Faster if you have been primed with a related word.
NURSE DOCTOR CAT DOG
Marcel (1983) How fast? How fast? Reaction time Body Part or Plant? Body part or Plant? Response PINE OR WRIST PINE OR WRIST Target XXXX Mask PALM PALM Prime Consciously Present Prime Subliminally Present Prime Condition
PALM XXXX PINE PINE It’s a Plant. Umm, It’s a Plant. Subliminal Condition Conscious Condition
Marcel (1983) Results Only one meaning is primed, the other inhibited Both meanings were primed Interpretation Found faster RT for one of two target words, slower RT for the other target Found faster RT for both target words Targets: PINE or WRIST Consciously Present Prime Subliminally Present Prime Condition
Number of targets and distracters influence accuracy
Feature search versus conjunctive search
Conjunctive vs. Feature Search Which box is it easier to detect a letter that is different? The box on top is a feature search The box on the bottom is a conjunction search L L L L L L L L L T L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L O L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Individual Feature processing is done in parallel. Simultaneous processing is done on the whole display and if feature is present-- we detect it.
Conjunctive searching requires attention to the integration or combination of the features. Attention to particular combination of features must be done sequentially to detect presence of a certain combination.
Another Feature Search T T T T T T T Is there a red T in the Display? T T Target is defined by a single feature According to feature integration theory the Target should “pop out” No attention required T T T T T T T T
Another Conjunction Search X T T X T T T Is there a red T in the Display? X X Target is defined by two Features: shape and color According FIT, the features must be combined and so attention is required Need to examine one by one X X T X T T
How are we able to follow one conversation in the presence of other conversations?
Cherry’s Shadowing Technique The lawyer defended his client as the trial began. He was able The doctor went to the park to find the homeless man. He was ….. The doctor went to the park….. Listen to two different conversations and repeat one of the messages, may be binaural or dichotic Attended Ear Unattended Ear 0
Participants can shadow meaningful messages that switches from one ear to another
Effects of practice on detecting information in unattended ear (e.g., detect digit in unattended ear for naïve and practiced participants)
Treisman Attenuation Model Long Term Memory Working Memory Attenuation of Unattended Sensory Stores Filter weakens the strength of unattended information. Arrow colors represent different levels of strength If arrow reaches circle, info will be activated in working memory Note some circles are closer due to different thresholds of information 0
Late Selection Theory Long Term Memory Working Memory Sensory Stores All stimuli is processed to the level of meaning, relevance determines further Processing and action Deutsch & Deutsch (1963) 0