The Shallows

  • 3,652 views
Uploaded on

An illustration and extension of Nicholas Carr's book, The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to our Brains. Intended for an educational audience, with embedded videos.

An illustration and extension of Nicholas Carr's book, The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to our Brains. Intended for an educational audience, with embedded videos.

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,652
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
2
Likes
3

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. www.spirobolos.com W H AT T H E I N T E R N E T IS DOING TO OUR BRAINS Spiro Bolos: boloss@newtrier.k12.il.us
  • 2. Based on the book by Nicholas Carr THE SHALLOWS W H AT T H E I N T E R N E T IS DOING TO OUR STUDENTS
  • 3. THEMEDIUMISTHEMESSAGE
  • 4. THEBRAINISPLASTIC
  • 5. Edward Taub’s experiment
  • 6. Edward Taub’s experiment
  • 7. Pascual-Leone’s experiment
  • 8. Norman Doidge, M.D.: The Brain That Changes Itself “PLASTIC DOES NOT MEAN ELASTIC.”
  • 9. Norman Doidge, M.D.: The Brain That Changes Itself “ONCE WE HAVE WIRED NEW CIRCUITRY IN OUR BRAIN, ‘WE LONG TO KEEP IT ACTIVATED.... THE BRAIN MAP SPACE FOR THOSE SKILLS IS TURNED OVER TO THE [NEW] SKILLS WE PRACTICE INSTEAD’.”
  • 10. THETOOLSHAPESTHEMIND
  • 11. 1. Extends STRENGTH 2. Extends SENSES 3. Reshapes NATURE 4. Extends MENTAL POWER 4 Kinds of Technology
  • 12. Extends Strength
  • 13. Extends Strength
  • 14. Extends Senses
  • 15. Extends Senses
  • 16. Reshapes Nature
  • 17. Reshapes Nature
  • 18. 1. Extends STRENGTH 2. Extends SENSES 3. Reshapes NATURE 4. Extends MENTAL POWER 4 Kinds of Technology
  • 19. “Intellectual Technologies”
  • 20. “EVERY INTELLECTUAL TECHNOLOGY... EMBODIES AN INTELLECTUAL ETHIC, A SET OF ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HOW THE HUMAN MIND WORKS OR SHOULD WORK.”
  • 21. exemplia gratia e.g.,
  • 22. “THE MAP ‘ADVANCED THE EVOLUTION OF ABSTRACT THINKING’ THROUGHOUT SOCIETY.’” Arthur Robinson, cartographic historian Arthur Robinson, cartographic historian
  • 23. David S. Landes, Revolution in Time “THE PERSONALIZATION OF PRECISELY MEASURED TIME ‘WAS A MAJOR STIMULUS TO THE INDIVIDUALISM THAT WAS AN EVER MORE SALIENT ASPECT OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION.’”
  • 24. Thorstein Veblen, sociologist TECHNOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTALISTS vs TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISTS
  • 25. James Carey, media critic “TECHNOLOGY IS TECHNOLOGY. IT IS A MEANS FOR COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION OVER SPACE, AND NOTHING MORE.”
  • 26. versus
  • 27. Langdon Winner, political scientist “TECHNOLOGIES ARE NOT MERELY AIDS TO HUMAN ACTIVITY, BUT [ARE] ALSO POWERFUL FORCES ACTING TO RESHAPE THAT ACTIVITY AND ITS MEANING.”
  • 28. “TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES OFTEN MARK TURNING POINTS IN HISTORY.”
  • 29. “AND WHEN WE HAND DOWN OUR HABITS OF THOUGHT TO OUR CHILDREN, THROUGH THE EXAMPLES WE SET, THE SCHOOLING WE PROVIDE, AND THE MEDIA WE USE, WE HAND DOWN AS WELL THE MODIFICATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE OF OUR BRAINS.”
  • 30. “AND WHEN WE HAND DOWN OUR HABITS OF THOUGHT TO OUR CHILDREN, THROUGH THE EXAMPLES WE SET, THE SCHOOLING WE PROVIDE, AND THE MEDIA WE USE, WE HAND DOWN AS WELL THE MODIFICATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE OF OUR BRAINS.”
  • 31. AHISTORYOFLITERACY
  • 32. Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus “FAR BETTER THAN THE WORD WRITTEN IN THE ‘WATER’ OF INK IS ‘AN INTELLIGENT WORD GRAVEN IN THE SOUL OF THE LEARNER.’”
  • 33. Maryanne Wolf, Proust and the Squid “MODERN STUDIES SHOW THAT NEURAL ACTIVITY...DOUBLES OR TRIPLES WHEN WE LOOK AT MEANINGFUL SYMBOLS AS OPPOSED TO MEANINGLESS DOODLES.”
  • 34. exemplia gratia e.g.,
  • 35. cuneiform
  • 36. papyrus
  • 37. wax tablet
  • 38. codex
  • 39. “ITSHARDFORUSTOIMAGINETODAYBUTNO SPACESSEPARATEDTHEWORDSINEARLY WRITINGINTHEBOOKSINKEDBYSCRIBES WORDSRANTOGETHERWITHOUTANYBREAK ACROSSEVERYLINEONEVERYPAGEINWHATS NOWREFERREDTOASSCRIPTURACONTINUA” Arthur Robinson, cartographic historian
  • 40. “IT’S HARD FOR US TO IMAGINE TODAY, BUT NO SPACES SEPARATED THE WORDS IN EARLY WRITING. IN THE BOOKS INKED BY SCRIBES, WORDS RAN TOGETHER WITHOUT ANY BREAK ACROSS EVERY LINE ON EVERY PAGE, IN WHAT’S NOW REFERRED TO AS SCRIPTURA CONTINUA.”
  • 41. “WHEN HE READ, HIS EYES SCANNED THE PAGE & HIS HEART EXPLORED THE MEANING, BUT HIS VOICE WAS SILENT & HIS TONGUE WAS STILL.” St. Augustine, Confessions
  • 42. Gutenberg’s Letterpress
  • 43. 1 FLORIN = 1 COPY or 1 FLORIN = 342 COPIES
  • 44. Effect on the Reader
  • 45. “THE ABILITY TO FOCUS ON A SINGLE TASK, RELATIVELY UNINTERRUPTED, [WAS A] STRANGE ANOMALY IN THE HISTORY OF OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT.” Vaughan Bell, Research Psychologist
  • 46. “THEY THOUGHT DEEPLY AS THEY READ DEEPLY.”
  • 47. Effect on the Writer
  • 48. “IN THE DIGITAL MARKETPLACE, PUBLICATION BECOMES AN ONGOING PROCESS RATHER THAN A DISCRETE EVENT, AND REVISION CAN GO ON INDEFINITELY.”
  • 49. “We believe a tool that can open up the millions of pages in the world’s books can help remove the barriers between people and information.”
  • 50. “A SEARCH ENGINE OFTEN DRAWS OUR ATTENTION TO...A FEW WORDS OR SENTENCES THAT HAVE STRONG RELEVANCE TO WHATEVER WE’RE SEARCHING FOR AT THE MOMENT, WHILE PROVIDING LITTLE INCENTIVE FOR TAKING IN THE WORK AS A WHOLE.”
  • 51. Steven Johnson, Wall Street Journal “WRITERS AND PUBLISHERS WILL BEGIN... CRAFTING SECTIONS EXPLICITLY IN THE HOPES THAT THEY WILL DRAW IN [A] STEADY STREAM OF SEARCH VISITORS.”
  • 52. AUNIVERSALMEDIUM
  • 53. 8½ hours
  • 54. Cory Doctorow, Author “AN ECOSYSTEM OF INTERRUPTION TECHNOLOGIES.”
  • 55. Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus “THE NATURAL STATE OF THE HUMAN BRAIN, LIKE THAT OF THE BRAINS OF MOST OF OUR RELATIVES IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM, IS ONE OF DISTRACTEDNESS.”
  • 56. Socrates, as quoted in Plato’s Phaedrus “[THE NET] RETURNS US TO OUR NATIVE STATE OF BOTTOM-UP DISTRACTEDNESS WHILE PRESENTING US WITH FAR MORE DISTRACTIONS THAN OUR ANCESTORS EVER HAD TO CONTEND WITH.”
  • 57. + 100 words + 4.4 seconds
  • 58. “SURFERS PERFORMED SIGNIFICANTLY POORER ON IMMEDIATE MEASURES OF MEMORY.... IT DIDN’T MATTER WHETHER THEY SURFED INFORMATION RELATED TO THE LECTURE OR COMPLETELY UNRELATED CONTENT.”
  • 59. SWIMMINGINTHESHALLOWS
  • 60. “[T]HE NET DELIVERS PRECISELY THE KIND OF SENSORY AND COGNITIVE STIMULI— REPETITIVE, INTENSIVE, INTERACTIVE, ADDICTIVE—THAT HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO RESULT IN STRONG AND RAPID ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN CIRCUITS AND FUNCTIONS.”
  • 61. “A MIND CONSUMED WITH A MEDIUM”
  • 62. “FREQUENT INTERRUPTIONS SCATTER OUR THOUGHTS, WEAKEN OUR MEMORY, AND MAKE US TENSE AND ANXIOUS.”
  • 63. STM vs LTM
  • 64. STM vs LTM
  • 65. > HIGH “COGNITIVE LOAD”
  • 66. re: Erping Zhu, Researcher “COMPREHENSION DECLINED AS THE NUMBER OF [HYPER-] LINKS INCREASED. READERS WERE FORCED TO DEVOTE MORE AND MORE OF THEIR ATTENTION AND BRAIN POWER TO EVALUATING THE LINKS AND DECIDING WHETHER TO CLICK ON THEM.”
  • 67. “COMPREHENSION DECLINED AS THE NUMBER OF [HYPER-] LINKS INCREASED. READERS WERE FORCED TO DEVOTE MORE AND MORE OF THEIR ATTENTION AND BRAIN POWER TO EVALUATING THE LINKS AND DECIDING WHETHER TO CLICK ON THEM.”
  • 68. WHAT WILL YOU DECIDE?
  • 69. “‘Learning how to think’ really means learning how to exercise some control over how and what you think. It means being conscious and aware enough to choose what you pay attention to and to choose how you will construct meaning from experience.” — David Foster Wallace
  • 70. • “The Machine is Us/ing Us”: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=NLlGopyXT_g • Ancient Map: http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/2006/09/20/ knMAPS_main,0.jpg • Clock: http://www.clockguy.com/SiteRelated/SiteGraphics/RefGraphics/ BallWatchCo/BallWatchGalleryClock.jpg • Book: http://woodtyper.com/wp/uploads/2009/09/gutenberg initial.jpg • Projector: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/ Film_projector3.jpg • Lecture hall: http://gep.ub.fu berlin.de/wordpress/wp content/uploads/
  • 71. • Neuron: http://www.psywww.com/intropsych/ ch02_human_nervous_system/02classicneuron.jpg • Violin player: http://bolstablog.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/joshua bell.jpg • Piano keys: http://www.leepianoservice.com/images/keys.jpg • London taxi: http://lh3.ggpht.com/_4855HSQdFrw/StQJ6JuehDI/ AAAAAAAAD48/lMmWHV5rQtw/London Taxi+Driver.JPG • Brain diagram: http://www.sharpbrains.com/wp content/uploads/ 2008/06/sfo limbic brain with labels.JPG • Hippocampus detail: http://www.bmj.com/content/334/7597/789/
  • 72. • Pocket watch: http://retrothing.typepad.com/.a/ 6a00d83452989a69e201156f31b940970c 800wi • Rubber band: http://healthylifecarenews.com/wp content/uploads/ 2010/11/Rubber band.jpg • Horse and plow: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevor dennis/ 2520284728/sizes/o/in/photostream/ • Fighter jet: http://www.flickr.com/photos/vermininc/3360111818/sizes/ l/in/photostream/ • Microscope: http://www.tri nitro.com/images/gallery_images/ microscope.png • Dam: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dirgon/572421488/sizes/o/in/ photostream/
  • 73. • Birth control pills: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stacylynn/ 2480078234/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Geiger counter: http://www.flickr.com/photos/redfiremg/3952257530/ sizes/o/in/photostream/ • Typewriter: http://www.flickr.com/photos/olivander/3770350264/sizes/z/ in/photostream/ • Sextant: http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/images/560/F/51/ F5183 001.jpg • Newspaper: http://thecreativepunk.familylife.ws/blog/wp content/ uploads/2010/07/newspaper_sxc.jpg • School: http://lincoln.d303.org/Portals/7/Lincoln%20School %20Drawing.jpg
  • 74. • Computer: http://oasisgrace.com/dev/wp content/uploads/2009/09/ computer.jpg • Books: http://www.k state.edu/womenscenter/Violencework %20Advocacy/Womens%20Center%20Materials/Materials/Images/ Literature3.jpg • Old phone: http://www.flickr.com/photos/esparta/2697847277/sizes/o/ in/photostream/ • Lima: http://farm4.static.flickr.com 3346/3521309429_9dd061aae2_b.jpg • Cortez: http://www.aoc.gov/cc/photo gallery/images/cortez_71172_2.jpg • Wax tablet: http://www.christianimageresource.org/images/ wax_tablets_stylus.jpg
  • 75. • Papyrus: http://www.yourdictionary.com/images/articles/lg/ 954.PaperScroll.jpg • Codex: http://www.n4hccs.org/projects/communications/youthpages/ TimeTravel/codex.jpg • Socrates: http://www.pima.gov/publicdefender/Assets/Images/Misc %20Images/Paintings/socrates.jpg • St. Ambrose: http://ericsammons.com/blog/wp content/uploads/ 2010/12/ambrose.jpg • Lion and Savannah: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/ kjxR1XS0gxE/ TbBclld4pdI/AAAAAAAAErg/LTrakk366m0/s1600/african cats 055.jpg • “Lost”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/qwrrty/2100913578/sizes/l/in/ photostream/
  • 76. • Revision: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/2756494307/sizes/l/ in/photostream/ • Gutenberg’s Letterpress: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wilhei/ 109404349/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Text on Screen: http://www.flickr.com/photos/altemark/1598056760/ sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Evolution Web 1.0, Web 2.0 to Web 3.0: http://youtu.be/bsNcjya56v8 • Television: http://neversixfeetunder.synthasite.com/resources/ fuzzy20tv20screen20.jpg • Cell Phone Screen: http://hotcellularphone.com/wp content/uploads/
  • 77. • iMac Screen: http://www.sweetwater.com/images/items/1800/ iMac24MDP26 xlarge.jpg • Google logo: http://pcmguy.com/wp content/uploads/2010/09/google logo.jpg • Losing the Forest (for the trees): http://www.flickr.com/photos/andywon/ 3315505901/in/photostream/ • iPad 2: http://www.cnet.co.uk/i/c/blg/cat/laptops/ipad 2 uk price.jpg • Kindle DX: http://www.geek.com/wp content/uploads/2009/05/ kindledx.jpg • The Filter Bubble: http://www.progressivereader.com/wp content/
  • 78. • Blackberry: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stephangeyer/3501272881/ sizes/o/in/photostream/ • Bathtub: http://www.americanhomeplus.com/Product/Main/ AmericanBathFactory/T150B WH.jpg • Faucet: http://www.tubz.com/images/Barclay/4022.jpg • Thimble: http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/fatbob/fatbob0808/ fatbob080800018/3486003 old thimble on white background.jpg • “Blissed out ambient loop”: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=HMFYOUEZq3s • “Skylight Facing Myself”: Crashed By Car (Fictions & Fires EP)
  • 79. • Wristwatch (“meeting”): http://www.flickr.com/photos/poolie/ 2250698836/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • The Thinker: http://jlinder.com/resources/photo/2008/2008.10.30.jpg • Girl on laptop: http://www.babble.com/CS/blogs/strollerderby/girl%20on %20comp..jpg • Palm Pilot: http://www.123print.com/Designs/100095/Palm Pilot 10009567 SB.jpg • Gutenberg Bible: http://www.flickr.com/photos/benjamingolub/ 5203602006/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • Google Books, “What’s the Issue?”: http://books.google.com/