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CHAPTER                       14Chemical Reactions
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-1Most liquidhydrocar...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-3Each kmol of O2 in ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-5The mass (and numbe...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-8A combustion proces...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-9The complete combus...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-10Determining the mo...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-14The microscopicfor...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-16The formation of C...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-17The enthalpy ofcom...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-18The enthalpy of fo...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-19The higher heating...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-21The enthalpy of a ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-25The temperature of...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-28The entropy change...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-29At a specifiedtemp...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-30The differencebetw...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-35The availability o...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-36The operation of a...
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Cengel ch14

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Transcript of "Cengel ch14"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14Chemical Reactions
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-1Most liquidhydrocarbon fuelsare obtained fromcrude oil bydistillation.14-1
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-3Each kmol of O2 in air isaccompanied by 3.76kmol of N2 .14-2
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-5The mass (and number ofatoms) of each element isconserved during achemical reaction.14-3
  5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-8A combustion process iscomplete if all thecombustible components ofthe fuel are burned tocompletion.14-4
  6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-9The complete combustionprocess with no free oxygenin the products is calledtheoretical combustion.14-5
  7. 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-10Determining the mole fractionof the CO2 in combustion gasesby using the Orsat gas analyzer.14-6
  8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-14The microscopicform of energy of asubstance consists ofsensible, latent,chemical, andnuclear energies.14-7
  9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-16The formation of CO2during a steady-flowcombustion process at25°C and 1 atm.14-8
  10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-17The enthalpy ofcombustion represents theamount of energy releasedas a fuel is burned during asteady-flow process at aspecified state.14-9
  11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-18The enthalpy of formation of acompound represents theamount of energy absorbed orreleased as the component isformed from its stable elementsduring a steady-flow process ata specified state.14-10
  12. 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-19The higher heatingvalue of a fuel is equalto the sum of the lowerheating value of the fueland the latent heat ofvaporization of the H2Oin the products.14-11
  13. 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-21The enthalpy of a chemicalcomponent at a specified stateis the sum of the enthalpy ofthe component at 25°C, 1atm (h° f ), and the sensibleenthalpy of the componentrelative to 25°C, 1 atm.14-12
  14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-25The temperature of acombustion chamber will bemaximum when combustion iscomplete and no heat is lost tothe surroundings (Q = 0).14-13
  15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-28The entropy changeassociated with achemical reaction.14-14
  16. 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-29At a specifiedtemperature, theabsolute entropy ofan ideal gas atpressures otherthan P0 = 1 atm canbe determined bysubtracting R ln(P/P0 ) from thetabulated value at1 atm.14-15
  17. 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-30The differencebetween theavailability of thereactants and of theproducts during achemical reaction isthe reversible workassociated with thatreaction.14-16
  18. 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-35The availability ofmethane decreases by 35percent as a result ofirreversible combustionprocess.14-17
  19. 19. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 14-36The operation of ahydrogen–oxygen fuelcell.14-18
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