
4. Extends MENTAL POWER
4 Kinds of Technology
“Intellectual Technologies”
“EVERY INTELLECTUAL TECHNOLOGY...
EMBODIES AN INTELLECTUAL ETHIC,
A SET OF ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HOW THE
HUMAN MIND WORKS OR S...
exemplia gratia
e.g.,
“THE MAP ‘ADVANCED THE EVOLUTION OF
ABSTRACT THINKING’ THROUGHOUT SOCIETY.’”
Arthur Robinson, cartographic historian
Arthu...
David S. Landes, Revolution in Time
“THE PERSONALIZATION OF PRECISELY
MEASURED TIME ‘WAS A MAJOR STIMULUS TO
THE INDIVIDUA...
Thorstein Veblen, sociologist
TECHNOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTALISTS
vs
TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISTS
James Carey, media critic
“TECHNOLOGY IS TECHNOLOGY. IT IS A MEANS
FOR COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION
OVER SPACE, AND NO...
versus
Langdon Winner, political scientist
“TECHNOLOGIES ARE NOT MERELY AIDS TO
HUMAN ACTIVITY, BUT [ARE] ALSO
POWERFUL FORCES AC...
“TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES OFTEN MARK
TURNING POINTS IN HISTORY.”
“AND WHEN WE HAND DOWN OUR HABITS OF
THOUGHT TO OUR CHILDREN, THROUGH THE
EXAMPLES WE SET, THE SCHOOLING WE
PROVIDE, AND T...
“AND WHEN WE HAND DOWN OUR HABITS OF
THOUGHT TO OUR CHILDREN, THROUGH THE
EXAMPLES WE SET, THE SCHOOLING WE
PROVIDE, AND T...
AHISTORYOFLITERACY
Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus
“FAR BETTER THAN THE WORD WRITTEN IN THE
‘WATER’ OF INK IS ‘AN INTELLIGENT WORD
GR...
Maryanne Wolf, Proust and the Squid
“MODERN STUDIES SHOW THAT
NEURAL ACTIVITY...DOUBLES OR TRIPLES
WHEN WE LOOK AT MEANING...
exemplia gratia
e.g.,
cuneiform
papyrus
wax tablet
codex
“ITSHARDFORUSTOIMAGINETODAYBUTNO
SPACESSEPARATEDTHEWORDSINEARLY
WRITINGINTHEBOOKSINKEDBYSCRIBES
WORDSRANTOGETHERWITHOUTANY...
“IT’S HARD FOR US TO IMAGINE TODAY, BUT NO
SPACES SEPARATED THE WORDS IN EARLY
WRITING. IN THE BOOKS INKED BY SCRIBES,
WOR...
“WHEN HE READ, HIS EYES SCANNED THE PAGE
& HIS HEART EXPLORED THE MEANING, BUT HIS
VOICE WAS SILENT & HIS TONGUE WAS STILL...
Gutenberg’s Letterpress
1 FLORIN = 1 COPY
or
1 FLORIN = 342 COPIES
Effect on the Reader
“THE ABILITY TO FOCUS ON A SINGLE TASK,
RELATIVELY UNINTERRUPTED, [WAS A]
STRANGE ANOMALY IN THE HISTORY OF OUR
PSYCHOLOGI...
“THEY THOUGHT DEEPLY
AS THEY READ DEEPLY.”
Effect on the Writer
“We believe a tool that can open up the millions
of pages in the world’s books can help remove
the barriers between people...
“A SEARCH ENGINE OFTEN DRAWS OUR
ATTENTION TO...A FEW WORDS OR SENTENCES
THAT HAVE STRONG RELEVANCE TO WHATEVER
WE’RE SEAR...
Steven Johnson, Wall Street Journal
“WRITERS AND PUBLISHERS WILL BEGIN...
CRAFTING SECTIONS EXPLICITLY IN THE
HOPES THAT T...
AUNIVERSALMEDIUM
8½ hours
Cory Doctorow, Author
“AN ECOSYSTEM OF
INTERRUPTION TECHNOLOGIES.”
Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus
“THE NATURAL STATE OF THE HUMAN BRAIN,
LIKE THAT OF THE BRAINS OF MOST OF OUR
RELA...
Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus
“[THE NET] RETURNS US TO OUR NATIVE
STATE OF BOTTOM-UP DISTRACTEDNESS
WHILE PRESEN...
+ 100 words
+ 4.4 seconds
“SURFERS PERFORMED SIGNIFICANTLY POORER
ON IMMEDIATE MEASURES OF MEMORY....
IT DIDN’T MATTER WHETHER THEY SURFED
INFORMATI...
SWIMMINGINTHESHALLOWS
“[T]HE NET DELIVERS PRECISELY THE KIND OF
SENSORY AND COGNITIVE STIMULI—
REPETITIVE, INTENSIVE, INTERACTIVE,
ADDICTIVE—THA...
“A MIND CONSUMED WITH A MEDIUM”
“FREQUENT INTERRUPTIONS SCATTER
OUR THOUGHTS, WEAKEN OUR MEMORY,
AND MAKE US TENSE AND ANXIOUS.”
STM vs LTM
STM vs LTM
> HIGH “COGNITIVE LOAD”
re: Erping Zhu, Researcher
“COMPREHENSION DECLINED AS THE NUMBER
OF [HYPER-] LINKS INCREASED. READERS WERE
FORCED TO DEVOT...
WHAT WILL YOU DECIDE?
“‘Learning how to think’ really means
learning how to exercise some control
over how and what you think.
It means being co...
• “The Machine is Us/ing Us”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=NLlGopyXT_g
• Ancient Map: http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/20...
• Neuron: http://www.psywww.com/intropsych/
ch02_human_nervous_system/02classicneuron.jpg
• Violin player: http://bolstabl...
• Pocket watch: http://retrothing.typepad.com/.a/
6a00d83452989a69e201156f31b940970c 800wi
• Rubber band: http://healthyli...
• Birth control pills: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stacylynn/
2480078234/sizes/l/in/photostream/
• Geiger counter: http:/...
• Computer: http://oasisgrace.com/dev/wp content/uploads/2009/09/
computer.jpg
• Books: http://www.k state.edu/womenscente...
• Papyrus: http://www.yourdictionary.com/images/articles/lg/
954.PaperScroll.jpg
• Codex: http://www.n4hccs.org/projects/c...
• Revision: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/2756494307/sizes/l/
in/photostream/
• Gutenberg’s Letterpress: http://w...
• iMac Screen: http://www.sweetwater.com/images/items/1800/
iMac24MDP26 xlarge.jpg
• Google logo: http://pcmguy.com/wp con...
• Blackberry: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stephangeyer/3501272881/
sizes/o/in/photostream/
• Bathtub: http://www.american...
• Wristwatch (“meeting”): http://www.flickr.com/photos/poolie/
2250698836/sizes/l/in/photostream/
• The Thinker: http://jl...
The Shallows
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The Shallows

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An illustration and extension of Nicholas Carr's book, The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to our Brains. Intended for an educational audience, with embedded videos.

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The Shallows

  1. 1. www.spirobolos.com W H AT T H E I N T E R N E T IS DOING TO OUR BRAINS Spiro Bolos: boloss@newtrier.k12.il.us
  2. 2. Based on the book by Nicholas Carr THE SHALLOWS W H AT T H E I N T E R N E T IS DOING TO OUR STUDENTS
  3. 3. THEMEDIUMISTHEMESSAGE
  4. 4. THEBRAINISPLASTIC
  5. 5. Edward Taub’s experiment
  6. 6. Edward Taub’s experiment
  7. 7. Pascual-Leone’s experiment
  8. 8. Norman Doidge, M.D.: The Brain That Changes Itself “PLASTIC DOES NOT MEAN ELASTIC.”
  9. 9. Norman Doidge, M.D.: The Brain That Changes Itself “ONCE WE HAVE WIRED NEW CIRCUITRY IN OUR BRAIN, ‘WE LONG TO KEEP IT ACTIVATED.... THE BRAIN MAP SPACE FOR THOSE SKILLS IS TURNED OVER TO THE [NEW] SKILLS WE PRACTICE INSTEAD’.”
  10. 10. THETOOLSHAPESTHEMIND
  11. 11. 1. Extends STRENGTH 2. Extends SENSES 3. Reshapes NATURE 4. Extends MENTAL POWER 4 Kinds of Technology
  12. 12. Extends Strength
  13. 13. Extends Strength
  14. 14. Extends Senses
  15. 15. Extends Senses
  16. 16. Reshapes Nature
  17. 17. Reshapes Nature
  18. 18. 1. Extends STRENGTH 2. Extends SENSES 3. Reshapes NATURE 4. Extends MENTAL POWER 4 Kinds of Technology
  19. 19. “Intellectual Technologies”
  20. 20. “EVERY INTELLECTUAL TECHNOLOGY... EMBODIES AN INTELLECTUAL ETHIC, A SET OF ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HOW THE HUMAN MIND WORKS OR SHOULD WORK.”
  21. 21. exemplia gratia e.g.,
  22. 22. “THE MAP ‘ADVANCED THE EVOLUTION OF ABSTRACT THINKING’ THROUGHOUT SOCIETY.’” Arthur Robinson, cartographic historian Arthur Robinson, cartographic historian
  23. 23. David S. Landes, Revolution in Time “THE PERSONALIZATION OF PRECISELY MEASURED TIME ‘WAS A MAJOR STIMULUS TO THE INDIVIDUALISM THAT WAS AN EVER MORE SALIENT ASPECT OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION.’”
  24. 24. Thorstein Veblen, sociologist TECHNOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTALISTS vs TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISTS
  25. 25. James Carey, media critic “TECHNOLOGY IS TECHNOLOGY. IT IS A MEANS FOR COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION OVER SPACE, AND NOTHING MORE.”
  26. 26. versus
  27. 27. Langdon Winner, political scientist “TECHNOLOGIES ARE NOT MERELY AIDS TO HUMAN ACTIVITY, BUT [ARE] ALSO POWERFUL FORCES ACTING TO RESHAPE THAT ACTIVITY AND ITS MEANING.”
  28. 28. “TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES OFTEN MARK TURNING POINTS IN HISTORY.”
  29. 29. “AND WHEN WE HAND DOWN OUR HABITS OF THOUGHT TO OUR CHILDREN, THROUGH THE EXAMPLES WE SET, THE SCHOOLING WE PROVIDE, AND THE MEDIA WE USE, WE HAND DOWN AS WELL THE MODIFICATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE OF OUR BRAINS.”
  30. 30. “AND WHEN WE HAND DOWN OUR HABITS OF THOUGHT TO OUR CHILDREN, THROUGH THE EXAMPLES WE SET, THE SCHOOLING WE PROVIDE, AND THE MEDIA WE USE, WE HAND DOWN AS WELL THE MODIFICATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE OF OUR BRAINS.”
  31. 31. AHISTORYOFLITERACY
  32. 32. Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus “FAR BETTER THAN THE WORD WRITTEN IN THE ‘WATER’ OF INK IS ‘AN INTELLIGENT WORD GRAVEN IN THE SOUL OF THE LEARNER.’”
  33. 33. Maryanne Wolf, Proust and the Squid “MODERN STUDIES SHOW THAT NEURAL ACTIVITY...DOUBLES OR TRIPLES WHEN WE LOOK AT MEANINGFUL SYMBOLS AS OPPOSED TO MEANINGLESS DOODLES.”
  34. 34. exemplia gratia e.g.,
  35. 35. cuneiform
  36. 36. papyrus
  37. 37. wax tablet
  38. 38. codex
  39. 39. “ITSHARDFORUSTOIMAGINETODAYBUTNO SPACESSEPARATEDTHEWORDSINEARLY WRITINGINTHEBOOKSINKEDBYSCRIBES WORDSRANTOGETHERWITHOUTANYBREAK ACROSSEVERYLINEONEVERYPAGEINWHATS NOWREFERREDTOASSCRIPTURACONTINUA” Arthur Robinson, cartographic historian
  40. 40. “IT’S HARD FOR US TO IMAGINE TODAY, BUT NO SPACES SEPARATED THE WORDS IN EARLY WRITING. IN THE BOOKS INKED BY SCRIBES, WORDS RAN TOGETHER WITHOUT ANY BREAK ACROSS EVERY LINE ON EVERY PAGE, IN WHAT’S NOW REFERRED TO AS SCRIPTURA CONTINUA.”
  41. 41. “WHEN HE READ, HIS EYES SCANNED THE PAGE & HIS HEART EXPLORED THE MEANING, BUT HIS VOICE WAS SILENT & HIS TONGUE WAS STILL.” St. Augustine, Confessions
  42. 42. Gutenberg’s Letterpress
  43. 43. 1 FLORIN = 1 COPY or 1 FLORIN = 342 COPIES
  44. 44. Effect on the Reader
  45. 45. “THE ABILITY TO FOCUS ON A SINGLE TASK, RELATIVELY UNINTERRUPTED, [WAS A] STRANGE ANOMALY IN THE HISTORY OF OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT.” Vaughan Bell, Research Psychologist
  46. 46. “THEY THOUGHT DEEPLY AS THEY READ DEEPLY.”
  47. 47. Effect on the Writer
  48. 48. “IN THE DIGITAL MARKETPLACE, PUBLICATION BECOMES AN ONGOING PROCESS RATHER THAN A DISCRETE EVENT, AND REVISION CAN GO ON INDEFINITELY.”
  49. 49. “We believe a tool that can open up the millions of pages in the world’s books can help remove the barriers between people and information.”
  50. 50. “A SEARCH ENGINE OFTEN DRAWS OUR ATTENTION TO...A FEW WORDS OR SENTENCES THAT HAVE STRONG RELEVANCE TO WHATEVER WE’RE SEARCHING FOR AT THE MOMENT, WHILE PROVIDING LITTLE INCENTIVE FOR TAKING IN THE WORK AS A WHOLE.”
  51. 51. Steven Johnson, Wall Street Journal “WRITERS AND PUBLISHERS WILL BEGIN... CRAFTING SECTIONS EXPLICITLY IN THE HOPES THAT THEY WILL DRAW IN [A] STEADY STREAM OF SEARCH VISITORS.”
  52. 52. AUNIVERSALMEDIUM
  53. 53. 8½ hours
  54. 54. Cory Doctorow, Author “AN ECOSYSTEM OF INTERRUPTION TECHNOLOGIES.”
  55. 55. Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus “THE NATURAL STATE OF THE HUMAN BRAIN, LIKE THAT OF THE BRAINS OF MOST OF OUR RELATIVES IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM, IS ONE OF DISTRACTEDNESS.”
  56. 56. Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus “[THE NET] RETURNS US TO OUR NATIVE STATE OF BOTTOM-UP DISTRACTEDNESS WHILE PRESENTING US WITH FAR MORE DISTRACTIONS THAN OUR ANCESTORS EVER HAD TO CONTEND WITH.”
  57. 57. + 100 words + 4.4 seconds
  58. 58. “SURFERS PERFORMED SIGNIFICANTLY POORER ON IMMEDIATE MEASURES OF MEMORY.... IT DIDN’T MATTER WHETHER THEY SURFED INFORMATION RELATED TO THE LECTURE OR COMPLETELY UNRELATED CONTENT.”
  59. 59. SWIMMINGINTHESHALLOWS
  60. 60. “[T]HE NET DELIVERS PRECISELY THE KIND OF SENSORY AND COGNITIVE STIMULI— REPETITIVE, INTENSIVE, INTERACTIVE, ADDICTIVE—THAT HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO RESULT IN STRONG AND RAPID ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN CIRCUITS AND FUNCTIONS.”
  61. 61. “A MIND CONSUMED WITH A MEDIUM”
  62. 62. “FREQUENT INTERRUPTIONS SCATTER OUR THOUGHTS, WEAKEN OUR MEMORY, AND MAKE US TENSE AND ANXIOUS.”
  63. 63. STM vs LTM
  64. 64. STM vs LTM
  65. 65. > HIGH “COGNITIVE LOAD”
  66. 66. re: Erping Zhu, Researcher “COMPREHENSION DECLINED AS THE NUMBER OF [HYPER-] LINKS INCREASED. READERS WERE FORCED TO DEVOTE MORE AND MORE OF THEIR ATTENTION AND BRAIN POWER TO EVALUATING THE LINKS AND DECIDING WHETHER TO CLICK ON THEM.”
  67. 67. “COMPREHENSION DECLINED AS THE NUMBER OF [HYPER-] LINKS INCREASED. READERS WERE FORCED TO DEVOTE MORE AND MORE OF THEIR ATTENTION AND BRAIN POWER TO EVALUATING THE LINKS AND DECIDING WHETHER TO CLICK ON THEM.”
  68. 68. WHAT WILL YOU DECIDE?
  69. 69. “‘Learning how to think’ really means learning how to exercise some control over how and what you think. It means being conscious and aware enough to choose what you pay attention to and to choose how you will construct meaning from experience.” — David Foster Wallace
  70. 70. • “The Machine is Us/ing Us”: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=NLlGopyXT_g • Ancient Map: http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/2006/09/20/ knMAPS_main,0.jpg • Clock: http://www.clockguy.com/SiteRelated/SiteGraphics/RefGraphics/ BallWatchCo/BallWatchGalleryClock.jpg • Book: http://woodtyper.com/wp/uploads/2009/09/gutenberg initial.jpg • Projector: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/ Film_projector3.jpg • Lecture hall: http://gep.ub.fu berlin.de/wordpress/wp content/uploads/
  71. 71. • Neuron: http://www.psywww.com/intropsych/ ch02_human_nervous_system/02classicneuron.jpg • Violin player: http://bolstablog.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/joshua bell.jpg • Piano keys: http://www.leepianoservice.com/images/keys.jpg • London taxi: http://lh3.ggpht.com/_4855HSQdFrw/StQJ6JuehDI/ AAAAAAAAD48/lMmWHV5rQtw/London Taxi+Driver.JPG • Brain diagram: http://www.sharpbrains.com/wp content/uploads/ 2008/06/sfo limbic brain with labels.JPG • Hippocampus detail: http://www.bmj.com/content/334/7597/789/
  72. 72. • Pocket watch: http://retrothing.typepad.com/.a/ 6a00d83452989a69e201156f31b940970c 800wi • Rubber band: http://healthylifecarenews.com/wp content/uploads/ 2010/11/Rubber band.jpg • Horse and plow: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevor dennis/ 2520284728/sizes/o/in/photostream/ • Fighter jet: http://www.flickr.com/photos/vermininc/3360111818/sizes/ l/in/photostream/ • Microscope: http://www.tri nitro.com/images/gallery_images/ microscope.png • Dam: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dirgon/572421488/sizes/o/in/ photostream/
  73. 73. • Birth control pills: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stacylynn/ 2480078234/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Geiger counter: http://www.flickr.com/photos/redfiremg/3952257530/ sizes/o/in/photostream/ • Typewriter: http://www.flickr.com/photos/olivander/3770350264/sizes/z/ in/photostream/ • Sextant: http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/images/560/F/51/ F5183 001.jpg • Newspaper: http://thecreativepunk.familylife.ws/blog/wp content/ uploads/2010/07/newspaper_sxc.jpg • School: http://lincoln.d303.org/Portals/7/Lincoln%20School %20Drawing.jpg
  74. 74. • Computer: http://oasisgrace.com/dev/wp content/uploads/2009/09/ computer.jpg • Books: http://www.k state.edu/womenscenter/Violencework %20Advocacy/Womens%20Center%20Materials/Materials/Images/ Literature3.jpg • Old phone: http://www.flickr.com/photos/esparta/2697847277/sizes/o/ in/photostream/ • Lima: http://farm4.static.flickr.com 3346/3521309429_9dd061aae2_b.jpg • Cortez: http://www.aoc.gov/cc/photo gallery/images/cortez_71172_2.jpg • Wax tablet: http://www.christianimageresource.org/images/ wax_tablets_stylus.jpg
  75. 75. • Papyrus: http://www.yourdictionary.com/images/articles/lg/ 954.PaperScroll.jpg • Codex: http://www.n4hccs.org/projects/communications/youthpages/ TimeTravel/codex.jpg • Socrates: http://www.pima.gov/publicdefender/Assets/Images/Misc %20Images/Paintings/socrates.jpg • St. Ambrose: http://ericsammons.com/blog/wp content/uploads/ 2010/12/ambrose.jpg • Lion and Savannah: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/ kjxR1XS0gxE/ TbBclld4pdI/AAAAAAAAErg/LTrakk366m0/s1600/african cats 055.jpg • “Lost”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/qwrrty/2100913578/sizes/l/in/ photostream/
  76. 76. • Revision: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/2756494307/sizes/l/ in/photostream/ • Gutenberg’s Letterpress: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wilhei/ 109404349/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Text on Screen: http://www.flickr.com/photos/altemark/1598056760/ sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Evolution Web 1.0, Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: http://youtu.be/bsNcjya56v8 • Television: http://neversixfeetunder.synthasite.com/resources/ fuzzy20tv20screen20.jpg • Cell Phone Screen: http://hotcellularphone.com/wp content/uploads/
  77. 77. • iMac Screen: http://www.sweetwater.com/images/items/1800/ iMac24MDP26 xlarge.jpg • Google logo: http://pcmguy.com/wp content/uploads/2010/09/google logo.jpg • Losing the Forest (for the trees): http://www.flickr.com/photos/andywon/ 3315505901/in/photostream/ • iPad 2: http://www.cnet.co.uk/i/c/blg/cat/laptops/ipad 2 uk price.jpg • Kindle DX: http://www.geek.com/wp content/uploads/2009/05/ kindledx.jpg • The Filter Bubble: http://www.progressivereader.com/wp content/
  78. 78. • Blackberry: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stephangeyer/3501272881/ sizes/o/in/photostream/ • Bathtub: http://www.americanhomeplus.com/Product/Main/ AmericanBathFactory/T150B WH.jpg • Faucet: http://www.tubz.com/images/Barclay/4022.jpg • Thimble: http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/fatbob/fatbob0808/ fatbob080800018/3486003 old thimble on white background.jpg • “Blissed out ambient loop”: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=HMFYOUEZq3s • “Skylight Facing Myself”: Crashed By Car (Fictions & Fires EP)
  79. 79. • Wristwatch (“meeting”): http://www.flickr.com/photos/poolie/ 2250698836/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • The Thinker: http://jlinder.com/resources/photo/2008/2008.10.30.jpg • Girl on laptop: http://www.babble.com/CS/blogs/strollerderby/girl%20on %20comp..jpg • Palm Pilot: http://www.123print.com/Designs/100095/Palm Pilot 10009567 SB.jpg • Gutenberg Bible: http://www.flickr.com/photos/benjamingolub/ 5203602006/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Google Books, “What’s the Issue?”: http://books.google.com/

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