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CHAPTER                      4The First Law ofThermodynamics
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4–7The energy change of...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-22Under steady-flow c...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-28At very high veloci...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-30Nozzles and diffuse...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-35Throttling valves a...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-37During a throttling...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-42The heat transfer a...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-46Pipe or duct flow m...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-53Schematic for Examp...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-59Typical freezing cu...
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Cengel ch04

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Transcript of "Cengel ch04"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4The First Law ofThermodynamics
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4–7The energy change of asystem during a processis equal to the net workand heat transferbetween the system andits surroundings.4-1
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-22Under steady-flow conditions,the mass and energy contentsof a control volume remainconstant.4-2
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-28At very high velocities,even small changes invelocities may causesignificant changes inthe kinetic energy ofthe fluid.4-3
  5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-30Nozzles and diffusersare shaped so that theycause large changes influid velocities and thuskinetic energies.4-4
  6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-35Throttling valves aredevices that cause largepressure drops in thefluid.4-5
  7. 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-37During a throttling process, theenthalpy (flow energy + internalenergy) of a fluid remains constant.But internal and flow energies may beconverted to each other.4-6
  8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-42The heat transfer associated with a heatexchanger may be zero or nonzerodepending on how the system isselected.4-7
  9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-46Pipe or duct flow mayinvolve more than oneform of work at thesame time.4-8
  10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-53Schematic for Example 4–17.4-9
  11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 4-59Typical freezing curveof a food item.4-10
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