infancia y ninez


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infancia y ninez

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  • Called a neonate , the newborn presents itself to the world in a form that hardly meets the standards of beauty against which we typically measure babies. Yet ask any parent: No sight is more beautiful or exciting than the first glimpse of their newborn. The neonate’s strange appearance is brought about by a number of factors. The trip through its mother’s birth canal may have squeezed the incompletely formed bones of the skull together and squashed the nose into the head. Vernix , its white, greasy covering, is secreted to protect its skin prior to birth, and it may have lanugo , a soft fuzz, over its entire body for a similar purpose. Its eyelids may be puffy with an accumulation of fluids because of its upside-down position during birth. All this changes during the first two weeks of life as the neonate takes on a more familiar appearance. Even more impressive are the capabilities that the neonate begins to display from the time it is born—capabilities that grow at an astounding rate over the ensuing months. The neonate is born with a number of reflexes —unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli. Many of these reflexes are critical for survival and unfold naturally as a part of an infant’s ongoing maturation. The rooting reflex , for instance, causes neonates to turn their heads toward things that touch their cheeks—such as the mother’s nipple or a bottle. Similarly, a sucking reflex prompts the infant to suck at things that touch its lips. Among its other reflexes are a gag reflex (to clear its throat); the startle reflex (a series of movements in which the infant flings out its arms, fans its fingers, and arches its back in response to a sudden noise); and the Babinski reflex (the baby’s toes fan out when the outer edge of the sole of its foot is stroked).
  • infancia y ninez

    1. 1. Infancia y Niñez <ul><li>El neonato </li></ul><ul><li>Reflejos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No aprendidas, involuntarias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respuestas que ocurren en forma automática en presencia de cierts estímulos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflejo de búsqueda </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflejo de Succión </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflejos de Náusea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflejo de Sobresalto </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflejo de Babinski </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Jack Hollingsworth/Getty Images
    2. 2. Desarrollo de los sentidos: Asimilación del Mundo <ul><li>Habituación </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disminución de la respuesta a un estímulo que ocurre después de presentaciones repetidas </li></ul></ul>Andrew Ward/Life File/Getty Images
    3. 3. Desarrollo Físico
    4. 4. Desarrollo del Comportamiento Social <ul><li>Apego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lazo emocional positivo que se desarrollo entr un niño y un determinado individuo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lorenz y la imprimación </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow y los monos infantes </li></ul><ul><li>Rol del padre </li></ul>Buccina Studios/Getty Images
    5. 5. Measuring Attachment <ul><li>Situación Extraña de Ainsworth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apego segura </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evitativo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambivalente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desorganizados - Desorientados </li></ul></ul>Andersen Ross/Getty Images
    6. 6. Relaciones Sociales con los Pares <ul><li>Juego </li></ul><ul><li>Guarderías </li></ul>Nicola Sutton/Life File/Getty Images
    7. 7. Estilos de Crianza
    8. 8. Temperament <ul><li>Disposición básica, innata </li></ul>Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    9. 9. Teoría del Desarrollo Psicosocial de Erickson Desarrollo Psicosocial: Desarrollo de las interacciones y comprensión de los individuos entre sí, y de sus conicimientos y comprensión de ellos mismos como miembros de la sociedad Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    10. 10. Etapas Psicosociales <ul><li>Confianza vs. Desconfianza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 – 1 1/2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomía vs. Vergüenza y Duda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ½ a 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iniciativa vs. Culpa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 a 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industriosidad vs. Inferioridad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 a12 </li></ul></ul>Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    11. 11. Desarrollo Cognitivo Desarrollo Cognitivo – Proceso por el cual la comprensión que el niño tiene del mundo cambia en función de la edad y la experiencia Amos Morgan/Getty Images
    12. 12. JEAN PIAGET
    13. 13. Etapas de Piaget
    14. 15. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>Information processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way in which people take in, use, and store information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An awareness and understanding of one’s own cognitive processes </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Zone of proximal development (ZPD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul></ul>Phillip Spears/Getty Images