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CP5.2-electrons

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    CP5.2-electrons CP5.2-electrons Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 5: Electrons in Atoms
      Section 2:Electron Arrangement in Atoms
    • Apply the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund’s Rule to generate electron configurations and spin diagrams;
      Explain that there can be exceptions to the normal rules for electron configurations; and
      Draw modified Bohr diagrams for atoms
      Student will be able to:
    • Electron’s address
      Energy level
      Sublevel
      Orbital
      Spin
      Where do electrons live?
      • Your address
      • State
      • Town
      • Street
      • House
      Need a system for electron addresses...
    • Energy levels are numbered(1, 2, 3...)
      Each energy level adds one more sublevel (letters)
      Each sublevel adds two more orbitals
      Sublevels and orbitals
    • Sublevels addressed by the number of their energy level and letter of sublevel
      Example: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d
      Still two more parts to address (orbital and spin)...
      Electron configuration: arrangement of electrons in an atom in its ground state
      Orbital diagram: illustrates arrangement and spin of electrons
      Keeping track of all the sublevels
    • Aufbau principle: electrons occupy orbitals of lowest energy first
      Electrons (like some students) are lazy
      Orbitals in same sublevel are same energy
      Rules for Electron Configurations
    • Pauli Exclusion Principle
      Orbital can hold maximum of two electrons
      (Two per seat on the bus)
      If two electrons in an orbital, must be opposite spins
      Two possible spins: up and down
      Rules for Electron Configurations
    • Hunds Rule
      Orbitalsin same sublevel are same energy
      Electrons fill orbitals of same energy so they maximize same spin
      Students don’t pair up in a seat until they have to
      Rules for electron configurations
    • One electron for every proton
      Periodic table arranged by atomic number
      Typewriter method: start at H, read left to right, and stop at the element you’re configuring
      Putting the rules to use...
    • Further down the table...
      La starts 4f sublevel
      Comes after 6s and before 5d
      Lu is actually 5d1
      Ac starts 5f sublevel
      Comes after 7s and before 6d
      Lr is actually 6d1
      Try some...
    • There are exceptions to the normal rules for electron configurations
      Based on stability
      Just know that they exist, not how to do them
      Just when you learn the rules...
    • Atom drawn with nucleus in center and one ring for each energy level
      Electrons drawn as dots on the rings
      Example: S
      1s2, one ring, 2 dots
      2s2, 2p6, one ring, 8 dots
      3s2, 3p4, one ring, 6 dots
      Bohr Diagrams
    • Group electrons by sublevels
      Show spins
      Example: S
      1s2
      one ring, 2 arrows paired
      2s2, 2p6
      one ring, 2 arrows paired (s), 6 arrows paired (p)
      3s2, 3p4
      One ring, two arrows paired (s) four arrows with two paired (p)
      “Modified” Bohr Diagrams
      16 p
      16n
    • Apply the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund’s Rule to generate electron configurations and spin diagrams?
      Explain that there can be exceptions to the normal rules for electron configurations?
      Draw modified Bohr diagrams for atoms?
      Can you…?
    • Page 135 & 136, 8-13
      Homework