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Wind Energy Systems in the Urban Landscape
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Wind Energy Systems in the Urban Landscape

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Presentation on Wind Energy Systems in the urban Landscape, presented to the SoCal ASHRAE Chapter.

Presentation on Wind Energy Systems in the urban Landscape, presented to the SoCal ASHRAE Chapter.

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  • 1. Small Wind in Buildings and Urban Developments Carlos Ortiz Arup Energy Los Angeles, CA
  • 2. From: Portland Center Stages productionThe History (and Mystery) of the UniverseBased on the life of R. Buckminster Fuller
  • 3. New York Times, 17 January 1974
  • 4. New York Times, 17 January 1974 “Wind power is in a class by itself as the greatest terrestrial medium forharvesting, harnessing and conserving solar energy. The water and air waves circulating around our planet are unsurpassed energy accumulators whosecaptured energy may be used to generate electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic power systems.” Buckminster Fuller New York Times, 17, January, 1974
  • 5. 20,000 MW Installed Capacity • Producing enough electricity to serve 5.3 million American homes or power a fleet of more than 1 million plug-in hybrid vehicles. Source: AWEA / Photography: Iberdrola Renewable Energies USA/PPL Corp.
  • 6. 20% of Energy fromWind by 2030
  • 7. Major Challenges:“Investment in the nation’s transmission system so the power generated is delivered to urban centers that need the increasing supply. Continued reduction in wind capital cost and improvement in turbine performance through technology advancement and improved manufacturing capabilities.” DOE 20% Wind Energy by 2030 May 2008
  • 8. Cumulative Installed Wind Capacity Source: AWEA
  • 9. Cumulative Installed Wind Capacity Production Tax Credit (PTC) expired 3 times in Seven years Source: AWEA
  • 10. Wind Energy 101
  • 11. What is Wind Energy?Source: NASA
  • 12. Mandatory Textbook Slide
  • 13. Betz LawPhotographs: Danish Wind Industry Association
  • 14. Maximum Energy Attainable  8  P max =   * ρ * A * v 3  27  •Density of Air •Swept Area of Turbine •Cube of Wind speed
  • 15. Betz Law Image: Danish Wind Industry Association
  • 16. Power CurvesImage: Arup• Gamesa G80-2 MW Power Curve
  • 17. Wind Distribution Image: Arup
  • 18. Wind Distribution Translation Image: Arup
  • 19. Distributed Generation Photograph: ArupPhotograph: Arup Photograph: Arup
  • 20. Distributed Generation• The Bureaucrat Photograph: Arup
  • 21. Distributed Generation• The Workaholic Photograph: Arup
  • 22. Distributed Generation• The Artist Photograph: Arup
  • 23. Technical Challenges • Noise • Vibrations • Structural Integrity • Shadow Flicker • Low Capacity Factors
  • 24. Risk Matrix Arup
  • 25. Risk Management Strategies • Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Program • Corrective Maintenance Response Program • Diagnosis / Failure Detection System • Turbine Locking System • Fire Extinguishing System
  • 26. Liability Chart Negligible Liability. Considerably less than the cost of the wind energy investment. Limited Liability. Up to the cost of the wind energy investment. Unlimited Liability. From the cost of the wind energy investment to unlimited liability.
  • 27. Wind flow2D CFD model Arup, 2007
  • 28. Arup, 2007
  • 29. HAWTPhotography: Richard Drew, Arup, Jan 2005
  • 30. VAWT Photographs: Quiet Revolution CO, UK
  • 31. Axial Fan Photographs: Windside
  • 32. The Energy Question
  • 33. Economic Growth and Energy Use
  • 34. Energy Demand on the Rise
  • 35. Made by Khebab of The Oil Drum
  • 36. DongtanArup, 2007
  • 37. Arup, 2007
  • 38. The 70’s Energy Crisis
  • 39. The 70’s Energy Crisis Cover of Mechanix Illustrated, November 1975
  • 40. The 70’s Energy Crisis Dermont McGuigan, Small Scale Wind Power, 1978
  • 41. New York Energy Task Force, 1977
  • 42. Arup
  • 43. Lebost Wind Turbine From: “The Lebost wind Turbine Experimental Program at New York University” (Department of Applied Science, NYU, 1980)
  • 44. Lebost Wind Turbine Photograph: Jon Naar
  • 45. Lebost Wind Turbine“This report details the results of an experimental field test/evaluation of a 20-foot diameter Lebost turbine. One conclusion of the study is that the turbine lends itself rather well to urban applications, as well as other applications.” “Lebost wind turbine experimental program” New York Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Applied Science May 1, 1980 Photograph: Jon Naar
  • 46. Travis Price &The Wind Farmers of East 11th Street, NYC Photograph: Jon Naar / The New York TimesPhotograph: D. Gorton/The New York Times, 1977
  • 47. Photograph: Jon Naar
  • 48. “The energy commission essentially said to Con Ed, ‘You’ve got to buy their power’,” Mr. Norris said. “That was huge.” By Josh Weil Published: August 3, 2008 The New York TimesPhotograph: Jon Naar
  • 49. “But the turbine never worked well enough to provide power for the entire building, which, by 1977 or so, was home to 25 or 30 people. Either wind speeds were too low to generate to get a charge from Con Ed, the windmill provided insufficient power. Still, until 1985, when a blade was blown off during a hurricane, the windmill produced enough power to light communal areas and heat water. For the next twodecades or so, its remnants jutted into the sky until, sometime in the last few years, the tower was dismantled. sufficient power or turbulence from gusts produced a deafening noise from the windmill and caused the building to shake. Moreover,during the major blackout in 1977, unable to get a charge from Con Ed the windmill provided insufficient power.” By Josh Weil Published: August 3, 2008 The New York Times Photograph: Jon Naar
  • 50. The 00’s Energy & Environmental Crisis /Global Warming and Energy Security
  • 51. Photograph: The Inconvenient Truth
  • 52. The Green Boom
  • 53. Arups VAWTEXMike Rainbow
  • 54. Lo-Fi Wind Tunnel Photograph: Arup, 2002
  • 55. Mike Rainbow Photograph: Arup, 2002
  • 56. Bahrain World Trade Center Photograph: Sami T
  • 57. Bahrain’s Wind DistributionArup
  • 58. Discovery Tower(Houston Texas) •Gensler •Arup •CPP Image: Gensler
  • 59. CPP, 2007
  • 60. CPP, 2007
  • 61. CPP, 2007
  • 62. Gensler
  • 63. Gensler
  • 64. Gensler
  • 65. My Conclusions: 1. Capital Cost of small wind turbines must reduce dramatically if they are to provide good economic returns. 2. Technical challenges exist but none that can not be conquered. Good design and risk management strategies are a must. 3. Real energy benefits can be achieved by mass installations in combination with resource management schemes. 4. Overboard fancy engineering / building integration costs can kill the benefits of BIWT.
  • 66. Any Questions?
  • 67. Except for that one