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Prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells 3

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  • 1. Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
  • 2. • Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus• Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.
  • 3. Prokaryote Eukaryote• One circular • Paired chromosome, chromosomes, not in a in nuclear membrane membrane• No histones • Histones• No organelles • Organelles• Peptidoglycan • Polysaccharide cell walls cell walls• Binary fission • Mitotic spindle
  • 4. Prokaryote• One circular chromosome, not in a membrane• No histones• No organelles• Peptidoglycan cell walls• Binary fission
  • 5. Eukaryote• Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane• Histones• Organelles• Polysaccharide cell walls• Mitotic spindle
  • 6. Prokaryote• Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm 2 - 8 µm• Basic shapes
  • 7. Arrangements• Coccus – “ Berry”, round, oval
  • 8. 2. Bacilli – Diplobacilli, Streptobacilli, Coccobacilli
  • 9. 3. Spirals / Spirochetes – have 1 or more twist
  • 10. Structures External to the Cell wall• 1. Glycocalyx• 2. Flagella• 3. Axial Filaments• 4. Fimbria• 5 Pilus
  • 11. Glycocalyx• Outside the cell wall• Usually sticky2 types: 1. Capsule - neatly organized 2. Slime Layer - unorganized & loose• Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach• Capsules prevent phagocytosis ( Virulence Factor)•
  • 12. Flagella• Outside cell wall, for Locomotion• Made of chains of flagellin• Attached to a protein hook
  • 13. Axial Filaments• Endoflagella, For Locomotion• In spirochetes ( Treponema pallidum)• Anchored at one end of a cell• Rotation causes cell to move
  • 14. Fimbria & Pilus• Fimbriae - allow attachment (Neisseria gonorrhea) - hairlike, short• Pili - used to transfer DNA from one cell to another ( Sex pili)
  • 15. Cell Wall• Complex, Semi-rigid structure 1. Protects the interior of the cell (prevents osmotic lysis) 2. Maintains the shape 3. Point of anchorage of FlagellaMade of peptidoglycan (in bacteria), Virulence Factor
  • 16. Peptidoglycan - Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) - Linked by polypeptides
  • 17. Gram-Positive cell walls• Thick peptidoglycan• Teichoic acids• In acid-fast cells, contains mycolic acid• May regulate movement of cations• Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation
  • 18. Gram-Negative Outer Membrane• Thin peptidoglycan• No teichoic acids• Outer membrane• Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids• Protection from phagocytes, complement, antibiotics
  • 19. Gram Stain MechanismCrystal violet-iodine crystals form in cellGram-positive - Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan - CV-I crystals do not leaveGram-negative - Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan - CV-I washes out
  • 20. Structures Internal to the Cell Wall• 1. Plasma Membrane• 2. Cytoplasm• 3. Nuclear area• 4. Ribosomes• 5. Inclusion bodies• 6. Endospores
  • 21. Plasma Membrane / Cytoplasmic Membrane
  • 22. • Phospholipid bilayer• Peripheral proteins• Integral proteins• Transmembrane proteins
  • 23. • Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules Large molecules – inhibited Small molecules – allowed to pass - H+, O, Lipid soluble• Damage to the membrane by alcohols, quaternary ammonium (detergents) and polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents.
  • 24. Movement Across Membranes• Simple diffusion – Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.• Facilitative diffusion - Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.
  • 25. • Osmosis Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower waterOsmotic pressure The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane.
  • 26. Cytoplasm• Cytoplasm is the substance inside the plasma membrane - 80% water, proteins, CHON, Lipids inorganic ions - where the nuclear area, ribosomes & ribosomes are found.
  • 27. Nuclear Area• Stores the bacterial genetic information.• No nuclear envelope• Attached to plasma membrane• Bacterial Chromosomes - single, long, continuously arranged double stranded DNA.• Plasmid - small, circular double stranded DNA separate from chromosomal DNA capable of replicating
  • 28. • Function of Plasmids: 1. Genes for antibiotic resistance 2. Tolerance to toxic metals 3. Production of toxins 4. Synthesis of enzymes
  • 29. Ribosomes• Circular, Site of protein synthesis• Site for antibiotic attachment
  • 30. Inclusions• Metachromatic granules• Polysaccharide granules• Lipid inclusions• Sulfur granules• Magnetosomes
  • 31. Endospores• Resting cells, formed when essential nutrients are depleted• Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals• Bacillus, Clostridium• Sporulation: Endospore formation• Germination: Return to vegetative state
  • 32. Eukaryotic Cells
  • 33. Flagella and Cilia
  • 34. Cell Wall• Cell wall Plants, algae, fungi Carbohydrates• Cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan• Glycocalyx Carbohydrates extending from animal plasma membrane Bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane No Peptidoglycan
  • 35. Plasma Membrane• Phospholipid bilayer• Peripheral proteins• Integral proteins• Transmembrane proteins• Sterols• Glycocalyx carbohydrates• Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules• Simple diffusion• Facilitative diffusion• Osmosis• Active transport
  • 36. • Endocytosis• Phagocytosis: Pseudopods extend and engulf particles• Pinocytosis: Membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved substances
  • 37. Organelles• Membrane-bound:• Nucleus Contains chromosomes• ER Transport network• Golgi complex Membrane formation and secretion• Lysosome Digestive enzymes• Vacuole Brings food into cells/stores• Mitochondrion Cellular respiration• Chloroplast Photosynthesis• Peroxisome Oxidation of fatty acids; destroys H2O2
  • 38. Nucleus
  • 39. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • 40. Golgi Complex
  • 41. Lysosomes
  • 42. Mitochondrion
  • 43. Chloroplast