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# Cengel ch12

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### Cengel ch12

1. 1. CHAPTER 12Gas Mixtures
2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-1The mass of amixture is equal tothe sum of the massesof its components.12-1
3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-2The number of moles ofa nonreacting mixture isequal to the sum of thenumber of moles of itscomponents.12-2
4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-3The sum of the molefractions of a mixture isequal to 1.12-3
5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-5Dalton’s law of additivepressures for a mixtureof two ideal gases.12-4
6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-6Amagat’s law ofadditive volumesfor a mixture oftwo ideal gases.12-5
7. 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-7The volume a componentwould occupy if it existedalone at the mixture T and Pis called the componentvolume (for ideal gases, it isequal to the partial volumeyiVm).12-6
8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-8One way of predictingthe P-v-T behavior ofa real-gas mixture isto use compressibilityfactors.12-7
9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-9Another way ofpredicting the P-v-Tbehavior of a real-gasmixture is to treat itas a pseudopuresubstance withcritical properties P′ crand T′ cr .12-8
10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-13Partial pressures (not themixture pressure) are usedin the evaluation of entropychanges of ideal-gasmixtures.12-9
11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-16It is difficult topredict the behaviorof nonideal-gasmixtures because ofthe influence ofdissimilar gasmolecules on eachother.12-10
12. 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-18For a puresubstance, thechemical potential isequivalent to theGibbs function.12-11
13. 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-20The specific volumeand enthalpy ofindividualcomponents do notchange duringmixing if they forman ideal solution(this is not the casefor entropy).12-12
14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-21For a naturallyoccurring processduring which nowork is produced orconsumed, thereversible work isequal to the exergydestruction.12-13
15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-22Under reversibleconditions, the workconsumed duringseparation is equalto the workproduced during thereverse process ofmixing.12-14
16. 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-23The minimum workrequired to separatea two-componentmixture for the twolimiting cases.12-15
17. 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-24The osmoticpressure and theosmotic rise of salinewater.12-16
18. 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-25Power can be producedby mixing solutions ofdifferent concentrationsreversibly.12-17