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Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
Cengel ch12
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Cengel ch12

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  • 1. CHAPTER 12Gas Mixtures
  • 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-1The mass of amixture is equal tothe sum of the massesof its components.12-1
  • 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-2The number of moles ofa nonreacting mixture isequal to the sum of thenumber of moles of itscomponents.12-2
  • 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-3The sum of the molefractions of a mixture isequal to 1.12-3
  • 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-5Dalton’s law of additivepressures for a mixtureof two ideal gases.12-4
  • 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-6Amagat’s law ofadditive volumesfor a mixture oftwo ideal gases.12-5
  • 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-7The volume a componentwould occupy if it existedalone at the mixture T and Pis called the componentvolume (for ideal gases, it isequal to the partial volumeyiVm).12-6
  • 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-8One way of predictingthe P-v-T behavior ofa real-gas mixture isto use compressibilityfactors.12-7
  • 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-9Another way ofpredicting the P-v-Tbehavior of a real-gasmixture is to treat itas a pseudopuresubstance withcritical properties P′ crand T′ cr .12-8
  • 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-13Partial pressures (not themixture pressure) are usedin the evaluation of entropychanges of ideal-gasmixtures.12-9
  • 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-16It is difficult topredict the behaviorof nonideal-gasmixtures because ofthe influence ofdissimilar gasmolecules on eachother.12-10
  • 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-18For a puresubstance, thechemical potential isequivalent to theGibbs function.12-11
  • 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-20The specific volumeand enthalpy ofindividualcomponents do notchange duringmixing if they forman ideal solution(this is not the casefor entropy).12-12
  • 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-21For a naturallyoccurring processduring which nowork is produced orconsumed, thereversible work isequal to the exergydestruction.12-13
  • 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-22Under reversibleconditions, the workconsumed duringseparation is equalto the workproduced during thereverse process ofmixing.12-14
  • 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-23The minimum workrequired to separatea two-componentmixture for the twolimiting cases.12-15
  • 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-24The osmoticpressure and theosmotic rise of salinewater.12-16
  • 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 12-25Power can be producedby mixing solutions ofdifferent concentrationsreversibly.12-17

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