CHAPTER                 12Gas Mixtures
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-1The mass of amixtur...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-2The number of moles...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-3The sum of the mole...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-5Dalton’s law of add...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-6Amagat’s law ofaddi...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-7The volume a compon...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-8One way of predicti...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-9Another way ofpredi...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-13Partial pressures ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-16It is difficult to...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-18For a puresubstanc...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-20The specific volum...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-21For a naturallyocc...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-22Under reversibleco...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-23The minimum workre...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-24The osmoticpressur...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-25Power can be produ...
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Cengel ch12

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Cengel ch12

  1. 1. CHAPTER 12Gas Mixtures
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-1The mass of amixture is equal tothe sum of the massesof its components.12-1
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-2The number of moles ofa nonreacting mixture isequal to the sum of thenumber of moles of itscomponents.12-2
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-3The sum of the molefractions of a mixture isequal to 1.12-3
  5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-5Dalton’s law of additivepressures for a mixtureof two ideal gases.12-4
  6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-6Amagat’s law ofadditive volumesfor a mixture oftwo ideal gases.12-5
  7. 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-7The volume a componentwould occupy if it existedalone at the mixture T and Pis called the componentvolume (for ideal gases, it isequal to the partial volumeyiVm).12-6
  8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-8One way of predictingthe P-v-T behavior ofa real-gas mixture isto use compressibilityfactors.12-7
  9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-9Another way ofpredicting the P-v-Tbehavior of a real-gasmixture is to treat itas a pseudopuresubstance withcritical properties P′ crand T′ cr .12-8
  10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-13Partial pressures (not themixture pressure) are usedin the evaluation of entropychanges of ideal-gasmixtures.12-9
  11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-16It is difficult topredict the behaviorof nonideal-gasmixtures because ofthe influence ofdissimilar gasmolecules on eachother.12-10
  12. 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-18For a puresubstance, thechemical potential isequivalent to theGibbs function.12-11
  13. 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-20The specific volumeand enthalpy ofindividualcomponents do notchange duringmixing if they forman ideal solution(this is not the casefor entropy).12-12
  14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-21For a naturallyoccurring processduring which nowork is produced orconsumed, thereversible work isequal to the exergydestruction.12-13
  15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-22Under reversibleconditions, the workconsumed duringseparation is equalto the workproduced during thereverse process ofmixing.12-14
  16. 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-23The minimum workrequired to separatea two-componentmixture for the twolimiting cases.12-15
  17. 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-24The osmoticpressure and theosmotic rise of salinewater.12-16
  18. 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-25Power can be producedby mixing solutions ofdifferent concentrationsreversibly.12-17

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