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Copyright And Fair Use

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Intended for Educators and Students. Edited version of a presentation given at the NICE (Northern Illinois Computing Educators) Conference in February, 2009.

Intended for Educators and Students. Edited version of a presentation given at the NICE (Northern Illinois Computing Educators) Conference in February, 2009.

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  • 1. Copyright and Fair Use BEST PRACTICES for TEACHERS & STUDENTS Spiro Bolos New Trier High School boloss@newtrier.k12.il.us
  • 2. “We’re changing what it would mean to be a creator just at the time that technology is enabling anybody to be a creator. So, just when it matters most, the law steps in and destroys the opportunity...” — Prof. Lawrence Lessig
  • 3. ? ?
  • 4. !quot;#$%%&'()*'*#+'(,' -,.&/quot;0)(' -,#123quot;,#')$3' $//quot;4*+ !2#+*+'5&'()*'6,)#'78'9'':$()*/quot;#*';8'<$-=/()2/'!,2#+$(quot;,#
  • 5. COORDINATORS
  • 6. • The Media Education Lab (Renee Hobbs, Temple University) • The Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property (Peter Jaszi, Washington College of Law: American University) • The Center for Social Media (Patricia Aufderheide, School of Communication: American University)
  • 7. SIGNATORIES
  • 8. • Action Coalition for Media Education • Media Education Foundation • National Association for Media Literacy Education • National Council of Teachers of English • Visual Communication Studies Division of the International Communication Association
  • 9. LEGAL ADVISORY BOARD
  • 10. • Jamie B. Bischoff • Robert W. Clarida • Kenneth D. Crews • Michael J. Madison • Jennifer Urban
  • 11. FUNDED BY: The MacArthur and Ford Foundations
  • 12. What is copyright?
  • 13. “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries” (section 8).
  • 14. What is fair use?
  • 15. “Fair use is the right to use copyrighted material without permission or payment under some circumstances — especially when the cultural or social benefits of the use are predominant” (1; emphasis added).
  • 16. “In fact, as the Supreme Court has pointed out, fair use keeps copyright from violating the First Amendment” (5).
  • 17. The Four Factors 1. The Nature of the Use 2. The Nature of the Work Used 3. The Extent of the Use 4. Its Economic Impact (6)
  • 18. Professor Eric Faden, Bucknell University “A Fair(y) Use Tale”
  • 19. “...a flexibility that works to the advantage of users” (6).
  • 20. COMMON MYTHS
  • 21. “Fair use is too unclear and complicated for me; it’s better left to lawyers and administrators.”
  • 22. “Educators know best what they need to use of existing copyrighted culture to construct their own lessons and materials....Once they know, they can tell their lawyers and administrators” (15; emphasis added).
  • 23. “Educators can rely on ‘rules of thumb’ for fair use guidance.”
  • 24. “The guidelines are negotiated resolutions of conflicts regarding fair use, and yet they are often presented as standards to which one must adhere in order to remain within the law.” — Kenneth Crews “The Law of Fair Use and the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines”
  • 25. “...in fact the guidelines bear little relationship, if any, to the law of fair use” (emphasis added).
  • 26. these guidelines were quot;not intended to limit the types of copying permitted under the standards of fair use under judicial decision and which are stated in Section 107 of the Copyright Revision Bill. There may be instances in which copying which does not fall within the guidelines stated [above] may nonetheless be permitted under the criterion of fair use.quot;
  • 27. “Rather than following a specific formula, lawyers and judges decide whether an unlicensed use of copyrighted material is ‘fair’ according to the ‘rule of reason’” (6; emphasis added).
  • 28. “School system rules are the last word of fair use by educators.”
  • 29. “[I]f you need to exercise your fair use rights to get your work done well, in ways your system’s rules don’t foresee...the code may help you change the rules!” (15)
  • 30. “Fair use is just for critiques, commentaries or parodies.”
  • 31. “Transformativeness, a key value in fair use law, can involve modifying material or putting material in a new context, or both” (15; emphasis added).
  • 32. “If I’m not making any money off it, it’s fair use.”
  • 33. “...some more public uses may be unfair even if no money is exchanged” (16; emphasis added).
  • 34. “Employing fair use is too much trouble; I don’t want to fill out any forms.”
  • 35. ...
  • 36. “But, if you choose, you may...still claim fair use if your request is refused or ignored. In some cases, courts have found that asking permission and then being rejected has actually enhanced fair use claims” (16).
  • 37. “Fair use could get me sued.”
  • 38. 1. “That’s very, very unlikely” (17) 2. “Cease and Desist” letter
  • 39. Case Studies Seeking Repurposing Angry Email Permission Google Images Response 4:49 5:49 5:04
  • 40. Best Practices 1. The use of the copyrighted work is transformative. 2. The kind and the amount of the copyrighted work used is appropriate to accomplish the legitimate purpose. 3. The author of the copyrighted work is cited, whenever possible.
  • 41. All forms of media
  • 42. print
  • 43. images
  • 44. web sites
  • 45. moving-image media
  • 46. sound media WNYC’s
  • 47. analog
  • 48. digital
  • 49. newspaper clippings = digital files
  • 50. However...
  • 51. “When a user’s copy was obtained illegally or in bad faith, that fact may affect fair use analysis.” (9)
  • 52. SOURCE = irrelevant
  • 53. Recorded over-the-air broadcast
  • 54. Personal copy of newspaper
  • 55. Personal DVD
  • 56. Rented media
  • 57. Borrowed media
  • 58. Labels = irrelevant
  • 59. eg., “licensed for home [or private or educational or noncommercial] use only”
  • 60. Thanks.
  • 61. www.mediaeducationlab.com www.centerforsocialmedia.org spirobolos.blogspot.com
  • 62. • Copyright Criminals: http:// www.copyrightcriminals.com • “Copyright and Fair Use Guidelines for Teachers”: http://www.halldavidson.net/ chartshort.html • Creative Commons Logos: http:// www.creativecommons.se/images/ highquality.jpg
  • 63. • Supreme Court: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/vgm8383/2044910536/ • U.S. Constitution: http://www.archives.gov/ exhibits/charters/charters_downloads.html • Courtroom Gavel: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/63126465@N00/117048243 • Flexibility: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ khalid-almasoud/474399662/
  • 64. • Robin Williams: http://images.starpulse.com/ Photos/Previews/Dead-Poets-Society-04.jpg • Edward James Olmos: http:// pantskicker.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2008/01/0standanddeliverbwcrop.jpg • Michelle Pfeiffer: http:// images.allmoviephoto.com/ 1995_Dangerous_Minds/ 1995_Dangerous_Minds_036.jpg
  • 65. • The Wire: http://www.hbo.com/thewire/img/ episodeguide/season04/ep38_04.jpg • Hilary Swank: http:// www.independentcritics.com/images/ freedom%20writers%20SPLASH.jpg • Kevin Kline: http://videodetective.com/ photos/633/026626_27.jpg
  • 66. • Jack Black: http://fraser.typepad.com/ a_girl_a_gun/images/ School_of_Rock_01.jpg • Kindergarten Cop: http:// i153.photobucket.com/albums/s229/ longjohnjohn05/arnold1.jpg • Crews, Kenneth: “The Law of Fair Use and the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines,” The Ohio State Law Journal 62 (2001): 602–700
  • 67. • Parthenon Detail Replica: http:// www.flickr.com/photos/brent_nashville/ 2455550267/ • “in y’own mix”: ∫pirøbølo∫, Copyright Criminals Contest. http://ccmixter.org/ copyrightcriminals/people/spirobolos • “The Next Step”: Trifonic, Copyright Criminals Contest. http://ccmixter.org/files/ trifonic/4163
  • 68. • Time Magazine (Obama cover): http:// www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/ 3142216126/sizes/l/ • Reel-to-reel: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ dmitry/531285082/ • “HITECH” photo: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/tsevis/2282944393/in/ set-72157608680934688
  • 69. • “Klutz Clippings”: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/tantrum_dan/2344581860/ • “VHS’sss”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 33917831@N00/1018612301/ • Newspaper article: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/44789431@N00/52308403/ • DVDs: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 23327787@N08/2348565675/
  • 70. • Blockbuster Video: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/40736030@N00/51415142/ • Yo-Yo Ma: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 21651009@N00/2606693331/ • Apollo 13 DVD: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/clith/153418933/ • Pirate: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 83135223@N00/285200741/