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Beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement

Beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement






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    Beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement Beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement Presentation Transcript

    • The Civil Rights Movement …beginnings
    • “I am an “invisible man. “No, I am not a spook like those who “ haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I “ one of your Hollywood ectoplasms.
    • I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, and liquids, and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me…. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination — indeed, everything and anything except me.
    • Nor is my invisibility exactly a matter of biochemical accident to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come into contact. A matter of construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality.
    • I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then, too, you’re constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
    • You wonder whether you aren’t simply a phantom in other people’s minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy.
    • It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
    • It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
    • 2 Questions
    • 2 Stories
    • Ultimate Causes?
    • Proximate Causes?
    • CRM ! MLK
    • <1>
    • Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change
    • Ideological shifts
    • Liberal Environmentalism
    • Nazi ideology
    • 1948
    • Cold War Competition
    • Migration
    • > North, > cities
    • 89% (80% rural) S 1910
    • >80% (urban) 1970s
    • Why?
    • 50% 1960
    • Urban power base
    • Af-Am Church
    • Af-Am Church
    • Af-Am Colleges
    • Af-Am High Schools
    • Af-Am High Schools
    • Af-Am High Schools
    • Af-Am High Schools
    • Af-Am High Schools
    • 15,000 1930
    • 75,000 1950
    • Protest Organizations
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples
    • Thurgood Marshall
    • Economic Growth
    • United Negro College Fund
    • Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
    • majority Northerners
    • 20% ers ern uth So
    • Today I have stood…from this Cradle of the Confederacy, this very Heart of the Great AngloSaxon Southland, that today we sound the drum for freedom as have our generations of forebears before us done, time and time again through history…
    • Let us…send our answer to the tyranny that clanks its chains upon the South. In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust …and I say . . . segregation today . . . segregation tomorrow . . . segregation forever.
    • “They [white southerners] are not bad people. All they are concerned about is…that their sweet little girls are not required to sit in school alongside some big overgrown Negroes.”
    • </1>
    • <2>
    • Proximate: AntiSegregation Tactics
    • “I know the one thing we did right Was the day we started to fight. Keep your eyes on the prize, Hold on, hold on.”
    • Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • Rosa Parks
    • Women’s Political Council
    • SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Council
    • 381 days
    • “unConstitutional” Alabama, 1956
    • CORE Congress of Racial Equality
    • “Freedom Rides”
    • SNCC: Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
    • </2>
    • <3>
    • RESULTS: Legislative Triumph
    • Civil Rights Act 1964
    • Voting Rights Act 1965
    • 36% registered 1964
    • 65% registered 1969
    • 300 black mayors 1965
    • 300 black mayors 1980
    • 72 black reps 1965
    • 4200 black reps 1987
    • </3>
    • “We had breakfast while we were waiting for the rain to stop, and I [was] sitting with the [Indianapolis] Clowns in a restaurant behind Griffith Stadium and hearing them break all the plates in the kitchen after we were finished eating. What a horrible sound.
    • Even as a kid, the irony of it hit me: here we were in the capital in the land of freedom and equality, and they had to destroy the plates that had touched the forks that had been in the mouths of black men. If dogs had eaten off those plates, they’d have washed them.”
    • “There was often a hate letter or two in the mail, and I was always concerned about Barbara and the kids being abused when they went to the ballpark…. Returning to the South took some of the boy from Mobile out of me, and replaced it with a man who was weary of the way things were.
    • I was tired of being invisible.
    • “I was the equal of any ballplayer in the world, damn it, and if nobody was going to give me my due, it was time to grab for it.” – Henry Aaron