CHAPTER                        16Thermodynamics ofHigh-Speed Gas Flow
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-1Steady flow of a fl...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-3The actual state, a...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-4The properties of a...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-516-4
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-7Propagation of a sm...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-8Control volumemovin...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-9The velocity ofsoun...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-10The Mach number ca...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-14The cross section ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-15Derivation of thed...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-16We cannot obtainsu...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-17Variation of flowp...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-18When Mt = 1, thepr...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-20The effect of back...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-21The effect of back...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-22The variation ofth...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-26The effects ofback...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-28Control volumefor ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-29The h-s diagramfor...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-31Entropy changeacro...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-33Isentropic andactu...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-35Schematic and h-sd...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-37The h-s diagramfor...
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Cengel ch16

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Cengel ch16

  1. 1. CHAPTER 16Thermodynamics ofHigh-Speed Gas Flow
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-1Steady flow of a fluidthrough an adiabaticduct.16-1
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-3The actual state, actualstagnation state, andisentropic stagnationstate of a fluid on an h-sdiagram.16-2
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-4The properties of ahigh-speed fluidchange significantlyduring an adiabaticstagnation process(values from Example16–1).16-3
  5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-516-4
  6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-7Propagation of a small pressurewave along a duct.16-5
  7. 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-8Control volumemoving with the smallpressure wave along aduct.16-6
  8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-9The velocity ofsound changes withtemperature.16-7
  9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-10The Mach number can bedifferent at differenttemperatures even if thevelocity is the same.16-8
  10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-14The cross section of anozzle at the smallestflow area is called thethroat.16-9
  11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-15Derivation of thedifferential form of theenergy equation for steadyisentropic flow.16-10
  12. 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-16We cannot obtainsupersonic velocitiesby attaching aconverging sectionto a convergingnozzle. Doing so willonly move the soniccross section fartherdownstream.16-11
  13. 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-17Variation of flowproperties in subsonicand supersonic nozzlesand diffusers.16-12
  14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-18When Mt = 1, theproperties atthe nozzle throatbecome thecritical properties.16-13
  15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-20The effect of backpressure on thepressure distributionalong a convergingnozzle.16-14
  16. 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-21The effect of backpressure Pb on themass flow rate m andthe exit pressure Peof a convergingnozzle.16-15
  17. 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-22The variation ofthe mass flowrate through anozzle with inletstagnationproperties.16-16
  18. 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-26The effects ofback pressure onthe flow througha converging–diverging nozzle.16-17
  19. 19. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-28Control volumefor flow across ashock wave.16-18
  20. 20. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-29The h-s diagramfor flow across anormal shock.16-19
  21. 21. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-31Entropy changeacross thenormal shock.16-20
  22. 22. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-33Isentropic andactual(irreversible)flow in a nozzlebetween the sameinlet state andthe exit pressure.16-21
  23. 23. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-35Schematic and h-sdiagram for thedefinition of thediffuser efficiency.16-22
  24. 24. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 16-37The h-s diagramfor the isentropicexpansion ofsteam in a nozzle.16-23

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