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# Cengel ch12

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### Transcript

• 1. CHAPTER 12Gas Mixtures
• 2. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-1The mass of amixture is equal tothe sum of the massesof its components.12-1
• 3. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-2The number of moles ofa nonreacting mixture isequal to the sum of thenumber of moles of itscomponents.12-2
• 4. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-3The sum of the molefractions of a mixture isequal to 1.12-3
• 5. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-5Dalton&#x2019;s law of additivepressures for a mixtureof two ideal gases.12-4
• 6. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-6Amagat&#x2019;s law ofadditive volumesfor a mixture oftwo ideal gases.12-5
• 7. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-7The volume a componentwould occupy if it existedalone at the mixture T and Pis called the componentvolume (for ideal gases, it isequal to the partial volumeyiVm).12-6
• 8. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-8One way of predictingthe P-v-T behavior ofa real-gas mixture isto use compressibilityfactors.12-7
• 9. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-9Another way ofpredicting the P-v-Tbehavior of a real-gasmixture is to treat itas a pseudopuresubstance withcritical properties P&#x2032; crand T&#x2032; cr .12-8
• 10. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-13Partial pressures (not themixture pressure) are usedin the evaluation of entropychanges of ideal-gasmixtures.12-9
• 11. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-16It is difficult topredict the behaviorof nonideal-gasmixtures because ofthe influence ofdissimilar gasmolecules on eachother.12-10
• 12. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-18For a puresubstance, thechemical potential isequivalent to theGibbs function.12-11
• 13. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-20The specific volumeand enthalpy ofindividualcomponents do notchange duringmixing if they forman ideal solution(this is not the casefor entropy).12-12
• 14. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-21For a naturallyoccurring processduring which nowork is produced orconsumed, thereversible work isequal to the exergydestruction.12-13
• 15. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-22Under reversibleconditions, the workconsumed duringseparation is equalto the workproduced during thereverse process ofmixing.12-14
• 16. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-23The minimum workrequired to separatea two-componentmixture for the twolimiting cases.12-15
• 17. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-24The osmoticpressure and theosmotic rise of salinewater.12-16
• 18. Copyright &#xA9; The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-25Power can be producedby mixing solutions ofdifferent concentrationsreversibly.12-17