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  • 1. CHAPTER 5The Second Law ofThermodynamics
  • 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-9Part of the heat received by aheat engine is converted towork, while the rest is rejectedto a sink.5-1
  • 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-10Schematic of a steam powerplant.5-2
  • 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-14Schematic of a heatengine.5-3
  • 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-16A heat-engine cycle cannot becompleted without rejecting someheat to a low-temperature sink.5-4
  • 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-23The efficiency of a cookingappliance represents thefraction of the energysupplied to the appliancethat is transferred to thefood.5-5
  • 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-25Basic componentsof a refrigerationsystem and typicaloperatingconditions.5-6
  • 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-26The objective of arefrigerator is to removeQL from the cooled space.5-7
  • 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-27The objective of a heatpump is to supply heatQH into the warmerspace.5-8
  • 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-33Proof that the violation of theKelvin-Planck statement leads tothe violation of the Clausiusstatement.5-9
  • 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-34A perpetual-motion machinethat violates the first law ofthermodynamics (PMM1).5-10
  • 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-43Execution of the Carnotcycle in a closed system.5-11
  • 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-44P-V diagram ofthe Carnot cycle.5-12
  • 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-45P-V diagram ofthe reversedCarnot cycle.5-13
  • 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-46The Carnot principles.5-14
  • 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-47Proof of the firstCarnot principle.5-15
  • 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-49The arrangementof heat enginesused to develop thethermodynamictemperature scale.5-16
  • 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-55The fraction of heat thatcan be converted to workas a function of sourcetemperature (for TL = 303K).5-17
  • 19. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-57No refrigerator canhave a higher COPthan a reversiblerefrigerator operatingbetween the sametemperature limits.5-18
  • 20. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 5-63The condenser coils of arefrigerator must be cleanedperiodically, and the airflowpassages must not be blockedto maintain high performance.5-19